Gérard Thuillier 1, David Bolsée 2, Gerhard Schmidtke 3 Werner Schmutz 4, A. Shapiro 4, Bernd Nikutowski 3 and the SOLSPEC and SOL-ACES teams

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1 A Composite Absolute Solar Irradiance Spectrum at Solar Minimum: 17 nm to 2900 nm Gérard Thuillier 1, David Bolsée 2, Gerhard Schmidtke 3 Werner Schmutz 4, A. Shapiro 4, Bernd Nikutowski 3 and the SOLSPEC and SOL-ACES teams 1 LATMOS CNRS (F), 2 Institut d Aéronomie Spatiale de Belgique 3 IPM-Fraunhofer Institute (G), 4 PMOD-WRC (CH) Outline - Importance of measuring the EUV to IR spectral irradiance - The instruments and the missions - Operations - Absolute calibration analysis - The composite spectrum - Conclusion

2 THE SOLAR SPECTRUM: A KEY INPUT FOR DIFFERENT DISCIPLINES - Solar Physics: The spectrum characterizes the outer layers (photosphere, chromosphere, corona) composition, temperature. Furthermore, by comparison with theoretical reconstruction, an accurately measured spectrum allows to validate the temperature, composition, densities of the solar atmosphere. an example will be shown with the COSI model. - Atmospheric Physics: The solar photons act on the Earth atmosphere by photodissociation, ionization, absorption and scattering. - Climate Physics: processes involving changes driven by the Sun on atmospheric parameters are today accepted as possible actors in rapid climate changes. Climate models request solar spectra corresponding to different solar activity regimes. The available information is based on reconstructions and models. However, they are not yet at the required level of accurancy for different levels of solar activity. - Engineering and physiology of living species The fundamental issues for solar spectra measurements are accuracy and variability with solar activity.

3 WHICH SPECTRAL DOMAIN? 25 years ago, the EUV was measured given the needs for thermosphere and ionosphere studies. Later, the ozone problem has encouraged the measurements in the UV domain. In the late, 90 s, the interest of climate physics has led to extent the domain of measurements to IR, as well as Space Weather to EUV. Consequently, EUV to IR measurements were scheduled.

4 The space missions for UV to IR measurements Prior to SpaceLab I and SpaceLab II, discrepancies between different datasets reach 30%. Reasons: Absolute calibration, aging of instrument (components, cleanliness of payload, spacecraft, vacuum chamber, ). With SpaceLab I and II ( ) the two UV spectra ( nm obtained by SUSIM and SOLSPEC instruments independently designed and calibrated agree within 3% (VanHoosier et al., 1986). During the ATLAS period three flights were made (1992, 1993 and 1994) with three Instruments operated simultaneously : SUSIM, SSBUV, SOLSPEC. EURECA (1994) provides the first IR spectrum from space. GRL cover

5 PRESENT SOLAR SPECTRAL IRRADIANCE MEASUREMENTS (2/6) ESA SOLAR SOL-ACES nm SOLSPEC nm NOAA SBUV nm SORCE SIM nm SORCE XPS.1-40 nm SORCE SOLSTICE nm TIMED XPS.1-40 nm TIMED nm Wavelength (nm)

6 INSTRUMENTS PRESENTLY IN SPACE: SOLAR (4/6) The solar spectral irradiance from X-rays to IR is measured using two instruments. A third instrument using several radiometers measures the Total Solar Irradiance (TSI): SOVIM measures the TSI. SOL-ACES measures the solar spectral irradiance from 17 nm to 140 nm. SOLSPEC measures the solar spectral irradiance from 165 nm to 3080 nm. Please, do not step on SOLSPEC!

7 INSTRUMENTS PRESENTLY IN SPACE: SOLAR (5/6) SOLSPEC SOL-ACES SOVIM Triple double grating spectrometer using D2, W, HC lamps. Range: nm. Calibrated with the PTB blackbody. SOLSPEC was built in cooperation between France, Belgium and Germany. SOL-ACES (G) is a-4 grazing incidence grating spectrometers plus two three-ionization chambers with exchangeable band pass filters to determine absolute fluxes from 17 to 140 nm. Four absolute radiometers (PMO6 (Ch) and DIARAD (B) as on board SoHO, and two sunphotometers.

8 METHODS OF CALIBRATION (6/6) Instrument Missions Absolute calibration On-board control SIM SORCE Characterization 2 twin instruments SOLSTICE SORCE Surf 1 and D2 lamps Stars XPS SORCE, and TIMED Absolute detectors SOL-ACES SOLAR-ISS Surf 2 Absorption cells SOLSPEC SOLAR-ISS PTB BB, D2 lamps W, D2, HC lamps The different techniques ensure to minimize the systematic uncertainties. Agreement between data sets gathered by instruments based on different concepts also ensure that they measure in the absolute scale. SURF: Synchrotron UltravioletRadiation Facility. 1= NIST; 2= PTB

9 THE COMPOSITE SPECTRA FROM EUV TO IR Rationale: given the extent of the required spectral domain to be covered (EUV to IR), none alone instrument can achieve such requirement. The data necessarily will be obtained from different instruments, preferrably operated at the same time and on board the same platform. It exists several composite spectra. The difficulty is basically in the range of the overlapping region from a dataset to the next. Which is the right one and how to achieve continuity between the two adjacent sets and how to take care of the instrument bandpass? There are also composite spectra merging different composite and data sets. The final accuracy of such a product is difficult to estimate given the adjustment coefficients, smoothing and other necessary data processing steps. We report below on three composite spectra: ATLAS, SORCE, SOLAR-ISS, for which data are clearly identified. and the COSI (Shapiro et al., 2010) reconstruction. All are obtain at solar minimum activity.

10 THE ATLAS COMPOSITE SPECTRA Two composite spectra at two levels of solar activity as encountered during the ATLAS 1 and 3 missions covering the domain 0.5 nm to 2400 nm were built by using rocket data from 0.5 nm to Ly α from Woods et al. (1998), UARS (SUSIM and SOLSTICE), ATLAS (SUSIM, SOLSTICE and SOLSPEC) data from Ly a to 400 nm, and SOLSPEC from 400 nm to 2400 nm from ATLAS and EURECA Missions. Thuillier et al., Solar irradiance spectra, in Solar variability, AGU monograph 141, pp , 2004 A ACCURACY nm : 3%

11 THE SOLAR SPECTRAL IRRADIANCE AT SOLAR ACTIVITY MINIMUM WITH THE SORCE DATA Inputs: TIMED Solar EUV Experiment (SEE) XPS: nm,!" ~ 8 nm EGS: nm,!" ~ 0.4 nm SORCE XPS same as on TIMED SEE SOLSTICE: nm,!" ~ 0.1 nm SIM: nm, SOHO Solar EUV Monitor (SEM) nm and zeroth order 0-50 nm SDO EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) Rocket EVE: nm,!" ~ 0.1 nm Suborbital rocket launched 14 April 08 NOAA SBUV: nm

12 SIM and SOLSPEC ATLAS 3 The upper panel shows the ratio SIM to ATLAS 3 (Harder et al., 2010). SIM data is taken at minimum solar activity Its is corrected using ATLAS 3.

13 Shapiro et al., 2010 COSI is able to determine the solar spectral irradiance in selected solar activity conditions. The upper panel shows the reconstructed spectrum (red) compared with the measured (blue) spectrum ATLAS 3 (Thuillier et al., 2004). The lower panel provides the ratio of the two spectra using a 5 nm running mean. Except in presence of strong Fraunhofer lines (above 450 nm), COSI provides a spectrum with an accuracy of 2%.

14 THE SOLAR SPECTRAL IRRADIANCE AT THE MINIMUM SOLAR ACTIVITY WITH THE SOLAR-ISS DATA Inputs: - SOL-ACES from 15 to 130 nm - SOLSPEC from 170 to 2900 nm (to be extended to 3000 nm by an integration of many measurements). SOLSTICE data are used as a SOL-ACES channel cannot be operated. Initially, it was foreseen to work up to 220 nm, and to overlap with SOLSPEC. Consequently, XPS (TIMED) is used to fill the gap nm.

15 ATLS 3 / SOLSPEC-ISS in IR Around 1700 nm, it exists a difference ATLAS 3 / SOLSPEC-ISS

16 THE DIFFERENCE ATLAS 3 / SOLSPEC-ISS IN IR? An exhaustive research has been carried out to find the origin of this difference. The possible causes are: - Distance source to entrance pupil, - BB temperature, - IR channel linearity, - Absorption by H 2 O during ground calibration - Diaphragm diameter, - Flatfield, - Dark current.

17 THE DIFFERENCE ATLAS 3 / SOLSPEC-ISS IN IR? - Today, no explanation is found. - We searched a law for correction. We found a very simple and powerful one as: cos ( k λ + φ) allowing to reproduce the ATLAS 3 IR spectrum with an accuracy compatible with the experimental uncertainties. This law is describing an interference pattern between two surfaces. This may occur with stacked surfaces. This will be the subject of investigations and special runs. - Consequently, today for building the composite spectrum, we have decided to use a part of the IR SOLSPEC ATLAS 3 spectrum. However, when the origin of the problem will be clarified, we shall used the IR SOLSPEC-ISS spectrum as having a better absolute calibration.

18 THE SOLAR SPECTRUM AT SOLAR ACTIVITY MINIMUM AS JUNE 2008 We use: - Sol-ACES from 17 to 133 nm, - XPS (TIMED) from 133 to 170 nm, - SOLSPEC-ISS from 170 et 1.05 µm, - ATLAS-3 from 1.05 et 2.4 µm, - SOLSPEC ISS from 2.4 to 2.9 µm. This part was not measured by SOLSPEC-ATLAS 3.

19 COMPOSITE SPECTRA COMPARISON (1/5)

20 COMPOSITE SPECTRA COMPARISON (3/5)

21 COMPOSITE SPECTRA COMPARISON (2/5)

22 COMPOSITE SPECTRA COMPARISON (4/5) Near UV domain Visible domain

23

24

25

26 DISTRIBUTION PER SPECTRAL INTERVALS (W/m2): DOMAIN nm Range ATLAS3 SORCE SOLAR-ISS COSI (µm) Wm -2 Wm -2 Wm -2 Wm ( )

27 DISTRIBUTION PER SPECTRAL INTERVALS (W/m2): DOMAIN nm Range ATLAS3 SORCE SOLAR-ISS (nm) mwm -2 mwm -2 mwm

28 CONCLUSIONS - SOLSPEC spectral domain was increased with respect to the ATLAS domain. - The main difficulty in orbit is the pointing having an off-set, which changes the the instrument flatfield. The flatfield has been measured in space for the whole spectral domain. Special measurements are achieved in UV and far IR to increase the signal to noise ratio. - The discrepancy ATLAS 3/SOLSPEC-ISS around 1700 nm remains unexplained despite an exhautive investigation has been performed. However, investigations are continuing. - A composite spectrum at solar minimum activity has been constructed using SOLSPEC ISS, SOL-ACES, TIMED and ATLAS 3 (SOSP-EURECA) around 1700 nm. It covers the domain 17 nm to 2900 nm. Its extension to 3000 is in progress. - Three composite spectra ATLAS 3/SORCE/SOLSPEC-ISS obtained at solar minimum activity agree within their quoted uncertainties. - COSI reconstruction is very encouraging. - ESA has accepted to continue running SOLAR-ISS.

29 References - Thuillier, G., T.N. Woods, Cebula, R., Hilsenrath, E., Hersé, M., and Labs, D., Solar irradiance spectra, in Solar variability, AGU monograph 141, pp , Floyd, L. E., D. K. Prinz, P. C. Crane, L. C. Herring, Solar UV Irradiance Variation during cycles 22 and 23, Adv. Space Res., 29, Issue 12, , Woods, T. N., Chamberlin, P. C., Harder, J. W., Hock, R. A., Snow, M., Eparvier, F. G., Fontenla, J., McClintock, W. E., and Richard, E. C., Solar Irradiance Reference Spectra (SIRS) for the 2008 Whole Heliosphere Interval (WHI), G. R. L., 36, , Woods, T. N., G. J. Rottman, S. M. Bailey, S. C. Solomon, and J. Worden, Solar extreme ultraviolet irradiance measurements during solar cycle 22, Solar Phys., 177, pp , Woods, T. N., G. J. Rottman, J. Harder, G. Lawrence, B. McClintock, G. Kopp, and C. Pankratz, Overview of the EOS SORCE mission, SPIE Proceedings, 4135, pp , VanHoosier, M. E., Solar ultraviolet spectral irradiance data with increased wavelength and irradiance accuracy, SPIE Proceedings, 2831, pp , Cebula, R. P., G. Thuillier, M. R. J. Vanhoosier, E. Hilsenrath, M. Hersé, P. C. Simon, Observations of the solar irradiance in the nm interval during the ATLAS 1 mission: A comparison among three sets of measurements-ssbuv, SOLSPEC, and SUSIM, Geophys. Res. Lett., 23, pp , Schmidtke, G., Fröhlich, C., and Thuillier, G., ISS-SOLAR: Total (TSI) and Spectral (SSI) Irradiance Measurements, Adv. Sp. Res.,37 2, , Thuillier, G., Foujols, T., Bolsée, D., Gillotay, D., Hersé, M., Peetermans., Decuyper, W., Mandel,H., Sperfeld, P., Pape, S., Taubert, D. R., Hartmann, J., SOLAR/SOLSPEC: Scientific Objectives, Instrument Performance and Its Absolute Calibration Using a Blackbody as Primary Standard Source, Sol. Phys. 257, , Shapiro, A., Schmutz, W., Schoell, M., Haberreiter, M., and Rozanov, E., NLTE Solar Irradiance Modeling with the COSI code, A & A, DOI: / / , 2010.

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