# Permeable Pavement Treatment Capacity

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1 Permeable Pavement Treatment Capacity April This investigation will analyze the pollutant removal capacity of various types of permeable paving techniques. Daniel Sullivan Joseph Fleury

2 Contents Objectives... 3 Principles of Permeable Pavement... 3 Design Parameters... 3 Design Procedure... 4 Design Example... 7 Bibliography... 7 Figure 1 - Reservoir Depth (No Underdrain)... 4 Figure 2 - Depth of Reservoir (W/ Underdrain)... 5 Figure 3 - Sample Pollutant Removal Rates... 6 Figure 4 - Treatment Capacity of Level 1 and 2 Pavements... 7

4 Design Procedure The designing engineer must determine the level of design which the pavement meets in order to determine treatment capacity; Level 1 design is the baseline parameters, while Level 2 represents the enhanced design which maximizes nutrient and runoff removal. The depth of the reservoir layer (aggregate) can be calculated as a function of the depth of runoff, infiltration rate, time to fill, void ratio, and ratio of total area to pervious-paved area. For a design with no underdrain unit (HSG A or B): Figure 1 - Reservoir Depth (No Underdrain) The maximum depth of the reservoir is constrained by drain time, which is calculated as (Infiltration Rate/2) *(Max Drain Time) / Void Ratio. If an underdrain is required, the outflow from the drain unit in feet per day (assumed as one 6 diameter outlet) can be calculated as the hydraulic conductivity in ft/day (k, assume 100 ft/day) * pipe slope (ft/ft). The depth of the reservoir layer can then be calculated as a function of the design storm, with the following equation

5 Figure 2 - Depth of Reservoir (W/ Underdrain) As with the no-underdrain assembly, the depth of reservoir is bounded by the time of draining as: The volume of the detention space may be calculated as inflow minus outflow divided by the porosity of the trench area. The flow capacity of the outdrain must be able to handle a flow equal to blockage (typically.5) * orifice discharge coefficient (.6) * Area of orifice * Total area orifices * sqrt (2*gravity*max height above pipe) (Policies)

6 The emptying time for the detention volume is typically between 12 and 84 hours, with target rates between 24 and 48 hours. It is computed as the ratio of volume of water (storage * porosity) to the filtration rate through filter layer (hydraulic conductivity * porosity) and outlet pipe(above) (Policies). Overflow pipes must be placed at the height equal to the head loss in pipe and head loss in the entry and exit of the system (Policies). It can be difficult to determine the specific treatment capacity for each site with permeable paving due to varying site conditions. The initial loadings of suspended solids, phosphorus, nitrogen, and other nutrients and metals vary greatly depending on the area and type and level of runoff generated. In general, permeable paving can remove over 80% of TSS, greater than 50% of Total Phosphorus and Nitrogen, and upwards of 50% of all metals. Figure 3 - Sample Pollutant Removal Rates Application Location TSS Metals Nutrients Permeable Concrete Parking lot Tampa, FL 91% 75-92% -- Permeable Interlocking Concrete Pavers Driveways Jordan Cove, CT 67% Cu: 67% Pb: 67% Zn:71% TP: 34% NO 3 -N: 67% NH 3 -N: 72% Parking lot Goldsboro, NC 71% Zn: 88% TP: 65% TN: 35%/td> Parking lot Renton, WA --- Parking lot King College, ON 81% Porous Asphalt Cu: 79% Zn: 83% Cu: 13% Zn: 72% -- TP: 53% TKN: 53% Highway (friction course only) Austin, TX 94% 76-93% 43% Parking lot Durham, NH 99% Zn: 97% TP: 42% (EPA)

7 Figure 4 - Treatment Capacity of Level 1 and 2 Pavements Design Example Pervious paved road in Boston, MA (HSG C), for minor residential access roadway and sidewalk area of 1 acre, total drainage area equal to two areas, all impervious (homes). Bibliography DCR, Virginia. "Virginia DCR Stormwater Design Specification No. 7: Permeable Pavement." EPA, US. Pervious Concrete Pavement. 10 September March 2011 < p=137&minmeasure=5>. Policies, Gold Coast Planning Scheme. "13.11 Porous and Permeable Paving." 2007.

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