Ambient Air Monitoring at Deployment Locations in the Middle East

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1 Ambient Air Monitoring at Deployment Locations in the Middle East Presented by: John E. Kolivosky, P.E. 01 May 2015

2 DISCLAIMERS The views expressed in this presentation are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the official policy of the Department of Defense, Department of the Army, U.S. Army Medical Department, or the U.S. Use of trademarked names does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Army but is intended only to assist in identification of a specific product. 2

3 BRIEFING OUTLINE PURPOSE: To provide an overview of ambient air monitoring conducted to support Military Force Health Protection during deployments to the Middle East Routine Surveillance Air Monitoring Equipment Burn Pit Related Air Quality Studies Other Air Quality Studies Air Monitoring Limitations 3

4 Routine Ambient Air Surveillance Preventive Medicine personnel receive pre-deployment training on routine air sampling equipment Preventive Medicine personnel conduct site surveys to identify potential for Service member exposure to airborne hazards Collect 24-hour time composite samples using EPA methods or equivalent; samplers set approximately 6 feet above ground surface Set interval (daily, every 6 days, etc.) for a set duration Samples sent out of theater to laboratory for analysis Field data (location, exposure situation, weather, etc.) and laboratory data archived in the Defense Occupational and Environmental Health Readiness System (DOEHRS) 4

5 Particulate Matter Sampling Equipment MiniVol Deployable Particulate Sampler 5

6 Non-Standard Ambient Air Sampling Equipment Summa Canister PS-1 Sampler 6

7 Burn Pit Related Air Study: Djibouti 7

8 Air Sampling in Djibouti 2004: Army team deployed to conduct air sampling due to exposure concerns from host nation solid waste burning operation Samples collected for: Particulate matter (PM) less than 10 micrometers in aerodynamic diameter (PM 10 ) Total suspended particulate (TSP) Metals associated with the PM Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) Dioxins and furans Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) 8

9 Burn Pit Related Air Study: Iraq 9

10 Air Sampling in Iraq Series of sampling events ( ) at Joint Base Balad targeting exposure to emissions from the open burning of solid waste, military operations, local sources, and ambient dust Sampling completed by deployed Air Force Bioenvironmental Engineer teams Samples collected for: PM 10 and PM less than 2.5 micrometers in aerodynamic diameters (PM 2.5 ) Metals associated with the PM VOCs Dioxins and furans PAHs 10

11 Enhanced Particulate Matter Surveillance (EPMS) Study conducted at 15 locations across 6 countries from December 2005 June 2007 Goal: more thoroughly characterize the ambient PM and identify any unique characteristics Sampling completed by Army, Navy, and Air Force units Collected co-located TSP, PM 10 and PM 2.5 Analyzed for PM concentration, elemental composition, mineralogy Study report open published by the Desert Research Institute (2008) National Academy of Sciences review of the EPMS study released in

12 Air Quality Assessments - Afghanistan 12

13 Afghanistan Air Quality Assessment 2013: Army team deployed to Bagram to conduct air sampling due to air quality concerns from all sources (local, military, ambient) Samples collected for: PM 2.5 and associated metals VOCs Dioxins and furans PAHs and semivolatile organic compounds Real-time Monitoring for: Black Carbon Carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), hydrogen chloride (HCl), hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) Trained Army Medical Detachment personnel to conduct sample collection study at Kandahar (no real-time monitoring) 13

14 Afghanistan Air Quality Assessment (continued) 2014: Army team deployed to Kabul to conduct air sampling due to air quality concerns from all sources (local, military, ambient) Samples collected for: PM 2.5 and associated metals VOCs Dioxins and furans PAHs and semivolatile organic compounds Black Carbon PM using the Davis Rotating-Drum Unit for Monitoring (DRUM) sampler 14

15 DRUM Samplers Army Research Lab (ARL) initiative Ambient PM samples collected in 8 stages Size fractions from 10 to 0.09 micrometers Mass determined by Beta gauge Elemental composition via X-ray fluorescence Intended to provide a more complete PM characterization Samples collected by non-medical personnel 15

16 Mobile Ambient Air Monitoring Station (MAAMS) Two versions: Trailer and Self-Mobile (non-tactical) 16

17 Air Monitoring - MAAMS Stationed in Kuwait due to concerns about local industrial air pollution Configured for monitoring of gases requiring direct-reading instruments Sulfur dioxide Nitrogen oxides Carbon monoxide Ozone PM add-ons: ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, black carbon Provides continuous, real-time data in the field and transmits data back to the USAPHC 17

18 Air Monitoring - Limitations Generally applicable to the surrounding area Fixed locations for fixed periods of time Composite collection does not provide temporal distribution data Periodicity of exposure (continuous, intermittent, one-time spikes ) Power requirements for equipment Manpower limits Laboratory analysis (time, sample integrity during shipment, etc.) Numerous potential airborne pollutants; not all amenable to sampling Dynamic pollutants/plumes Many parameters require laboratory support Personal monitoring is very labor intensive Training & doctrine tail Operational climate Particle-bound versus aerosol phase 18

19 Questions 19

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