SOLSPEC MEASUREMENT OF THE SOLAR ABSOLUTE SPECTRAL IRRADIANCE FROM 165 to 2900 nm ON BOARD THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION

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1 SOLSPEC MEASUREMENT OF THE SOLAR ABSOLUTE SPECTRAL IRRADIANCE FROM 165 to 2900 nm ON BOARD THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION G. Thuillier1, D. Bolsee2 1 LATMOS-CNRS, France 2 Institut d Aéronomie Spatiale de Belgique SOLAR on COLUMBUS Laboratory Launched on 7 Feb. 2008

2 INSTRUMENTS PRESENTLY IN SPACE: SOLAR (5/6) SOLSPEC Triple double grating spectrometer using D2, W, HC lamps. Range: nm. Calibrated with the PTB blackbody. SOLSPEC was built in cooperation between France, Belgium and Germany. SOL-ACES SOL-ACES (G) is a-4 grazing incidence grating spectrometers plus two three-ionization chambers with exchangeable band pass filters to determine absolute fluxes from 17 to 140 nm. SOVIM Four absolute radiometers (PMO6 (Ch) and DIARAD (B) as on board SoHO, and two sunphotometers.

3 PRESENT SOLAR SPECTRAL IRRADIANCE MEASUREMENTS (2/6) ESA SOLAR TSI, SOL-ACES nm SOLSPEC nm NOAA SBUV nm SORCE SIM nm SORCE XPS.1-40 nm SORCE SOLSTICE nm TIMED XPS.1-40 nm TIMED nm EVE / SDO and Rocket nm Wavelength (nm)

4 METHODS OF CALIBRATION Instruments Missions Absolute calibration On-board control SIM SORCE Characterization 2 twin instruments SOLSTICE SORCE Surf 1 and D 2 lamps Stars SEE TIMED Absolute detectors SOL-ACES SOLSPEC SOLAR- ISS SOLAR- ISS SURF 2 PTB Blackbody Absorption cell D2,W, HC lamps EVE SDO Surf 1 Led (flatfield) The different techniques ensure to minimize the systematic uncertainties. Agreement between data sets gathered by instruments based on different concepts also ensure that measurements are achieved in the absolute scale. SURF: Synchrotron UltravioletRadiation Facility. 1= NIST; 2= PTB

5 Optical Schematics Output slit Detector Grating * There are 2 movable quartz plates (Q1, Q2) per spectrometer Main shutter Quartz* Plates Wheel Filters wheel Diffusor Intermediate slit Spectrometer Input slit Grating

6 q A sensor measures the Sun position/platform axis. Principle of the SOLSPEC spectrometer (1/2) q 3 double-monochromators (UV, VIS, IR) allow to cover the range nm q The six gratings simultaneously rotate q References on board: - One hollow cathode lamp (HCL) providing lines from Argon, Zn and Cu to measure the slit function and the dispersion law. - Four tungsten ribbon lamps for the VIS and IR spectrometers calibration - Two deuterium lamps for the UV spectrometer calibration q Entrance slits are covered by diffusors q Quartz plates and a hole are carried by a wheel. The plates can be placed in front of the entrance diffusors to ensure their protection.

7 Principle of the SOLSPEC spectrometer (2/2) Detectors: PMT in UV and visible domains, PbS cell in IR. Vis and IR detectors are cooled. Signals: Counting for PMT s, synchronous detection in IR (16 bits, 3 gains) PMT s data acquisition works with two modes - at fixed integration time - at fixed counts (fixed precision) Spectral characteristics: Total spectral range: nm UV spectrometer: nm, spectral width: 1 nm, sampling 0.1 nm VIS spectrometer: nm, spectral width: 1 nm, sampling 0.25 nm IR spectrometer: nm, spectral width 9 nm, sampling 1 nm

8 INSTRUMENT CALIBRATION Ground Orbit Absolute photometry X Relative photometry X X Linearity X Slit Function X X Dispersion law X X Scattered light X X Flatfield x* X Second order contribution X X * More precise in space

9 CALIBRATION MEASUREMENTS ONLY ACHIEVABLE ON GROUND - Absolute photometric response - Linearity

10 INSTRUMENT LINEARITY Non linear effect (10 6 counts.s -1 ) Linear signal (10 6 counts.s -1 ) The Sun will not generate a signal greater than 10 5.

11 ABSOLUTE CALIBRATION AT PTB We use the Blackbody at PTB (Braunscheiwg, Germany) NIST FEL lamps and a D2 lamp (V0132 calibrated by PTB below 250 nm Temperature is recorded by three radiometers: at rear of BB for control (red, PTB), In front (blue, PTB), in front (black, SOLSPEC ). PTB ensures an absolute temperature at 0.44 K accuracy.

12 F2F meeting 6-7 Sept 2012 Radiometric characterization : improved in space Angular responses deduced from criss-cross measurements UV per UV par VIS par VIS per

13 F2F meeting 6-7 Sept 2012 Radiometric characterization : improved in space Angular responses deduced from criss-cross measurements IR per IR par Diffuse light study

14 HOLLOW CATHODE LAMP Role: - Measures in orbit the slit function - Measures in orbit the dispersion law

15 LINES PROVIDED BY THE HOLLOW CATHODE LAMP Signal UV (cps.s -1 ) Zn I Cu I Cu I Cu I Ar II Cu I Ar I Cu I Cu I Longueur d'onde (nm) Signal VIS (cps.s -1 ) Cu I Cu I Ar II Ar II Ar I Ar I Ar I Ar I Ar I Ar I Ar I Ar I Ar I Longueur d'onde (nm)

16 Spectrometers Slit Functions in UV, VIS, IR

17 SLIT FUNCTION With an isolated line When two lines are adjacent in the slit function

18 BEHAVIOR OF THE SPECTRAL CHARACTERISTICS IN SPACE AS A FUNCTION OF TIME

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20

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23 UNCERTAINTIES TAKING PART IN THE MEASUREMENTS A: Ground calibration A1 aligment instrument/source A2 optical path A3 distance instrument/source A4 Source intensity A5 Source stability in time B: In orbit B1: Depointing C: In orbit and on ground C1: Counting C2: Detectors linearity C3: Dark current C4: Wavelength scale C5: Slit function C6: Scattered light C7: Temperature effect (detector, ) C8: HV stability C9: Flatfield C10: Aging Then, uncertainties are geometrically combined. Dominant uncertainties are: ground calibration and counting in orbit.

24

25

26

27 !

28 UV-VISIBLE DOMAIN

29 IR DOMAIN

30 Present work: PRESENT WORK and CONCLUSION - SSI reconstruction using Mg II index and Neutron monitor data, published in Solar physics. - SSI reconstruction comparison between different spectra and consequence for climate modeling ready for submission to Solar Physics. - SSI at transition cycle ( nm) ready for submission to Solar Physics - SSI variability inferred by solar rotation in writting phase For SOLID: main work: to provide SSI in absolute value SOLSPEC: No IR aging, Visible aging to be corrected by using the onboard lamps In UV aging: significant work as the PS D2 lamp is no more operational. Other ways are under study. Excellent cooperation with IASB, IPM, LASP, PMODWRC (aphabetical order!) Ref.: Bolsée, D., PhD Thesis, Bruxelles, May Schmidtke et al., Adv. Space Res., 37, , 2006b. Thuillier et al.,, Solar Physics, 257, Issue 1, , Thuillier et al. Solar Physics, to be submitted, 2013

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