Checking of quality on production

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1 Checking of quality on production Jean CORCOS Industrial Division Industrial Waste Management Solution Unit Waste Acceptance Department, and Major-Producer Relations Denis POMBET Risk Management Division Waste Quality Monitoring Department

2 Overview NPPs in operation and in construction Map of main nuclear sites (operational)the French La Hague Paluel Gravelines Penly Chooz 900 MWe ( ) 1300 MWe ( ) 1450 MWe ( ) EPR in construction ( ) Brennillis (Monts d Arrée) Flamanville Fontenay-aux-Roses Saclay Orsay Chinon St-Laurent Nogent Morvilliers Dampierre Belleville Cattenom Soulaines-Dhuys Fessenheim Fuel cycle facilities Civaux Enrichment and manufacturing ( GBII which began operation) Reprocessing and storage Blayais Golfech St-Alban Cruas Marcoule Bugey Creys-Malville Veurey-Voroize Grenoble Romans Tricastin Cadarache + Unsealed and sealed sources users

3 of Map of main nuclear sites (dismantling) Gravelines Facilities shutdown or being dismantled 8 first generation reactors 6 UNGG - 1 HWR - 1 PWR - 1 fast neutron reactor (SUPERPHENIX - ) Other facilities - Brennillis (Monts d Arrée) La Hague Paluel Penly Flamanville Fontenay-aux-Roses Saclay Orsay Chinon St-Laurent Civaux Blayais Golfech Chooz Cattenom Nogent Soulaines-Dhuys Morvilliers Strasbourg Dampierre Fessenheim Belleville Bugey Creys-Malville St-Alban Veurey-Voroize Grenoble Romans Cruas Tricastin Pierrelatte Marcoule Cadarache

4 Monitoring applied to VLLW and LLW/ILW packages Four types of inspections are performed on the packages: Verification of declared characteristics: computer checks of 100% of the package declarations made by the producer (before shipping) ; Inspections on arrival at the CSFMA and CSTFA : compliance of transport ; dose rate and surface contamination measurements ; visual examination of packages, etc. ; Visits to producers at nuclear sites (process audit, inspection of operations, participation in producers' internal monitoring) : regular checks to make sure that the waste packages are made up and characterised in accordance with the measures set out in the producer file used by Andra to give its acceptance ; Destructive and non-destructive quality control inspections: to check the quality of the waste packages and the consistency between results and declared properties. 4

5 Monitoring applied to VLLW and LLW/ILW packages 1. Verification of declared properties: Objective : to trace the history and contents of each package from manufacture by the producer to its emplacement at the disposal facility A barcode unique to each package A database: PROCOM Exchange of information between producers and Andra; Verification that certain properties of the packages comply with both approvals and specifications; Inventory management. 5

6 Monitoring applied to VLLW and LLW/ILW packages Waste producers Andra Head Office CSFMA/CSTFA Waste Disposal Facilities Disposal Conditioning drum compaction Declaration of packages and their contents Central package monitoring system (acceptability checks, disposal facility management) Computerised management system (disposal and conditioning supervision) 6

7 Monitoring applied to VLLW and LLW/ILW packages Check that declarations are consistent with approvals By using reference files Check the acceptability of the packages Calculate the activity by nuclide Compare with specified limits Store the information received 7

8 Monitoring applied to VLLW and LLW/ILW packages 2. Inspections on arrival at the CSFMA and CSTFA - compliance of international transport regulations of each loading ; checking of consignment record ; regulatory markings ; dose rate and surface contamination measurements on truck or trans container ; - 100% visual examination of packages : stickers, handling devices, package integrity, acceptance criteria of defects (concrete containers for ILW) ; waste criteria and conditioning (for VLLW) - Dose rate and surface contamination measurements : sampling of shipment for VLLW ; 100 % of pre grouted waste packages / statistic basis for metallic drums for compaction, for LLW/ILW ; - volumetric control (sampling for each shipment of WLLW bigbags) ; weight (sampling for VLLW). 8

9 Monitoring applied to VLLW and LLW/ILW packages 3. Visits to producers on nuclear sites : process audits, 1 / 2 general Process Audit are performed according a pre-established plan, based on waste packages acceptance related documentation ; program may include several packages, relevant to CSFMA and/or CSTFA. Audits include both review of documentation and direct inspection of packages ; Audits may involve all or some of the items of the manufacturing process, from procurement (containers, devices, raw materials used for waste embedding) to final checking of packages before shipments ; Audits are performed each year for the more impacting waste packages ; for each new acceptance (LLW/ILW) ; at least every three years, for each acceptance (VLLW and LLW/ILW). 9

10 Monitoring applied to VLLW and LLW/ILW packages 3. Visits to producers on nuclear sites, process audits : 2/2 main phases Procurements and storage of procurements ; Collecting and sorting of wastes ; Packaging ; embedding of wastes (for LLW/ILW) ; Measuring the radioactivity ; Calibration of measuring devices ; Storage of manufactured packages ; Final checking : quality files ; package declarations ; etc. 10

11 From acceptance to audits, checking of operational parameters Andra requirements: No free liquid 129 I < 1400 Bq.g -1 Operational parameters No free liquid 137 Cs < 1400 Bq.g -1 ratio Quality-control measures Waste sorting and drying 137 Cs measurement Ratio check programme diffusion coeff. Cement, water content, etc. Cement procurement < m 2.s ec-1 Process management Cannot be controlled during production "Product" compliance baseline Auditable List of Applicable Documents 11

12 Monitoring applied to VLLW and LLW/ILW packages 3. Visits to producers on nuclear sites : inspection of operations 1/2 general Inspection of operations are focused on a specific phase of waste package manufacturing, for exemple : sealing of a concrete hull ; embedding of sludges or concentrates ; sorting of wastes ; radioactivity measurements and calculations ; etc. Such visits on nuclear sites may be scheduled by advance, or defined as a reactive action, in case of serious non compliance detected on waste packages ; In some cases (suspension of shipments decided by Andra), a specific inspection is performed at site, as to check the implementation of corrective actions 12

13 Monitoring applied to VLLW and LLW/ILW packages 3. Visits to producers on nuclear sites : inspection of operations 2/2 exemple 13

14 Deviations on VLL and LLW/ILW packages A deviation may be reported : following a visit at nuclear site ; after W.P inspection at CSFMA / CSTFA ; following a non destructive or destructive inspection of packages ; by the producer. Deviation may be : With respect to the approval baseline derogation with approval With respect to the specification baseline derogation with specifications With respect to the authorised area ASN derogation (for LLW and ILW only) In the event of a deviation or a non-compliance in a package, a REPORT is always prepared. This report should lead to: An investigation of the causes to identify the actions required to avoid a second report. The implementation of appropriate measures if none exist. Agreement with Andra on measures to be implemented to avoid any recurrence of the deviation. Note: corrective action on the package does not eliminate the need to implement appropriate measures. 14

15 LLW and ILW packages quality-control inspections Contents 1-LLW and ILW quality -control inspections Non Destructive Testings Destructive Testings Technical Assays Radiological and chemical analysis 2-VLLW quality-control inspections Non Destructive Testings Destructive Testings 3-Round table : discussion

16 LLW and ILW packages quality-control inspections LLW and ILW packages quality-control strategy 3 years planned quality-control inspections: To sample and control the different waste packages received at CSFMA with a 3 years period (focused on ILW packages, approximately 34% of the tested waste packages) New packages accepted are systematically tested To check the consistency between results and declared properties (e.g. short and long lived radionuclides to be considered) To ensure of the compliance of interest parameters to the specifications : embeding treshold, acceptance limits, quantity of fissile materials To acquire knowledge (e.g. long lived radionuclides ratios used by producers) Non destructive testings are preferred 17

17 LLW and ILW packages quality-control inspections Metal drums for compaction Grouted metal drums Non grouted metal container (5 m 3, 10 m 3 ) Concrete hulls Cubic concrete container Ingots External facilities and laboratories Andra Non Destructive Testings (NDT) at CSFMA NDT Technical assays Destructive Testings (DT) Radiological and chemical analysis

18 LLW and ILW packages quality-control inspections Non destructive testings (1) Radioactive waste package = Container (+ Embedding matrix) + Radioactive waste Non destructive testings on radioactive waste packages delivered at CSFMA Physical features: mass, dimensions Visual examinations (holes, cracks ) Radiological controls : surface contamination, dose rate and gamma spectrometry measurements à compacter More than 200 waste packages per year Complementary non destructive and destructive testings made by CEA and other facilities (laboratories ) Gamma spectrometry measurements on radioactive drums at CSFMA

19 Imaging methods : LLW and ILW packages quality-control inspections Non destructive testings (2) Low energy X-Radiography (drums for compaction) High energy X-Radiography (concrete hulls) Active Gamma Radiography and Tomography (grouted drums) Low energy X-Radiography (drums for compaction) Gamma Radiography on heterogeneous wastes in grouted drums To detect prohibited waste (e.g. liquids), unfilled spaces (void rate) To ensure good confinement properties (waste positioning, grouted envelope thickness) To gain knowledge on waste (physical properties ) Gamma tomography on homogeneous wastes in grouted drums

20 LLW and ILW packages quality-control inspections Non Destructive Testings (3) Alpha measurements : Gamma spectrometry (isotopic content) Passive and Active Neutron measurements, Active Photofission Measurements and Tomography Neutron measurements Photofission at Saphir facility (CEA-Saclay) Quantification of the actinide mass : actinide differentiation, isotopic content of U and Pu, fissile mass, Alpha activity

21 LLW and ILW packages quality-control inspections Destructive Testings (1) Inventories of waste packages (drums for compaction, non grouted metal containers 5 and 10 m 3 ) : To examinate the waste and their consistancy with the declared physical properties (materials, prohibited wastes, restricted wastes, massive pieces, metal shields) To ensure the absence of waste in the internal confinement area (for the grouted envelop), the absence of corrosion To provide samples for technical assays and analysis Re-packaged wastes (similar materials) for gamma spectrometry and neutron mesurements Destructive testing : prohibited waste discovered in a 200 liters metal drum for compaction (asbestos)

22 LLW and ILW packages quality-control inspections DestructiveTestings (2) Cuttings and core drillings : Grouted metal drums, concrete hulls and cubic concrete containers Cuttings in homogeneous and heterogeneous waste packages To ensure : homogeneity of the waste internal structure of the package (positioning of waste, voids, cracks ) To measure the thickness of the grouted envelop To provide samples for technical assays and analysis Core drillings in homogeneous waste packages ; in container and confinement grouted envelop used for heterogeneous waste To ensure homogeneity of the waste To provide samples for technical assays and analysis DT : approximately 15 waste packages tested per year

23 LLW and ILW packages quality-control inspections Technical assays Technical assays on container, on grouted envelop, on embedding matrix Mechanical strength Core drill pieces Water porosity, density Gaz permeability Diffusion coefficient (3H) Leaching rate (on samples, seldom on waste package) 3 H and 14 C release (on waste packages, on representative samples)

24 Radiological and chemical analysis (1) Sampling plan (homogeneous wastes) : Representative samples LLW and ILW packages quality-control inspections Compliance with the laboratories acceptance criteria (only for the radiological content) Solubilization Depends on the specificities of : Waste matrix (ion exchange resins, ashes, concentrates, sludges) Embedding matrix (hydraulic binder, organic polymer) Presence of impurities and salts (lead to unsolubilized compounds) Different ways to solubilize solid samples : acid and oxydant digestion process, microwaves digestion process, alkaline fusion ; specific digestion process (volatils compounds)

25 Radiological and chemical analysis (2) Gamma spectrometry (solid and liquid samples) : «easy to measure» radionuclides «Difficult to measure» short and long lived radionuclides analysis (chemical separation on solulized solid samples are often necessary) Bêta measurements liquid scintillation counters ( 3 H, 14 C, 36 Cl, 55 Fe, 90 Sr, 63 Ni, 151 Sm ) X spectrometry ( 55 Fe, 59 Ni, 93 Mo ; 129 I, 41 Ca) gamma spectrometry ( 94 Nb, 108m Ag) LLW and ILW packages quality-control inspections ICP-MS or ICP-AES ( 99 Tc, 93 Zr, 135 Cs, 129 I et 126 Sn, 107 Pd, 79 Se) Alpha measurements 241 Am ; U and Pu isotopic content : alpha spectrometry, mass spectrometry Chemical analysis to quantify U, Pb, Hg, Sb, Cd, Se, As, Ni, Cr (Cr VI), B, Be by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, ICP-MS or ICP-AES TOC (total organic carbon) on solid and liquid samples

26 VLLW packages qualitycontrol inspections Non destructive testings Radioactive waste package = Container + Radioactive waste (and sometimes Embedding Matrix) Non destructive testings on radioactive waste packages delivered at CSTFA Moisture measure equipment Physical features : mass, dimensions Visual examinations : packaging and radioactive waste Radiological controls : surface contamination, dose rate and gamma spectrometry measurements Moisture measurement à compacter Video-endoscopy equipment used for visual examinations

27 VLLW packages qualitycontrol inspections Destructive Testings Inventories of waste packages (drums, Big-Bags, cases, non grouted metal containers 5 m 3 ) : To examinate the waste and their consistancy with the declared physical properties (e.g. waste type) To ensure of the compliance to the specifications (prohibited and restricted wastes) To provide samples for radiological and chemical analysis, for physical assays About 15 VLLW packages per year Inventory operation Destructive testing : prohibited waste discovered in a Big-Bag for compaction Sampling

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