1 Air Pollution Copenhagen, 3 rd September 2014 Valentin Foltescu Project manager air quality European Environment Agency
2 Air pollution, transport and noise MAWP Strategic Area 1.1 Objective To support and inform policy development and implementation in the areas of air pollution, transport and environment and noise by means of data, information/indicators and assessments. Specifically to collect, process, quality-assure, store, and disseminate historical and where possible up-to-date (i.e. near-real-time) data underpinning these policies; to track progress towards, and provide outlooks for, the achievement of targets as defined in relevant EU and international legislation, including the long-term objectives of minimising impacts from air pollution and the decarbonisation of the transport sector.
3 What are the main concerns for Europe s air? Particulate matter (PM) and its threat to human health. Ozone (O 3 ) due to its health impacts and harm to vegetation. Eutrophication from high emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and ammonia (NH 3 ). These pollutants can cause harmful atmospheric deposition of nutrient nitrogen to sensitive ecosystems, such as grasslands and nutrientpoor lakes.
4 Exposure to harmful levels of air pollution EU urban population exposed to harmful levels of air pollution, according to: EU limit values WHO guidelines Up to a third of Europeans living in cities are exposed to air pollutant levels exceeding EU air quality standards. And around 90 % of Europeans living in cities are exposed to levels of air pollutants deemed damaging to health by the World Health Organization s more stringent guidelines. (based on 2011 data in AirBase).
5 Countries are exceeding EU air quality standards In 2011, 18 EU Member States exceeded the target value threshold for ozone (O 3 ) concentrations on more than 25 days. During the same year, 22 EU Member States exceeded the EU daily limit value for particulate matter (PM10) concentrations.
6 The European policy response EU legislation limits the emissions of pollutants and sets maximum levels for concentrations of these pollutants in the air. For pollutant emissions, the 2001 National Emissions Ceiling (NEC) Directive sets ceiling limits for emissions of SO 2, NO X, NMVOC and NH 3. These ceilings should have been met by all EU Member States by For pollutant concentrations, two Air Quality Directives (2008/50/EC and 2004/107/EC) set legally binding limits and target values for ground-level concentrations of outdoor air pollutants. These ceilings are supported by a range of sectoral measures controlling emissions from road transport, industry, etc.
7 Data, analyses and assessments at subnational level
8 Emissions data E-PRTR Pollutant release data from facility-level reporting to European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (E-PRTR) Releases to air, water, land and off-site waste transfers from industrial facilities. Updated annually Included facilities are defined in E-PRTR Regulation Annex I EC 166/2006 Coverage: EU28 + NO, IS, LI, CH, RS A cooperation between DG ENV and EEA
9 Air quality management zones and attainment status Metadata for monitoring in zones Exceedance and/or concentration data for all regulated pollutants: PM10, PM2.5, O3, SO2, NO2, CO, VOC, PAH, benzene, toxic metals Supplementary assessment by modelling Population exposed Info on natural contributions Info on winter sanding/salting Info on transboundary pollution a-and-maps/data/zones-inrelation-to-eu-air-qualitythresholds-5#tab-gis-data
10 AirBase - The European air quality database 2012 data (v. 8) SO2 NO2 NOx PM10 PM2.5 Pb CO C6H6 O3 As Cd Ni Hg (aero.) TSP BS Bap (PM10) Total reporting countries Total number of stations
11 Interactive AirBase Search for a location and/or click on a station to learn more about its air quality
12 Interactive real-time air quality data
13 Spatial data: Pollutant concentrations
14 Spatial data: Ozone concentrations threat to crops Exposure levels of European agricultural areas to ozone (O 3 ): High levels of O 3 concentrations harm human health and agricultural output. Losses of crop yields also have consequences for the European economy. Source: EEA CSI005 indicator
15 Spatial data: eutrophication and acidification Source: EEA CSI005 indicator
16 Trends in pollutant concentrations
17 Air quality in (urban audit) cities Pollution status for PM, O3, NO2 and BaP by: concentrations exceedances of air quality standards affected population AirBase stations are mapped with a total of 761 cities available from the eurostat urban audit2012 data set, for a total population of
18 Air Implementation Pilot: Implementation Communication on implementing issues Air Policy Review 7 Environmental Action Plan Focus on Implementation Implementation: not only compliance but collaborative work to build capacity and knowledge to get a more effective policy PILOT: 1. To identify implementation challenge 2. To identify how to address it 18
19 Air Implementation Pilot: description A joint project: DG ENV + EEA + cities experts Objectives: Better understand challenges faced when implementing AQ legislation. Exchange of experiences (good practices) also with other cities Develop general proposal to improve implementation. Not intended to solve AQ problems, but improve information base for future action Workstreams: Emission inventories Modelling Monitoring networks Management Information to the public 19
20 Air Implementation Pilot: conclusions Some conclusions from the working streams: Need of training and guidance, improved input data Lack of competences Need of further support from European legislation/regulations Feedback from cities for further steps Potential to strengthen local assessment and management capacities Follow up communication momentum (using existing networks?) Keep on supporting exchange of experiences (for instance, using new cost-effective technologies) 20
21 Air pollution publications 2014 EEA publications Air quality in Europe 2014 report Towards integrated assessment of air quality and climate policies Updated costs of air pollution from industrial facilities in Europe Annual Transport and Environment Reporting Mechanism report (TERM) CO 2 emissions performance of car manufacturers in 2013 Air pollution by ozone across Europe during summer 2013 Annual NEC Directive status report 2013 European Union emission inventory report under the UNECE LRTAP Convention Impacts of air pollution on Europe s ecosystems - acidification and eutrophication
22 Thank you
23 How can Europe respond to the air quality challenges? Continued investment in the knowledge base Together with other techniques, air monitoring stations across Europe feed the knowledge base on air. While some of the monitoring stations may have been substituted by other techniques, it is important to maintain, and in certain cases improve the monitoring infrastructure. Further emission reductions Emissions of some pollutants from certain sectors have increased over the last decade. For example, emissions of PM have increased from homes and commercial facilities. Air pollutant emissions from farming have also changed little in the same period. Capacity building for implementation The gap between EU air quality targets and the reality of European air quality points to the need for better implementation of air quality legislation. Implementation can be improved by building capacity over time and by better understanding the specific problems when implementing environmental legislation. Countries to meet existing emission and AQ targets Too many countries are still not in compliance with EU emissions ceilings. These countries must make a renewed effort to reduce their emissions.
Technical report EEA core set of indicators Revised version April 2003 Adopted version for ECCAA countries May 2003 Compiled by: Peter Kristensen April 2003 Project Manager: Anita Pirc-Velkavrh & Peter
EN ANNEX LIFE MULTIANNUAL WORK PROGRAMME FOR 2014-2017 CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION 3 1.1. The sub-programme for Environment 4 1.2. The sub-programme for Climate Action 4 2. ALLOCATION OF FUNDS BETWEEN PRIORITY
Biodiversity and Ecosystem services What are they all about? 1 Why 2 BES 3 Relevant 4 Potential 5 BES 6 Tools 7 Case Contents this guide? 2 What are we talking about? 4 2.1 What is BES? 4 2.2 What factors
Summary of Management Plan and Programme of Measures in Bothnian Bay Water District Consultation 1 Nov. 2014 30 April 2015 1 Covering letter Reference number 537-9859-2014 Consultation in water management
For Public Consultation Version 4 March 2014 ESPON 2020 Cooperation Programme DRAFT Notification to Readers: The structure of this version of the Draft ESPON Cooperation Programme is based on the European
COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES Brussels, 24.1.2001 COM (2001) 31 final 2001/0029 (COD) COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE COUNCIL, THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE
The Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) 10-Year Implementation Plan (As adopted 16 February 2005) Preamble Understanding the Earth system its weather, climate, oceans, atmosphere, water,
1831-2772 EEA SIGNALS 2013 Every breath we take Improving air quality in Europe Cover design: INTRASOFT International S.A Layout: INTRASOFT International S.A/EEA Legal notice The contents of this publication
CONVENTION ON THE PROTECTION AND USE OF TRANSBOUNDARY WATERCOURSES AND INTERNATIONAL LAKES done at Helsinki, on 17 March 1992 The Parties to this Convention, PREAMBLE Mindful that the protection and use
Minamata Convention on Mercury The Parties to this Convention, Recognizing that mercury is a chemical of global concern owing to its long-range atmospheric transport, its persistence in the environment
Study on the Need for Modernization of Large Combustion Plants in the Energy Community Enviroment South East European Consultants, Ltd. November 2013 www.energy-community.org This report was financed by
Topic 11 Implementation and follow up Objectives To explain the role and contribution of implementation and follow up measures within the EIA process. Training session outline To understand the procedures
PUBLIC BODIES CLIMATE CHANGE DUTIES: PUTTING THEM INTO PRACTICE GUIDANCE REQUIRED BY PART 4 OF THE CLIMATE CHANGE (SCOTLAND) ACT 2009 PUBLIC BODIES CLIMATE CHANGE DUTIES: PUTTING THEM INTO PRACTICE GUIDANCE
BUSINESS ASSURANCE Saving energy today for a brighter tomorrow JUNE 2015 SAFER, SMARTER, GREENER 2 CONTENTS FOREWORD CURRENT SCENARIO FUTURE OUTLOOK OUR FINAL THOUGHTS INTRODUCTION 07 The importance of
1 UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE UNITED NATIONS 1992 2 UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE The Parties to this Convention, Acknowledging that change in the Earth's
LIFE ORIENTATION DOCUMENT The European Union provides funding and grants for a broad range of projects and programmes covering areas such as education, health, consumer protection, environmental protection,
World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe Copenhagen Air Quality Guidelines for Europe Second Edition WHO Regional Publications, European Series, No. 91 The World Health Organization was established
EEA Technical report No 9/2013 Reducing air pollution from electricity-generating large combustion plants in the European Union An assessment of potential emission reductions of NO X, SO 2 and dust ISSN
United Nations General Assembly A/CONF.167/9 Distr. GENERAL October 1994 ORIGINAL: ENGLISH Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States REPORT OF THE GLOBAL CONFERENCE
EN HORIZON 2020 WORK PROGRAMME 2014 2015 5. Leadership in enabling and industrial technologies iii. Space Revised This Work Programme was adopted on 10 December 2013. The parts that relate to 2015 (topics,
COUNCIL OF EUROPEAN MUNICIPALITIES AND REGIONS CONSEIL DES COMMUNES ET REGIONS D EUROPE Registered in the Register of Interest Representatives of the European Commission. Registration number: 81142561702-61
EEA Report No 2/2006 Integration of environment into EU agriculture policy the IRENA indicator-based assessment report ISSN 1725-9177 EEA Report No 2/2006 Integration of environment into EU agriculture
Discussion Paper on the preparation of the Energy Union Governance Meeting of Directors General for Energy and Climate 15 July 2015 In its Communication on a Framework Strategy for the Energy Union adopted
Land Contamination & Reclamation, 7 (2), 1999 1999 EPP Publications Assessing Risks from Contaminated Sites: Policy and Practice in 16 European Countries Colin C Ferguson Abstract A concerted action initiative
An Economic Analysis to inform the Air Quality Strategy Volume 3 Published by TSO (The Stationery Office) and available from: Online www.tsoshop.co.uk Mail,Telephone, Fax & E-mail TSO PO Box 29, Norwich,
1 von 81 ANNEXES OF TITLE V: ECONOMIC AND SECTOR COOPERATION ANNEX XXVI ANNEX XXVI to Chapter 1 ENERGY COOPERATION, INCLUDING NUCLEAR ISSUES 1. The EU and Ukraine establish herewith an 'Early Warning Mechanism'
LDC Expert Group, DECEMBER 2012 LDC Expert Group, DECEMBER 2012 Table of Contents Preface 7 Abbreviations and acronyms 9 PART I 10 1. Introduction 11 1.1 Developing a common understanding of the national