Stormwater quality and land use impacts

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1 Stormwater quality and land use impacts Storm water expert meeting, 11th December 2014, Turku Marjo Valtanen Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki

2 Stormwater quality the concept CONCENTRATIONS Varying continuously LOADS Concentrations x runoff volume -> volume has a great role E.g. annual unit loads (kg/km²/year) May reflect better the overall pollution potential

3 Stormwater quality and land use characteristics Land use type -> pollutant sources -> concentrations Activities -> e.g. snow removal, deicing, traffic density, population Imperviousness -> runoff volumes and intensitites -> pollutant loads Weather -> runoff volumes and intensitites -> pollutant loads

4 Atmosphere Traffic Industry Rooftops Housing Construction sites Grass areas Others Nitrogen x x x x x x x phosphorus x x x x x x x Solids x x x x x x x Sulphate x x Sulphur oxides x x Chloride x x Heavy metals x x x x x PAHs x x x x VOCs x x Oils and hydrocarbons x x x x Pesticides x x x x Coliform bacteria x x x Min 5 common sources for the pollutant (City of Edmond, edmondok.com)

5 Pollutant concentration variation

6 Cold climate considerations 40 % of the 40% of the annual precipitation falls as snow Spring thaw (Talouselama.fi) Freezed and/or saturated soils during cold months Increased pollutant emissions during wintry months Snow ploughing and transportation Yle.fi (helsinginuutiset.fi)

7 LOW, residential 19 % The study catchments HIGH, city centre 89% INTERMEDIATE, city centre 62 %

8 Pollutant even mean concentrations max max max High concentration -> requires treatment Middle level concentration (Stockholm Vatten 2001)

9 Pollutant event mean concentrations No threshold values set Ei asetetua raja-arvoa max max max max Concentrations below middle level max max 580 max max max High concentration -> requires treatment Middle level concentration

10 Dissolved vs. particulate bound metals Proportion Liuenneiden of the metallien dissolved osuus metals (% of kokonaismetalleista) the total metals (%) Cr Mn Ni Zn Cu Keskusta City centre 8989% % Kylmä kausi Keskusta City centre % Asuinalue Residential 1919% % Keskusta City centre 8989% % Lämmin kausi Keskusta City centre % Asuinalue Residential 1919% % Cold period Warm period Dissolved metals ~ 40 % At the residential cathcments a larger proportion of the metals in dissolved form and also the concentration of dissolved metals is higher there During cold seasons, a larger proportion of metals is particulate bounded

11 Annual pollutant loads (unit loads) No systematic pattern kg/km²/yr High Intermediate Low TSS tot-n tot-p TOC Mn Zn Al Co Cr Ni Cu Pb Sillanpää 2013: Finnish residential areas (kg/km²/yr) TSS: Tot-N: Tot-P: Developing catchment (kg/km²/yr) TSS: Tot-N: 2290 Tot-P: 65

12 Seasonality of the pollutant loading (2-year averages) 100 % 90 % 80 % 70 % 60 % 50 % 40 % 30 % 20 % 10 % 0 % 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 100 % 90 % 80 % 70 % 60 % 50 % 40 % 30 % 20 % 10 % 0 % 100 % 90 % 80 % 70 % 60 % 50 % 40 % 30 % 20 % 10 % High High High tot-n TOC Zn Ni 0 % High High Intermediate Low tot-p HighChart Al Title High Cr High Cu High HighIntermediate Low TSS High Mn High Co High Pb High High Intermediate Low autumn summer spring winter autumn summer spring winter autumn summer spring winter autumn summer spring winter

13 First flush COLD PERIOD KYLMÄ KAUSI Kiintoaines TOC N P Al Cr Mn Co Ni Zn Cu Pb Keskusta City centre 89 89% Keskusta City centre % Asuinalue Residential 19 19% WARM PERIOD LÄMMIN KAUSI Kiintoaines TOC N P Al Cr Mn Co Ni Zn Cu Pb Keskusta City centre 89 89% Keskusta City centre % Asuinalue Residential 19 19% First flush (alkuhuuhtouma) is not very common in city centre areas, particularly during the cold period At the residential area there is a slight first-flush for some pollutants

14 Weather dependent runoff generation 1st study year 2nd study year Warm Cold Warm Cold High Intermediate Low

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