High School Communications Curriculum Indicators tested/taught indicator

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1 Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior adjusts reading rate to support comprehension when reading HS narrative, and persuasive texts. determines meaning of words or phrases using context clues (e.g., definitions, restatements, examples, descriptions, comparison-contrast, clue words, cause-effect) HS from sentences or paragraphs. Context clues 3,80 locates and uses reference materials available in the classroom, school, and public libraries (e.g., dictionaries, thesauri, atlases, encyclopedias, internet) that are HS appropriate to the task. HS determines meaning of words through structural analysis, using knowledge of Greek, Latin, and Anglo-Saxon roots, prefixes, and suffixes to understand complex words, including words in science, mathematics, and social studies. Word-root chart 715; Etymology map 275, 681; Prefixes 1058, 1059; Roots 1058, Roots Greek 715;Suffixes 1026, 1032, 1043, ; Word root chart 715 Context clues 168, 308, 947; Context clues 51, 252, 851, Context clues 168, Etymology 129, 196, 197, 310; Etymology chart 310; Prefixes 475, 1120, 1249; Suffixes 400, 475, 1120, 1224, ; derivational 475; inflectional 475, 1120; Word chart 37 Etymology 66, 454, 456; folk etymology 1177; prefixes 153, 1176, 1251; Roots 153, 1251; Suffixes 153, 1176, 1251; Roots 153, 1251 HS HS identifies, interprets, and analyzes the use of figurative language, including similes, metaphors, analogies, hyperbole, onomatopoeia, personification, idioms, imagery, and symbolism. discriminates between connotative and denotative meanings and interprets the connotative power of words. metaphor 103,365,424,521,538,558,590,596, 860,861,971,973; personification 365,509,513,521,535,860,861,924, 971,974; Simile 103,327,365,509,513, ,538,590,860,861,971,977; symbol 314,325,660,978; Imagery 165,186,217,356,363,400, ,498,507,538,576,578,972; Onomatopoeia 560, 569, 572, 972, 973, 974; Personification 365, 509, 513, 521, 535, 860, 861, 924, 971, 974; Simile 103, 327, 365, 509, 513, , 538, 590, 860, 861, 971, 977; Symbol 314, 325, 660, 978; Analogies 163, 381; Analogies 163, 381; Personification 508, 575, 924 Figure of speech (figurative language) 307,503, ,512,515,536,913,998; hyperbole 999; metaphor ,508,512, 722, 913, 998, 1000; simile , 512, 514, 529; symbol 288, , 515, 516; Hyperbole 999; Idiom 534, 536; Imagery 26, 42, 67, 208, 234, 303, 375, 415, 420, 430, , 556, 562, 573, 997, 999; Metaphor , 508, 512, 514, 519, 525, 552, 556, 596, 699, 722, 913,998, 1000; Onomatopoeia 589, 1002; Personification 507, 514, 568, 596, 998, 1002; Simile , 512, 514, 529, 714, 998, 1000, 1005; Symbol 288, , 515, 516, 524, 536, 1006; Symbolic meaning 288, 303, 304, 516, 519; Analogies 287; Analogies 1016 Metaphor 35, 71, 74, 83, 105, 112, 178, 179, 188, 192, 228, 246, 320, 342, 379, 384, 385, 390, 391, 395, 396, 431, 452, 463, 568, 576, 582, 622, 634, 642, 669, 670, 701, 749, 782, 803, 934, 1002, 1009, 1010, 1011, 1035, 1038, 1066, 1100, 1108, 1149, 1165, 1195; Comic metaphor 452, 463; Dead Metaphor 1196; Extended metaphor 71, 74, 188, 192, 452, 463, 669, 934, 1009, 1010, 1011, 1195; Implied metaphor 582, 1195; mixed metaphor 1196; Onomatopoeia 288, 355, 557, 568, 768, 1197; Personification 390, 395, 493, 622, 649, 737, 742, 745, 1002, 1004, 1035, 1038, 1042, 1100, 1149, 1151, 1197; Simile 35, 83, 179, 379, 396, 561, 566, 568, 576, 622, 669, 742, 768, 931, 1002, 1035, 1038, 1100, 1108, 1201; Symbol 280, 288, 298, 308, 328, 445, 562, 565, 566, 568, 724, 785, 789, 888, 973, 978, 1038, 1100, 1202; Analogies 112, 1189, 1216; Analogies 890 Symbol 38, 48, 139, 174, 333, 369, 393, 420, 496, 647, 648, 651, 654, 663, 420, 496, 647, 648, 651, 654, 663, 678, 708, 739, 742, 764, 806, 807, 976, 981, 983, 999, 1009, 1013, 1016, 1061, 1068, 1118, 11444, 1160, 1170, 1202 (narrative, 1 January 06 mh

2 HS Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior identifies characteristics of narrative, and persuasive texts. Appeal to emotion 446, 450, 453, 479; Appeal to logic 446, 450, 479 Theme 76, 166,298,308,359,366,384,39 3,396,445,474,494,547,576, 579,604,621,622,634,642,64 5,660,673,683,696,786,799, 827,888,889,954,961,963,99 4,1004,1033,1038,1042,107 5,1087,1091,1108,1140,116 5,1176,1202 HS HS HS HS HS HS understands the purpose of text features (e.g., title, graphs/charts and maps, table of contents, pictures/illustrations, boldface type, italics, glossary, index, headings, subheadings, topic and summary sentences, captions, sidebars, underlining, numbered or bulleted lists, footnotes, annotations) and uses such features to locate information in and to gain meaning from appropriate-level texts. uses prior knowledge, content, and text type features to make, to revise, and to confirm predictions. generates and responds logically to literal, inferential, evaluative, synthesizing, and critical thinking questions before, during, and after reading the text. uses information from the text to make inferences and draw conclusions. analyzes and evaluates how authors use text structure (e.g., sequence, problem-solution, comparison-contrast, description, cause-effect) to help achieve their purposes. Charts 12,30,102,127,210,231,276,277,30 0,311,312,333,348,365,404,417,42 0,426,432,433,446,450,451,465,47 9,513,569,598,687,709,762,789,85 8,877,923,925,949,959,961,975; Interpreting 3,339, 526, 537, Graphs , 601, 611, , 682 Inference 186,535,980; Inferences 980 Drawing conclusions 537, 557; Inferences 530, 597, 1008 Author's purpose 415, 442; Author's purpose 415, 442 compares and contrasts varying aspects (e.g., characters' traits and motives, themes, problem-solution, cause-effect relationships, ideas and concepts, procedures, viewpoints, authors' purposes, persuasive techniques, use of Comparison and contrast 30, Comparison and contrast 48, literary devices, thoroughness of supporting evidence) in one 186,192,229,287,326,476,507,515, 129, 144, 155, 166, 179, 319, or more appropriate-level texts. 549,558,609, , , 486, 508, 511, 514, 525 Analysis questions (Shaping Interpretations) 35, 46, 55, 66,71,74,83,97,105,112,125, 166,174,179,186,192,228,24 6,257,280,288,308,320,328, 352,355,358,361,364,379,38 4,390,395,430,445,463,474, 493,509,547,557,561,562,56 6,568,575,579,582,604,621, 631,642,649,660,669,683,69 6,7010,712,724,742,745,749,759,768,777,782,785,791,7 95,799,850,875,888,930,934,946,954,961,973,978,994,1 004,1007,1010,1025,1033,1 038,1042,1053,1066,1075,1 087,1091,11100,1108,1119, 1126,1140,1147,1151,1157, 1165,1169,1176; Author's purpose 361,973,1140,1147; Charts 21, 25, 57, 66, 85, 105, 166, 329, 332, 366, 422, 425, 431, 557, 576, 673, 712, 745, 768, 795, 994, 1011, 1087, 1182;Interpretation 46, 71, 295, 696, 701, 712, 725, 742, 745, 749, 759, 768, 777, 782, 786, 791,795, 799, 1154 Title 252, 254, 351, 669, 744, 836, 939, 1077, 1079, 1117, 1163, 1170; Charts 51, 130, 153, 175, 230, 243, 275, 515, 566, 988, 1024, 1049, 1160; Italics Drawing conclusions 295, Drawing conclusions 823, 329, 493, 687, 1218; 825, 1220; Inferences 229, Inferences 1053, 1169, , 1220 Author's purpose 361,973,1140,1147 Comparison and contrast 46, Comparison and contrast 55, 76, 83, 97, 105, 166, 50, 174, 230, 243, 246, 178, 192, 229, 246, 257, 270, 450, 496, 500, 525, 290, 295, 365, 366, 370, 554, 565, 598, 651, 655, 382, 390, 391, 463, 568, 673, 706, 744, 759, 768, 712, 732, 749, 768, 777, 820, 825, 831, 842, 881, 795, 850, 1038, 1066, 1087, 894, 930, 983, 988, 993, 1151, (narrative, 2 January 06 mh

3 HS HS Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior explains and analyzes cause-effect relationships in appropriate-level narrative, and persuasive texts. uses paraphrasing and organizational skills to summarize information (stated and implied main ideas, main events, important details, underlying meaning) from appropriate-level narrative, and persuasive texts in logical or sequential order, clearly preserving the author's intent. Figure of speech (figurative language 103, 163, 327,365,509, ,528,590,860,925,971; Cause and effect 417, 924, 949, ; Cause and effect, false 453 paraphrasing 835, 980; poetry 489, , ; Summarizing 983 False cause and effect 469; Cause and effect 469, 682, 722, 742, ; False cause and effect 469 Paraphrasing 503, 619, 844, 940, 1008, 1011; Summarizing 29, 273, 288, 407, 415, 970, 1011 Cause and effect 557, 576, 579, 582, 605, 622, 632, 642, 660, 671, 684, 688 Paraphrasing 174, 193, 228, 361, 379, 390, 395, 575, 670, 785, 791, 799, 1007; Summarizing 246, 353, 474, 547, 568, 875, 930, 994 HS identifies the author's position in a persuasive text, describes techniques the author uses to support that position (e.g., bandwagon approach, glittering generalities, testimonials, citing authority, statistics, other techniques that appeal to reason or emotion), and evaluates the effectiveness of these techniques and the credibility of the HS information provided. Persuasion 445, 450, 452, 453 HS identifies the topic, main idea(s), supporting details, and theme(s) in text across the content areas and from a variety of sources in appropriate-level text. theme , 266, 275, 278, 287, 290, 299, 325, 978; Theme , 266, 275, 278, 287, 290, 299, 325, 978 analyzes and evaluates how an author s style (e.g., word choice, sentence structure) and use of literary devices (e.g., foreshadowing, flashback, irony, symbolism, tone, mood, satire, imagery, point of view, allusion, overstatement, paradox) work together to achieve his or her purpose for HS writing text. Bandwagon 453 establishes purposes for both assigned and self-selected reading (e.g., to be informed, to follow directions, to be HS HS entertained, to solve problems). follows directions presented in technical text. distinguishes between fact and opinion, and recognizes propaganda (e.g., advertising, media, politics, warfare), bias, and stereotypes in various types of appropriate-level texts. Bandwagon appeal 453; Fact and opinion 460, 465, 979; Loaded words 517, Logical argument 453; Main idea 372, 424, 430, 458, 465, 472, ; "Plain folks" 453; Testimonial 453; Appeals to emotion 446, 450, 453, 479; Appeals to logic 446, 450, 479 Theme , 191, 196, 206, 207, 209, 219, 273, 274, 285, 307, 682, 741, 908, 921, 1006, 1008; Main idea 415, 444, 470, 476, 895, 1008 Topic 1066, 1108; Main idea (theme) 76, 105, 112, 125, 166, 295, 298, 308, 352, 359, 364, 384, 474, 547, 563, 621, 642, 645, 660, 673, 683, 786, 827, 888, 961, 963, 1075, 1091, 1140, 1165, 1176 Style 12, 27, 35, 55, 76, 107, 112, 113, 166, 365, 366, Style 112, 118, , 997; 1027, 1033, 1038, 1066, Author's purpose 232, 415, 442, 1126, 1202; Author's 893, 894 purpose 361,973,1140,1147 Persuasion 101, 105, 112, 1197; Appeal to credibility 71, 166, 288, 474, 496, 509, 712, 850, 994, 1075, 1119, 1140, 1151; Appeal to emotion 74, 78, 83, 101, 105, 112, 179, 281, 289, 308, 334, 355, 358, 364, 374, 378, 379, 547, 774, Appeal to emotion , 487, 1053, 1126; Appeal to logic 499, 844, 893, 894; Appeal to 74,101,105,334,374,376,378 logic , 487, 894;,379; Persuasive writing (see Persuasion , 486, 487, also controversial issue) 98, 499, 773, 797, 819, 844, 861, , , , 879, Main idea 252, 333, 409, 434, 540, 662, 732, 763, 850, 864, 881, 1097, 1130; Theme 48, 90, 174, 175, 231, 242, 388, 389, 525, 533, 606, 607, 654, 668, 669, 708, 742, 744, 764, 836, 856, 858, 864, 869, 881, 930, 931, 962, 966, 983, 1009, 1013, 1016, 1024, 1031, 1040, 1048, 1068, 1069, 1090, 1094, 1097, 1117, 1147, 1153, 1160, 1170, 1173, 1203; Topic sentence 409 Stereotype 212, 606, 881; Connotation 68, 181, 467, 520, 525, 542, 997; Fact/opinion 419, 442, 468, 479, 1007; Jargon 597; Loaded words 469; Bias Opinion 60, 160, 249, 259, 266, 333, 398, 434, 525, 555, 574, 66, 682, 706, 738, 800, 820, 856, 864, 339, 409, 416; Facts and opinion Jargon 801; Opinion 71, 97, 881, 963, 1009, 1037, 339, 409, 415, 416, 479, 487, 192, 193, 214, 228, 246, 1079, 1094, 1130, 1160; , 262, 288, 308, 352, 365 Stereotype 606, 881 (narrative, 3 January 06 mh

4 Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior HS HS HS HS identifies and describes different types of characters (e.g., protagonist, antagonist, round, flat, static, dynamic) and analyzes the development of characters. analyzes the historical, social, and cultural contextual aspects of the setting and their influence on characters and events in the story or literary text. analyzes and evaluates how the author uses various plot elements (e.g., problem or conflict, climax, resolution, rising action, falling action, subplots, parallel episodes) to advance the plot and make connections between events. analyzes themes, tone, and the author s point-of-view across a variety of literary works and genres using textual evidence and considering audience and purpose. Character 29, 120, , 161:actions 131, appearance , flat/round , private thoughts 131, protagonist/antagonist 626, 660, reactions to 131, speech 130, static/dynamic 968, traits 287,311, ; Characterization , 968, direct 131, 144, 968, indirect 131, 144, 968; Protagonist 626, 660; Creating a character 217, 250, 387; Character analysis 30, 88, 162, 180, 187, 210, 276, 300, 326, 708, 859 Setting 127, , 166, 179, 186, , 426, 431, 977; Setting 74, 180, 195, 263 basic situation 32-33; climax 33, 34, 43, 258, 263, 627, 707, 857, 975; complications ; conflict 12, 29, 32, 73, 87, 210, 264, 570, 574, 626, 660, 707, 969; exposition 32-33, 420, 452, 626, 971; flashback 44, 113, 686, 971; foreshadowing 29, 46, 73, 788, ; resolution 33, 627; reversal 686, 707, suspense 73, 76, 87, 816, 834 Character 29, 32, 51, 107, 108, 680, 699, , 818; flat/round , 997; main 32, 119, 631, 741; motivation 94, 107, 111, 219, 699, 706, 714, 722, 727, 741; protagonist/antagonist 119; trait 818, 978; Characterization , 860, 996; direct/indirect , 996; Character analysis 108, 144, 274, 682, 742, 880, 890; Appearance of character 48, 108, 165; Creating a Character 97, 166, 289, 308, 320, 329, 430, 445, 509, 561, 575, 622, 631, 632, 642, 652, 669, 673, 696, 725, 815, 850, 875, 876, 888, 931, 946, 973, 981, 994, 1025, 1027, 1033, 1138, 1053, 1066, 1069, 1075, 1108, 1110, 1129, 1140, 1191; dynamic/static 876, 888, 981, 1191; flat/round 1191; stock 631; Characterization 313, 430, 605, 683, 759, 851, 888, 961, 973, 994, 1038, 1053, 1140, 1191 ;Character character 48, 130, , 573; analysis 167, 329, 474, 605, Sketch character 374, 416, 477, 649, 660, 671, 696, 712, 519, 879; Updating a character 725, 931, 973, 994, 1025, , 1140 Settings 29, 50-51, 67, 78, 155, 172, 179, 180, 181, 191, 192, 248, 259, 286, 303, 319, 366, 374; emotional effects 50-51; verisimilitude 50; Creating a setting 67, 155, 286, 304 Denotation 68, 997; Plot 32-33, 43, 66, 260, 304, 1002; basic situation 32-33, 998, 1003; climax 33, 41, 52, 631, 998, 1003; comedy 997, 1006; complications 32-33, 998, 1003; conflict 32, 34, 41, 66, 69, 78, 741, 1003; denouement 1003; foreshadowing 129, 146, 154, 179, 630, 843, 999; resolution 30,33, 43, 48, 741, 1003; suspense 8, 29, 259, 285, , 687, 818, 999, 1005; tragedy 686, 739, 741, 742, 878, 997, 1006 Setting 153, 166, 167, 289, 364, 539, 547, 575, 622, 642, 669, 683, 715, 724, 725, 727, 961, 973, 1033, 1093; Setting 153, 166, 167, 289, 364, 539, 547, 575, 622, 642, 669, 683, 715, 724, 725, 727, 961, 973, 1033, 1093, 1100, 1140, 1200 Climax 510, 888, 1087, 1191; Denouement 1192; Plot 153, 509, 605, 622, 725, 850, 994, 1038, 1197; Poetry 149, 746; Resolution 576, 961, 1140, 1199 Character 38, 105, 129, 139, 151, 152, 318, 333, 351, 369, 388, 389, 390, 451, 555, 579, 598, 831, 836, 858, 951, 993, 994, 995, 1009, 1013, 1016, 1049, 1069, 1090, 1099, 1170, 1191; Characterization 105, 175, 333, 369, 420, 450, 465, 500, 513, 823, 881, 1130, 1191; Setting 48, 390, 451, 606, 671, 673, 708, 720, 759, 807, 820, 836, 850, 854, 951, 962, 993, 995, 1013, 1016, 1023, 1024, 1042, 1048, 1-69, 1201; Character 50, 130, 152, 390, 450, 555, 579, 708, 858, 1049, 1090, 1130, 1173 (narrative, 4 January 06 mh

5 Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior HS HS HS HS HS writing ( HS writing ( HS writing ( HS writing ( HS writing ( HS writing ( HS writing ( HS writing ( identifies, analyzes, and evaluates the use of literary devices (e.g., foreshadowing, flashback, irony, figurative language, imagery, symbolism, satire, allusion, paradox, dialogue, point of view, overstatement) in a text. recognizes ways that literature from different cultures presents similar themes differently across genres. compares and contrasts works of literature that deal with similar topics and problems. evaluates distinctive and shared characteristics of cultures through a variety of texts. Asserts an arguable proposition or opinion (thesis statement). (Ideas and Content: prewriting, drafting, revising: N,E,T,P) Selects and uses (1) personal experience (2) observations (3) prior knowledge (4) research important for the reader to reach a conclusion and use an appropriate point of view for the piece (e.g. first person in editorial). (Ideas and Content: prewriting, drafting, revising: N,E,T,P) Develops and differentiates details necessary to expand the main topic in a balanced format to support the writer s position. (Ideas and Content: prewriting, drafting, revising: N,E,T,P) Anticipates the reader s question(s) and provides balance with a counter-argument. (Ideas and Content: prewriting, drafting, revising: N,E,T,P) Builds a focused argument that uses logical thinking and appeals to reason, authority, and/or emotion. (Ideas and Content: prewriting, drafting, revising: N,E,T,P) Analyzes and understands implications and consequences of plagiarism (e.g. ethical, legal, professional). (Ideas and Content: prewriting, drafting, revising: N,E,T,P) Applies appropriate strategies to generate persuasive text (e.g. brainstorming, listing, webbing, working in pairs or cooperative groups, identifying information from print sources). (Organization: prewriting, drafting, revising: N,E,T,P) Writes a cohesive piece that includes (1) an introduction that engages the reader (2) a body that reinforces the writer s position through the logical placement of evidence (3) a conclusion that reinforces the thesis statement and the original position. (Organization: prewriting, drafting, revising: N,E,T,P) Allusion 967; Dialogue 242, 251; Figure of speech (figurative language) 103, 163, 327,365,509, ,528,590,860,925,971; Firstperson point of view 218, 975; Flashback 44,113,686,971; Foreshadowing 29,46,73,788, ; Ironic situation 202,209; Irony , 229, 241, 601, 604, ; Metaphor 103, 365, 424, 521, Allusion 128, 995; Atmosphere 50, 172, 180, 995; Dialogue 79, 80, 109, 167, 381; Irony , 206, 232, 389, 406, 415, 456, 465, 601, 699, 706, 741, 878, 1000; dramatic , 538, 558, 590, 596, 860, 861, 971, 389, 706, 1000; situational 194, 973; assonance 566, 967; imagery 389, 1000, verbal 194, 699, 356, , 538; Satire 132, 141, 1000; Satire 195, 232, 456, 465, 977; plot 32-33, , 1004 Allusion 35, 39, 46, 47, 83, 105, 186, 670, 1159, 1189; Dialogue 510, 569, 575, 576, 683, 851, 888, 973, 994, 1013, 1027; Point of view 232, 247, 280, 309, 320, 329, 358, 467, 474, 712, 713, 745, 1140, 1198; Satire 50, 55, 166, 631, 962, 1200; Satire 50,55,166,631, 962, 1200; Symbolism 193, 214, 281, 309, 320, 329, 533, 742, 770, 796, 1202; Tone 50,55,97,166,174,179,288,3 08,355,358,364,366,379,382,384,391,395,396,561,563,5 66,576,577,579,605,622,649,696,701,742,745,764,768,7 74,777,786,797,799,888,954,973,1004,1007,1011,1053,1 066,1075,1091,1040,1147,1 165,1203 (narrative, 5 January 06 mh

6 Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior Arranges information within each paragraph in a logical and effective sequence to persuade the reader (e.g. typically HS writing 5 or more sentences). (Organization: prewriting, drafting, ( revising: N,E,T,P) Uses appropriate transitions to connect ideas within and HS writing between paragraphs. (Organization: prewriting, drafting, ( revising: N,E,T,P) Selects vocabulary and figurative language that conveys a particular tone and personality (e.g. humor, suspense, HS writing cynicism, sarcasm, originality, and liveliness). (Voice: ( prewriting, drafting, revising: N,E,T,P) Uses language that is appropriate for persuasive writing HS writing and easy for the audience to understand. (Word Choice: ( prewriting, drafting, revising: N,E,T,P) Incorporates words that are precise, suitable for persuasive writing, and create imagery (e.g. precise nouns, HS writing powerful verbs, vivid modifiers). (Word Choice: prewriting, ( drafting, revising: N,E,T,P) Uses a variety of sentence structures and lengths to HS writing make the reading pleasant and natural. (Sentence Fluency: ( prewriting, drafting, revising: N,E,T,P) Creates a variety of engaging sentence beginnings that relate to and build upon previous sentences that move the HS writing reader fluidly through the subject matter. (Sentence Fluency: ( prewriting, drafting, revising: N,E,T,P) HS writing Uses fragments only for stylistic effect. (Sentence ( Fluency: prewriting, drafting, revising: N,E,T,P) HS writing Includes convincing dialogue, if appropriate. (Sentence ( Fluency: prewriting, drafting, revising: N,E,T,P) Punctuates correctly to easily guide the reader through HS writing the text. (Conventions: prewriting, drafting, revising: ( N,E,T,P) Uses correct grammar and usage, which may be HS writing manipulated for stylistic effect, which may contribute to ( clarity. (Conventions: prewriting, drafting, revising: N,E,T,P) Spells words correctly and uses available resources (e.g. HS writing dictionary, spell check). (Conventions: prewriting, drafting, ( revising: N,E,T,P) Uses correct paragraph divisions to reinforce the HS writing organizational structure of the text. (Conventions: prewriting, ( drafting, revising: N,E,T,P) uses the writing process in various formats such as (lab reports, journal entries, research reports, speeches, business letters, scripts, essays, critical analysis of current events and reaction papers in all content areas. generates ideas by using strategies, which may include recalling, brainstorming, free writing, outlining, and clustering. writes successive versions after rereading, adding new information and reorganizing for sequence. proofreads and edits (self and peers) revisions for grammar, spelling, usage and format. Business letter 1015; Journal (log) entry 192; fictional 67, 407, 529, 573, 861; Reflective essay 171, 180, 192, 207, 220, 233, ; Research and writing 364, 387, 416, 429, 443, 979; Speech 30, 743, 1018 (narrative, 6 January 06 mh

7 Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior uses a style manual such as Modern Language Association (MLA), American Psychological Association (APA), or other acceptable style manuals. publishes a legible final copy. selects topics that are original and appropriate for the task. uses strategies for generating ideas such as brainstorming, listing, webbing, working in pairs or cooperative groups and gleaning information from print sources. writes using knowledge or experience. provides details that focus the reader s attention on important information. develops the topic in an enlightening and purposeful way that makes a point or tells a story. writes a cohesive piece that is appropriate for a specific type of writing with a clear introduction that draws in the reader, supports main ideas and details and contains a conclusion. uses transitions to connect ideas within the between paragraphs. uses sequence that is logical and effective within each paragraph as well as within the entire written piece. uses vocabulary and language forms to convey mood and personality (might include humor, suspense, sarcasm, cynicism, originality and liveliness). conveys individual personality to the reader. uses a voice appropriate to the audience, occasion and purpose. chooses words that are specific, accurate, and easy to understand. uses language that is appropriate for the type of writing and for the audience. (narrative, 7 January 06 mh

8 Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior uses action verbs that energize the writing and precise nouns and modifiers that create images in the reader s mind. uses cliché s and jargon sparingly, only for effect. constructs sentences for clarity and meaning. uses rhythm to emphasize meaning. writes sentences that vary in length and in structure. uses fragments only for style. uses dialogue that is natural. writes paragraphs to reinforce the organizational structure of the text. uses grammar and usage that contribute to clarity and style. uses accurate punctuation to guide the reader through the text. uses correct spelling. edits to polish for publication. writes descriptive pieces which may include character sketches and descriptions of time, place, occasion, and object. writes narrative pieces (e.g., personal narratives, autobiographies, and short stories). writes expository pieces (e.g., research and informational writing). (narrative, 8 January 06 mh

9 Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior writes persuasive pieces (e.g., speeches, critical evaluations, editorials, letters of application, resumes, position papers, letters to the editor, and essays). writes technical pieces (e.g., business letters, charts, graphs, technical reports, manuals, and technical descriptions). generates relevant, investigating, and researchable questions in order to create a thesis/hypothesis. Uses knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation levels of questioning. locates appropriate print and non-print information using text and technical resources, periodicals, and book indices, including databases and internet. verifies the accuracy, relevance, and completeness of information. analyzes the complexities and discrepancies in information and systematically organizes relevant information to support central ideas, concepts, and themes. presents organized statements, reports, and speeches using visuals or media to support meaning, as appropriate. analyzes, organizes, and converts information into different forms (e.g., charts, graphs, drawings). documents sources of information using standard format. uses a manual or form such as Modern Language Association (MLA) or American Psychological Association (APA). analyzes and understands implications and consequences of plagiarism (e.g., ethical, legal, professional). expresses information in own words using appropriate organization and grammar, word choice, and tone sufficient to the audience. cites references for all sources of information including summarized and paraphrased ideas from other authors. constructs a bibliography with author, title, publisher, year, website name and address, and copyright date using standard style format (e.g., MLA, APA). Note taking , Outline 517, ; Research activities 98, 193, 203, 258, 329, 339, 396, 405, 464, 521, 605, 725, 768, 782, 791, 809, 934, 947, 1007, 1066, 1176, 1187; Research paper ; Research studies 1206 (narrative, 9 January 06 mh

10 grade.standard. benchmark. Indicator determines meaning of words or phrases using context clues (e.g., definitions, restatements, examples, descriptions, comparison-contrast, clue words, cause-effect) from sentences or HS paragraphs. determines meaning of words through structural analysis, using knowledge of Greek, Latin, and Anglo-Saxon roots, prefixes, and suffixes to understand complex words, including words in HS science, mathematics, and social studies. identifies, interprets, and analyzes the use of figurative language, including similes, metaphors, analogies, hyperbole, onomatopoeia, HS personification, idioms, imagery, and symbolism. x understands the purpose of text features (e.g., title, graphs/charts and maps, table of contents, pictures/illustrations, boldface type, italics, glossary, index, headings, subheadings, topic and summary sentences, captions, sidebars, underlining, numbered or bulleted lists, footnotes, annotations) and uses such features to locate information in and to gain meaning from appropriate-level HS texts. x uses information from the text to make inferences and draw HS conclusions. x analyzes and evaluates how authors use text structure (e.g., sequence, problem-solution, comparison-contrast, description, HS cause-effect) to help achieve their purposes. x x compares and contrasts varying aspects (e.g., characters' traits and motives, themes, problem-solution, cause-effect relationships, ideas and concepts, procedures, viewpoints, authors' purposes, persuasive techniques, use of literary devices, thoroughness of HS supporting evidence) in one or more appropriate-level texts. x explains and analyzes cause-effect relationships in appropriatelevel HS narrative, and persuasive texts. uses paraphrasing and organizational skills to summarize information (stated and implied main ideas, main events, important details, underlying meaning) from appropriate-level narrative, and persuasive texts in logical or sequential HS order, clearly preserving the author's intent. identifies the topic, main idea(s), supporting details, and theme(s) in text across the content areas and from a variety of HS sources in appropriate-level text. x analyzes and evaluates how an author s style (e.g., word choice, sentence structure) and use of literary devices (e.g., foreshadowing, flashback, irony, symbolism, tone, mood, satire, imagery, point of view, allusion, overstatement, paradox) work together to achieve his HS or her purpose for writing text. 10 April 2006ms

11 grade.standard. benchmark. Indicator identifies the author's position in a persuasive text, describes techniques the author uses to support that position (e.g., bandwagon approach, glittering generalities, testimonials, citing authority, statistics, other techniques that appeal to reason or emotion), and evaluates the effectiveness of these techniques and HS the credibility of the information provided. distinguishes between fact and opinion, and recognizes propaganda (e.g., advertising, media, politics, warfare), bias, and HS stereotypes in various types of appropriate-level texts. x identifies and describes different types of characters (e.g., protagonist, antagonist, round, flat, static, dynamic) and analyzes HS the development of characters. x analyzes the historical, social, and cultural contextual aspects of the setting and their influence on characters and events in the story HS or literary text. analyzes and evaluates how the author uses various plot elements (e.g., problem or conflict, climax, resolution, rising action, falling action, subplots, parallel episodes) to advance the plot and HS make connections between events. 11 April 2006ms

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