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1 ED DOCUMENT RESUME' : tit ' AUTHOR Viet Sean TITLE 'Thesaurus: Mass Commtinication INSTITUTION United Nations EducatipnaI Scientific and Cultural Organization Paris (France) PUB DATE 75 1 NOTE 279p; Parts may be marginally- legible due to print 'quality of the orfginal document EDRS PRICE DESCRIPTORS MF-$983 Plusr Postage FPC Not Available from EDRS Books; Communications; Cultdral Differences; CUltural Intarrefationships; 'Films; Fine Arts; *Information -Retrieval; *Mass -Media"; Radio; *Subject Index Terms; TelecoMmuniCation; Television; *Thesauri 1 ABSTRACT PrOduCed for UNESCO on the initiatiire Of the Division 'ef Communication Research and Plagni g this thesaurus' is a documentation language 4ivised for tlke purpose a analyzing works articles reports and other document relating to thee problems of ' mass communication according to theparticular uijedium to which they refer: books the press retordsf-4ms radio or television Whide its main purpose is to characterize the inform tion in a sufficiently precise manner to allow yost-storage retriev1 of the documents containing it it has the seconffary purpose of enabling queries to be expressed irr a form which will match the infortmation available The thesaurus is in two parts: Part 1 is a multililagnal document containing English French and Syanish descriptb s listed by' subject fields; Part 2 is an al pha-betical list of descript'brs ini English lauthorjap) 11 * Documents acquired by ERIC include many inform 1 unpublished * mdterials not available - from oth'erj sources ERIC es every effort * to obtain the begt copy available Nevertheless jems of marginal * * repxoducibility are often encountered and this jects the quality * : 4! Of 'the 'microfiche and hardcopy reproductions ERIC makes available via the' ERIC Document Reproduction Service (EDR S) EDRS is not ;* responsible for the quality of; the original d_or:nument Reproductions -* * supplied by EDRa are the -best that can be made from the original *" - **************************'*****************'**************************`? -

2 U S OJEPARTME NY OF HEALTH EOLleATIONA WELFARE NATIONAL INSTITUTE Of r ; F :i4 EOUCATION 72 *17-: 'T)-65-00CUNIENI'Hi413tEli REPRO-1 10 I - OLICElO EiCACTOf ASRECEIvE0 FROM \ 41HE PtRSON OR ORGANIZATION ORIGIN \ ATING IT POINTS Of; yiewor OPINIONS STATtg 00 NOT NEYESSARIL REPRE- SENT OFFICIAL NATIONAL INS-TITUTE01- \ EDucaTION POSITION OR POLICY \ i 4 HESAURUS MASCOMM COM ItATION COMVNIC*C1-ON co4c-pyp; by/par/poro 'Jean Viet '1k) II 'BY micra0 che ONLY N BY '01 l')pe-pa1! 'NNW f 'AV 7"17 I II '-1F 4' 1 BN011) OutSIIII I I'F- WITIT t COPY1IT rni TI Maison des SciencesdeItHomme Paris a N a* a Unesco 1975

3 TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE DES li'at -INDICE DE -MATERIAS ( ; INTRODUCTION / INTRODUCTION 1 INTRODUCCiON Fri glishlext 4 Texte fr*ais - IX Texis espaliol r V FIRST PART DESCRIPTORS BY SUBJECT FIELDS PREMIERE P4RTIE : DESCRIPTEURS PAR THEMES IRTMERA PAkTE DESCRTPTORES AGRUPADOS SEGUN'SU SIGNIFICACION t Su ject category fields S4icture de la lisle *k- E mctura del conjunto DeiCriptors I Descripteurs / Descriptores SECOND PAli' HA RETICAL LISTOF DESCRIPTOR DEUXIEME PkRTIE LI&ITE ALPITABETIQUE DES DESCRIPTEURS_ SEGUNDA P E : LISTik ALFAIItTICA DE DESCRIPTORES e

4 - - ( This thesaurus for mass co unication has been produced for Une o on the' initiative of the Division ofcommunication Research and Planning Befor describing the way in which it is orgthzed and indicating how it should be used we shall' explain its purpose and Main atures and the procedure followed in p eparing it - 40 Pu-rPOse The thesauqs is a document tion language devised for the purpose o analysing works articles reports and other dochments relatingjo the problems f mass communication accordinito the Particular medium to which they refer: books the press records films radio or tellvision While its main purpóse is to chara terize the information in a sufficiently precise manner to allow post-storage retrieval of the documents containing it it ha the secondarypurpose of enabling queries to be expressed in a form which will Match thq information available Briefly it eits at making both queries and hnsviers explicit so that it will be possible to check from-internal evidence that they actually correspond It will thus enable a specialized information service to fulfil its 4ssion of meeting the needs of its usersin a ition by providing'a valid basis for the exchange of data between documentation systems it-mill allow national or int mational networks to operate in a fully sat* factory corisistentmanner t It ii pririiarily for this purposethat it is required by Unesco The Division of c dmmunication Research and Planning and its Mass Communication Documentation CevItre are indeed the lynch-pin of a ne ork which comprises institutions such as the Asian Mass Conimunication Rtearch and Infdrruation Centre (AMIC) (Singapore) the International Centre for Highe7 Studies in Journalism (Strasbourg) thetentre for MasS Communication Research f the University of Leicegter the International Gentre for Higher Studies in onimilnication for Latin America (CIESPAL) Quito) the NOrdic Dotumentation Centre for Mass Communication Research ORDICOM) with its four national centres (A us TampereBergen Stockholm) and tie Osrodek Badan Prasoznawczyc (Centre for Research into the Press) (Cracow) alicthese bodies process information and wish to exchange it they naturakly feel the need for a common language It is %is language which is presen ed here The resnit of work carried out byall me bers of the rietwork over the last two' years at the prompting of Unesco; it takes the form of an organized collebtion of term selected by agreement in which each user can fmd the key to the information sought whether it is recorded in his own or in elated systems \ -/- Main features -- ' I s I( Thefact that this analytict tool is\ multilingual in character iii' a defirliteadvaniagein: respect Only tl oaerf ' documentationsystems established ho international organizations (Including those actuall eloniing to theuniteci Nations) are based on the use of a single langna e It is argued that the language is used more or leg generaliy and the simplification which results is 'considered sufficient j stification regardless of the fact that thisleadito a distortion-of the message The transition from a naturallanguage to a documentation language which is particularly desirable \in the case of the social sciences and the humanities-where terninology tends to be ambiguous raises enough problems initself without any need to introduce a further constraint into docimeritation practice If for example'a document written in Spanish has to be analysed in Englith there isa risk of distorting Ie information conveyed in the original text and CommuniCation specialists could not fail td be aware of such a risk in a fieldwhich is properly'their own It was for this reason thaf Unesco planned from theolitset to develop the documentation language in English French and Spanish without prejudice to subsequent extensions to 0 ' include other languages In compilirig the thesaurus care was taken'to'avoid giving precedence to any one of the threeflanguages Even though for entirely practical reasons related to the pliblication of the three language versions in a singte volume a certain priority seems to begiven to English which comes first and thus determines the alphabetical order of the list of descriptors' used;'all three languages have in fact been treated in the same way It seemed inadvisable to follow the normal practice for the cornillation of multilingual thesauri which consists in taking as a starting-point a source thesaurus expressed in a base language and deriving from it the number of "target" thesauri corresponding to the number of other language versions that ire needed Such an approach Often results in compounding a certain form of cultural hnperialisrn and by ignoring the specific qualities of each of the natural languages leads to the presentation ill what are then no more an translation language's of depleted versions of the source thesaurus pale reflections which are ctu'ite incapable of con ying the information content in the readily comprehensible form required It was therefore decided to select the descriptors from the outset in each of the languages concemed taking as a basis existing documents in either English French or Spanish; and it Was not'until the terms of most significance in the mass communicationfield had been identified for all three languages that an attempt was made to fmd equivalenabetween them This approach is probably the only one which enables the docuinentation language to be equally and fully revelatory in all its versions the only one which gives a "direct line" to information as received in its original form Another major feature of the thesaurus for mass communication is its compatibility with documentation languages used in related sectors It was all the more im'portant to provide for such compatibility in that a number of these languages are used in Unesco Thus for the choice of ifocabulary and where the same concepts were involved in each case reference was-made ttkthe Unesco Thesaurus being compiled by Jean Aitchison for the Computerized Documentation Service (which has actually e

5 -1 a section on communication and documentation); the Thesaurus for information processing in sociology( i ) piqued for the Department of Soci'al Sciences the Thetaurua published by the International Bureau of Education and a List of descriptors recently prepared at the request of the DivisiOn _of Cultural Development It also seemed useful to refer to the MacrOthesaurus(2) n so l'ar as this is a documentation language common to many internationatorganizations and to the EUDISED multilingual thesaurus forinfonnaiion processing in the field of eclueation(3) recently produced by the Council of Europe Many of the descriptors foundin the present work already figure in these various languages; and we haye been at pains to us ithem here in the same meaning to keep their equivalents in the yarious languages and evento preserve their form It is th s liped to make exchanges easier as between subject fields and4nstitutions: '' Lastlyit seems necessary twstress that the thesaurus for mas*cornmun tion t -es for granted existing achieyements in the data processing field While it can bealised in a documentation centre f the traditional type and does not therefore necessarily involve computrbae d processingit has nevertheless been sp cially designed as an instrument for making-111e bet possible *se of computerizatirm; the o ibilities it provides for the stora ind retrieval of information require the use of a computer if they areto be:exploited to the full The disappointment One enel'ally experiences on looking through a documentation languageisdne to the fact that its semantic capabilities are largeloatent; they are actualized in the crosspattern formed by the descriptors in the interweaving interlock:mg web of their reiationshipsand only a computer can really bring them to the surface: Withits somewhat bald standardization and deliberate fragmentation it is not surprising if a documentation language seerni singularly devoid of the magic generally ascribed to natu4a1 language These qualities give it added precision ancl one has only to start it on the track for whatever purpose and by whatever means is appropriatelor it to reconstitute itself and yield up the information which lies hidden in it 'Compilation / - In compiling the thesaurus several stages Were necessary The first was to determine the subject field kather than fix its limitsjn advance we took into accouna the documentation services involved their field of activity andlkhe s-ubjects dealt with We thus adopted a pragmatic view of th ectors to be illustrtted by an appropriate vocabulary and sought to reconcile different approaches in a spfficiently compre1eqsive whole It'yecarne evident that the technology of mass communication occupied a ifflatiyely minor place in the informatio rocessed by/the members of the network wherep everything relating to the economic:social and cultural context in which the ass media develop or to the communication process its psycho-sociological-fietors and its effects accounted for a major proportion of the whole Most light was accordingly-thrown on the problems in regard to mass communication from the side of the social sciences and the humanities Moreoveic-analysis showed that theocontributions made by these two sectors ought to converge while atilie_same time pointing to the need to relate them more closely to that made by the natural sciences;it ' was in this interdisciplinary field that the first attempt was-made to select descriptors so thatthey would correspond direetly\ \ to research trends The procedure adopted for this second stage was the ultra-empirical one of analysing in each language the docu d ' by the Unesco Mass Communication Documentation Centre examining the vocabulariecurrently in use and see ingequivales between terms The'result was a ilingual list of descriptors comprising botfiluniterms and preco-ordi ited term As alwaypvt*tlei_ telisbiziertt of alist of his kind the chief problem was the levek of prtc-ordination at Whi h to call a halt Withotigbirig tyldetairltcanbiesai that we based Ourselves on tbe2rat most 4/i2delyzadpptecrin jthetablishment Of similar documen tioiilarrgdagespartidularly 'Since CoMpatibility had to be ensutzd with me of them'that!we rejected as descriptors uniterms whose theining tz):111drnottbe: suffitiently attested; and that )ye:stiq rthe gfeatestlbssibleseconomy of -vocabulary breaking down terms such as "film fegtiyald And "music festival" when it wa ssible to use simply "festival" + "film" or + "music" but had to take into account the laws governing the compilation of inultilinguil'thesauh: which as is -well known necessitate a higher degree orpreco-rordination than monolingual thesauri assuming it is desired to preserve equafity between the different versions - In order to limit the votabulary as far as possible the thesaurus purposely does not include the name's yf countries or regions or the titles of international organizations This nomenclature already ezists in and dan easilybe taken over from the thesaurus used by Unesco for processing its own documents the Macrothesaurus and theeudised-multilingual Thesaurus Once the descriptors had been gouped together by subject fields the trilingual list was submitted by Unesco to the members of the netviork and to a number of mass communication specialists who were so kindas to'ëxamine it and present their criticisms and suggestions We hope that inour recastingtof the vocabulary following on the receipt of comments we have accommodated the criticisms exptessed as far as possible; we could not 'always adopt all the suggestions made in some cases because they were incompatible but all were carefully examined the final decision reflecting the vie4 most commonly expressed! In order to kive the language a structure we decided:to confme ourselves to a classification of the descriptors by subject fields even if this meant subsequently revising some of the original groupings To have carried the determination of categories furtlier for example witha view to a faceted thesaurusiopuld have meant taking it for granted that thelanguage stood the test of use which remains-to be seen; there would also have been the risk in a field which lends itself to classification less lb the natural sciences of prematurely crystallizing the vocabulary whereas the whole dynamic trend of the research it is r -1 ( (1) VIETJean Thesaurus for information processing in sociology/thsaurus pour le traitement de l'information en sociologic Paris - The Hague \ Mouton p k k - (2) OECD Development Cenfte Macrothesaurus: a basic list of economic and social development terms (in English French German and Spanish) Paris voliimes1 (3) VIET; Jean (cd) EUDISED Thesaurus multilinguepourle traitemmit de!information en éducation Multilingual thesaurus for information OrocesSing in the field of edumtiorimehrsprachiger Thesaurus zur Informationsersetiliessung id) Bi1dungsbereich Paris - The Hague Mouton volumes Two other volum s Lire being prepare& in Duthh' and Spanish -' 1

6 intended toreflect requires itto developon the other hand it was decided to include the descriptors in a closely woven fabric of interrelationships the being to provide a useful 'instrument for information retrieval and by way of associations open up iq users alternative'search p ssibilities: tiganization of the thesaurus As it results from the oher`ations desc 'bed above the thesaurus comprises two parts The rust arranges the descriptors by su ject fields in an introditctory general scheme (in three language versions) containing several headings each With its own five-figure number The' headings as a whole are dividedinto three groups' Which'are indicated by the first digit': ; group 1 covers communicationand information as such (including telated research) group 2 the mass media-and group 3 the various aspects from which the problerns in regard to theqan be eonsidered Within the groups each heading comprises as many numbered subdivisions as-appeared necessary; forinstance heading30500 "Performing art? is subdivided into etc For ease in identifying he4clings their wordingsonsist$ ()tone two or sometimes three descriptors taken from them' wmch are consideredspecially indidative of their content =i This first pstrt shows the 'relationships between descriptors These are f three kinds: synonymic(or quasi-synonymic) relationshihs hierarchical relationships (from the general to the specific d vice verseand associative relationships (of the "see also" type) Pending the adoption by the International Organization for Standardization of a system of symbols 4c1 for differentlanguages these refationships have been indidated by the code in general use in English: USE and'uf (use for)- for synonymic relations BT (broader term) and NT (narrower term) for hierarchical relations and Rrlelated term) for horizontal relationslt will benotedthit the relations between descriptors are always reciprocal N Tlie ezact meaning to be assigned to certain 'descriptors in documentation usage is spelt out following the symbol SN (sp:ope note) In most cases these are'tehios with a number of meanings or whose semantie content overlaps with the mtaning' II :'orassociated descriptors SNs should not be confused with dictionary definitions; They_presaihe usage and one single' : ugage from among other possible ones taking intdaccount the general organization of the language It would be easy to introduce more of them just as it wolild have been possible to add a 'greater ninnber of synonyms; but this would hardly 'facilitate consultation of the thesaurus*which is already sothewhat complicated by the existence Of the three language versions in one volume Further it was considerenhat' the meaning of the descriptors was Ropnally indicated with sufficient precision by their being entered under a particular facet by their network of interrelationships and by the equivalent terms given in the 'other two languages The second part of the thesauniscontains for each of the language versions an alphabetical list of descriptors which has the three following special features: it contains as many entries for compound descriptors as there are coniponents in the descriptors taking the initial ktter for each component; it refers to the facet number under which each descriptor is included; and it lists synonirms with the cross-referenced descriptors Permutatiqn is generally useful on accountof t*e associations it 4establishes along tht alphabetical axis; the facet 4tference is indispensable for an Underseanding of the descriptor in its context; and the inclusion of synonymt obviates rruitless searching since it records from the outset the descriptor under /---- which the iiformationis to be found *7 It Utilizatio ` Moderation should bexercised however in making use of the apparen t shortcuts afforded by the second part of the thesaurus To use only the alphabeticallist of descriptors for documentary analysis 'would be to overlook the greater part of the possibilities inherent in a properly organized documentation language; it would also not be long before the vocabulary was reduced to what the various analysts had been capable of memorizing If the purpose is as it ought to be to make the indexing as specific aspossible to use descriptors in their prescribed sense and to translate the information into the most suitable form for retrieval on requescreferenbemust be made to the first part of the thesaurus Whatever method of documentary analysis is selected whetker it is:purely a question of indexing or whether an abstract or summary is to be prepared in Which the descriptors will be incorporated in natural language (1) reference should always be made tothe first part; the second is merely intended as an index to lead into it Should the analyst not go directly to the part that constitutesthe thesaurus as such he will very frequently be led to underrate tee documentation language with which he is being provided; he will find in it seeming deficiencies which closer attention would have shown him to be a mistake on his part; and he will propose new terms which will duplicate the existing descriptors It is for this reason that analysts are recommended until such time as they have become thoroughly familiar with the Thesaurus and the documentation language on which it is based to confine themselves in their work to the first part as if the second part did not exist The thesaurus will have to Oe reviewed from time to time in the light of the use being made of it in various languages and 'in various parts of the world A thesaurns is never established once and for all; and this' is especially the case When it is ' concerned as this one is with research tvhich is continually evolving It is doubtless premature to define the various arrangements that would be envisaged for future management (updating and maintenance) of the thesaunis; some such arrangements will have to be made however if the thesaurus is to provide a longterm continuing basis for an exchange of information on mass communication In the social sciences and the humanities there are still relatively few fields in which a documentation language has been tried Out in a systematic manner with documentary analysis performed in several languages in a number of different centres A thesaurus on communication can reasonably be expected tomake a contribution to scientifie communication and it would be a pity if full use were not made of the facilities itprovides in this regard to both research workeii and practicians ida sector which social changes have brought particularly to the fore \ ; (I) in this connexion see the praefice followed iri t c International Labour Office OECD UNILY0 ancl a number of international organizations ' 41t

7 : t r I - ItITRODUCTION ) Ce thesaurus relatif aux communications de masse a ete realise potir l'unesco a l'initiative de la Division de la recherche et ' dela planification en matière de communication Avant de decrire son organisation et d'indiqur son mode d'utilisafion on préciserason objet ses caractéristiquesnmetires et la procedure adoptée pour son elaboration Objet - A 11 s agit a unlangage documentaire collet' pour analyser les ouvragesarticles/rappohs et autres documents qui touchent auxproblemes de la communicationaelo e celle-ci repose sur des moyegde lalge diffusion : le livre la presse le disque le cinéma la radio la télévision Son objet cipal est de situer les informations avec une precision suffisantp'pour autoriser apris stockage le depistage des documents qui lsojjtiennent ; mais il a aussi pour but defournir a ia demarke d'information une ezpression capable de la faire coincidei avec l'offre Il vise; en somme a rendre explicites tout a la faii les réponses a don9ret les qustions poseei de maniere a ce que ron puisse verifier dans les termes mémes qui le composent la réalité de? leur ajustement Par la ll correspond a la possibilite pour un 'service d'information specialise de remplir sa mission en satisfaisant aux besoins de ses utilisateurs Validant l'echange de données entre systemes documentaires0 peut eff outre! procurer a des réseaux disposes a l'échelletalionale ou intemationaleune assise qui maintienne leur cohesion- et'assure leur bon fongtionnemenl i - A C'est a ce titre surtout qu'll est requis par l'unesco La Division de la recherche et de ia planification en latière lise ''' cominunication et le Centre de'documentation des moyeas d'information qui s'y'rattache stmt en effet a l'arigine d'un 1 ' réseau qulcornprend des institutions-telles ue l'asian Mass Communication Research and Information C tre (Singapour) * le Centre Canadien d'information suria RecJier1ie en Communications (OttaC) le Centre de Documentat on en rhatière de 4- Communigations de Masse (Strasbourg) le entro Internacional de EStudjos Superiores de Comunic iön p America Latina (Quito) ltast-west Communication Insti te (Honolulu) l'international Broadcast Institute (clondres e Nordic Documentation Center for Mass Commun ion Research avec ses quatre centres riationaux (Arhus Tampere Bergen - Stockholm) et l'osrodek Badan Prasoznawczych (Celltreele Recherches sur la Presse Cracoyie)Chacun de ces organismes traitant de l'inforrhation et souhaitant l'echangereprouve naturellement la necesilite d'un lingage commun C'est celangage que l'on soumet ici Fruit des efforts engages depuis deux ans sous l'impulsion de l'unesco par tous les membrssdu reseau il se presente comme un ;nsemble orgamse de termes chsciisis d'un commun accordaeu chacun peut trouver lati6 des information's voulua qu'elles soientconsignees dans son propiii systeme ou dans demstemes voisins ttéristiqcipales e-- l' il Le fait q Vagisse Tun instrument d'analyse multilingue rippresente a dt egard un avantage certaintrop Souvent les systemes d Mentaires mis en place par les organisations internationales (et par celles-la meme qui appartiennent aux 1 0 Nations-Unles) ieposent sur l'usage d'une seule langue On e argument d'une certaine generalite de son emploi et l'on se satisfait dela simplification qui en resulte sans voirtoujou que celle-ci aboutit a une distorsion du message 1e passage du lingagenaturel au langage documentaire qui se justifie particulierement dansles sciences sociales et humaines ou la terminologie prete a équivoque` Ouleveen luimême assez de problemes pour qu'il soit superflu d'introduire dans la pratique docume4ptaire une nouvelle contrainte: A prescrire l'analyse par exemple ennlangue anglaise d'un document Wig en langue espagnole on eiee le risque de fausser l'information telle qu'elle est offerte dans Poriginal et les specialistes de la communication dans un damaine qui est le leur ne pouvaient manquer d'être sensibles* pareil danger C'elt pourquoi l'unesco a pr6v1i d'dta ir d'emblee le langage documentaire en anglais en français et en espagnol sans prejudice de developpements futur en d'autres langues En cetteelaboration a soineusement evite de donner terpas a l'une des trois langues sur les deux autre Meme si poor des raisons tout a fait pratiques tenant a la ptiblicationdes trois versions linguistiques en un seul volume on arait accorder quelque primaute a la langue ayglaise qui est premiere citee et Commande ainsi l'ordre alphabetique des descripteurs dans le' plan de l'ouvrage op a en fait reserve aux trois langues le méme traitement Il a semble peu indique de suivre la pratique ordinaire en la constitution de thesauri multilingues qui consiste a partir d'un thesaurus-source redige dans une langue de base pour en &river autant-de thesauri-ciblesqu'il est requ'il de versions en d'autres langues Une telle pratique a souvent our effet de renforcer une certainefomia d'imperialisme culturel et meconnaissant l'existence d'un genie propre 4-chacun s langagesnaturels elle conduit a présefiter dans des langues quisont &ors de simples langues de traduction des versions appauvries du thesaurus-source de pales reflets bien incapables de preter a l'information le relief necessaire a sa saisie Aussi a-t-on tenu a operera l'origine la selection des descripteurs enchacune des langues considerees prenant pour terrain des documents eiistant soit yn anglais soit en français soit en espagnol et c'est seulement apres avoir degage dans ces trois directions les elements du langage les plus significatifs pour le domaine couvert que l'on s'est applique a rechercher entre eux des equivalences Cette maniere de prodder est sans doute la seule qui puisse garder au langage documentaire tout son tranchant dans ses clifferentes versions la ieule qui puisse aller dans le droit fd d'une information ref* dans Sa forme originale One autresaradefistique rnajeure du thesaurus relatif aux communications de masse est -1 compatibillte avec des iangages documentaires operant dans des secteurs voisins II importait d'autant plus de menager cette eompatibilite qu'un certain nombre de ces langages sont utilises a l'unesco Pour le choix du vocabulaire et dans la mesure ou les mollies concepts ' Ix 7

8 7 0 ' 9 etaient impliqued de part et d'aptre on a fait ainsi life' nee au Thesaurus de l' ' \ 9II j ' 9 E CO en Courufelabtu In par)an"- Aitchison poui le Service de Documentation Autom (II comporte en effe4 sectiou relativel I communication t a- la documentatiort) au Thesaurus pour le traiteme de l'information en socio (1 ) etabli pour le D paitement des eiences Sociales au Thesaurus ddite par le Bureau International d'educattne a u Listerie descripteurs que l'on vient de pieplrer a la demande de'la division du Developpement Culture! ll a sem le tile 6 ement de tenir compte du Macrotliesaurus (2) dans la mesure oil celui-ci est un langage documentaire c un a de nombreuses organisaiions interna- tionales et dulatisaurus multilingue EUDISED pour le traitement de l'information en éducation (3) qui vient d:etre produit ; par le Conseil de l'europe Bon nombre des descripteurs que l'on rencontre ici'ont déjà tativ6place en ces divers langages : on s'est e1thrcé de lett conserver la méme signification de maintenir leurs equivalences linguis i ues de eseryteriusqu'a leur forme Aink espere-t-on de domaine a cloinaine d'institution S institution faciliter les e1anges - Enfm il semble 4cessaire de soungner que le thesaurus Jelatif aux commvications de mass table s les performances acquises en informatique Susceptible d'etretutilise dans tin centre de documentatiop de typetraditionnel et n'exigeant donc pas l'automation dii traitement documentaire il a neanmoins étespécialement conçu pour cpji l'on 210'sse; a travers fui; tirer le meilleur partidu traiternerd electronique des donnees ; les possibilites qu'il offre quant a sioekage et Ir au depistage des mformations requierent pour etre pleinernent exploitees futilisation d'un ordinateur L'insatisfactiOn que l'on eprouve communement a parcourir un langage docuthentaire tient au fait que sop pouvoird'expression est pour une bonne part virtue! ; dest acquis dansbntersectiofi des descrip s dans le tissu de ts relations dan les ponts que celles-ci jettent de facette a facette--el la machine seule peut 11 mett ellement en evide ce Que l'ori ne s'e mine pas si le langage docupientaire en sa normalisation uupeu seche et en sa fragrne ation voulue parait ingulierement dep urvu des\prestiges que l'on accorde genereusement au langage nature! II y gagne en p ecision et il suffit de le mettre en ceuv dans l'interfogationpoucqu'il se recompose au gie des strategies de rdcherche et livre les données prises en ses filets J 1 Elaboration Pour felaborer or a(111 parcourir plusieurs etapes Li premiere a tendu a determiner le dolnaineplutot que d'en fixer les limites a priori on a tenu compte des enireprises umentairesmises en cause du champ ou s'exerce leur activite des themes qu'ejles exploitent On a pris de la sprte urie vu pragmatique des secteurs a illustrer par un vocabularre apprdprie effon s'est rforce de concilier des approches différentes dans un ensemble suffisarnment comprehena Il est apparu que la teehnologie des c'ommunications de masse tenait relativement peu de Place dans les inforrnatiolits traitees par les membres du reseau ; en revanche tout ce qui ressortissaiteau cadre economique social et culturel ou elles se developpent tout ce qui totichait au processus de la communicatio a ses facteurs psycho-sociologiques et ases etfets revétait une particuliere importance La problematique des conutunications4e:1 masse trouvait ainsi son meilleur relief du côte des sciences sociales et immaines ; tile manifestait la necessite de 16ur convergence tout en poussant 41eur rapprochement avec les sciences exactet et naturelles ; c'est dans ce champ interdisciplinaire que fun a d'abord entrepris de selectionner les descripteurs pour difectement corresp4idre aux tendances de la recherche cette seconde etapeori a procede de la maniere la plus empiaque analysant dans cheque langue les documents reunis / au Centre de documentation des moyens d'information de l'unesco prpcédant a l'eamen 'des vocabulaires en usage rechirchantles equivalences entre les termed On a dela sorte cibtenujine liste trilingue de descripteurscomposée a la fois d'unitermes et de termesprecoordonnes:cornme toujours en fetablissement d' ne'telle liste c'est e niveau de precoordcation auquel s'arreter qui asurtout fait prctbleme Sans entrerdans le detailo que fon?est fond6 sur l'usage le plus habituefen fetablipement de langages d cumentaires analogues d tan s qu'il convenait deritfnager la compatibili 6 avec tertains d'entre eux ; que Pon s'est refuse a prendre pour descripteurs des'uni ermes dont le sens ne pouvait etre suffisanment aver6 ; que l'on a tendu a la plus grande econornie de vocabulaire dissociant des expressions telles que"festival d cipeni " et "festival de musique" quandil keit possible d'avoir simplement "festival" + "cinema" ou +1"rnusique" ; mais clue l'on a da tenir compte des lois propres a la eonstitutiorge thesauri multilingues lemultilinguismeentrainant cornme on suit une certaine inflarion des precoordinations des que l'on veut rnaintenir l'egalite des diffetentes versions 'Afin d'eater fencombrement du vocabulaire on a renonce a mentionner dans le thesaurus les noms dejakytou de regions dememe que les intitules d'organisations internationales La nornenclature figure deja dans le thesaurus utilise par l'unesco p le traiternent de ses propresdocuments dans le Macrothesaurus et dans le Thesaurus Multilingue EUDiSED ; ii gt facile de la reprendre Apres regrovement des descripteursparthemes la liste triliusue a ete soumise par l'unesco aux membres clu reseau qui ont bien vouluts xaminer la critiquer et presenter a son propos leurs sitggestiops On espere datirrla nfonte du vdeabulaire qui a suili la reception des lsommentaires avdif tenu le plus grand compte des Critiques formulees ; lei suggestions faitesde divers cotesn'ont piktoujoursetre acceptees faute parfbis d'avoir ete compatibles mais on les a toutes examinees albc soin pour finalement tranchd dans le sens indique le plus frequemment Pour structurer le langage on a cru bon de s'en tenir a la repartition des descripteurs par themei quitte a revenir sur certains regroupements operes tout d'abord A pousser plus loin la determination de categories dans la perspective par exemple dtun thesaurus'a facettes on auralt donnepour acquise l'epreuve du lafigage qui reste a faire ; on aurait aussi ckrule risque dans un domaine qui prete moinsa classification q celui des sciences exactes et naturelles de figer prematurement le vocabulaire - (1) VIET Jean Thesaurus for information processing in sociology / Thesaurus pour le tiaitemiit de l'information en sociotogie Paris - La Haye Mouton p: r (2) Liste de descripteurs dn maticrc de developpement conomique et sodial publiée en anglaisfrancais alleinand et espagnol par l'ocde Paris volumes (3) VIET Jean (ed) EUDfSED Thesaurus multilinglie popr le traitetnen'i de l'information en education [Multilinguarthesaiirus for information processing in the field of education / Mehrsprachiger Thesaurus zur Informations-erschliessung im Bildungsbereich paris - La Ilaye Mouton volumes Deux nutres volumes en espagnol even neerlandais sont enpreparation

9 / quarid le' mouvement méme desirecherches qu'ivdoit traddre le palliasse a évoluer Enrevanche 'on a choisi d'inarireles 1 a descrippurs dans un tissu send de relations; soucieux de fournir im bon appui au dépistres informations et dvrir7par Irbiais des aisociations de nthivellavoies de recherche atiy; dernandeuri' Organisatioh du theskumis 1% Au terme de ces opeistions; le theiadrus tel qu'il se 'firesente comgrend deux parties 111 premiere ordonhe VS deseripteurkpar themes dans 'um pladgeoral place toil( au debut en trois versions linguistiqiies et Contenant plusieurs rubriques'doteeschacune crannombre a Cinv Aiffrei Vens6"mble de ces rubriques se partage en trois groupes selon le chiffre initial : 1-s ': ; le groupe 1 conceme la communication etrinformation comme -!-telles(avec larecherche'dont elles sofit r objet)le groupe 2 les moyerisde communication'de IllasSe et le groupe 3 les divers `aspeets de leur problématiqueal'interieur "des groupes chaque rubrique comporteautant de subdivisions chiffrées qu'irk paru nécessaire -;Jainsi la rubilque "Arts 'du spectacle" est-elle subdivisee en etc Pour facillte 4 1'identifièathrndesrubriques ok leur a donne pdur intitule un ou Oeux qnelquefois trois docripteurs prélevés dansych u e d'e et juges particuherenni significatifs de teur contenti: -( /Dans cette premiere partie figurent les relations entre descripteurs Elles sont de finis Ordres: relafions de synonymie (Ii Ile quasi-synonymie); relations hierarchiques (de générique a specifique ek inversement) relations de voisinage (du type "voir aussi") En attendant qu'une symbolisation valable en différentes langue ait eté adopae par l'organisation internetionale de normalisation on a precise ces relations selon le code admis generale ent en latkue anglaise : USE et UF (use for) pourles relations de synonymielit (broader tent = terme generique) et NT (n wer term = ternirspecifique) pour les '-/ relations hietarchiques et RT (related teem = terme FAO:Pour les relations a I hckionta1e On notera que les relonsjentre i qux descripidurs sonftoujours reciproques ' Le sens qu'ircanuic-in--de preter a quelques descripteurs dans l'u age docufnentaireest explicité a la suite du Ogle SN ' (scope rioy 11 s'agit le plussouvent de termes multivoques ou de termes dont les conteflus seinantiq- ties recoupent racceptation de descripteurs voisins Les SN ne sadraieht etreslirtukues avec des definitions telles qu'en présentent les clictionnaires ; elles ptescrivent un usage et un seal parnii d'autres qui sont possibles enttnant coinpte de l'organisation generale du langage On pourrait aisement les multiplier de meme que l'on aurait puintroduire dans le langlge un hombre plus élevé de synonymes ; irtois la tnsultation du thesaurum quelque ped compliliuée déja par la presence des-troig versions linguistiques en nn meme volume n'en serait guerefacilitef Au demeurantiloa senitke que lesens des descripteurs étaient *iirdrordinaire stiffisamment precise/par leur inscription dansune facette donnée pal- le réseau de leurs relations eteur les equivalences qu'ils tronvaient dans les deux autres lortglio La seconde-partie du thesaurus offre en chacune des sersionmk'mguistiques une liste alphabetique des'descripteurs qui preiente trots particularités : elle cite les descripteurstoinposés autantde fois qu'ils comportent d'elenlents en se fondant sur la lettreinitialcodes composants ; elle fait reference au numéro de facette on chaque descripteur est inscat ; elle mentionneles synonyrnes avec les descripteurs auxquels ils rerivoient LS liste permutde est genéralement utile en raison des rapprochernents qu'elle ménage au long de'raxe 41phabetique : le report A la fazette est indispensable si l'on souhaite apprehender le descriptan clans son contexte :1a-mention des synonymes évite de vaines recherches-en consignant d'emblée le descripteur sur lequel est bloquée rinformation # - 1 ) Utilisatipn ( c? Les facilites que procine cote sqconde partie du thesaurusdoivent toutefois etre utilisees avec moderation0a se servir uniquement de la liste alphabetique desdescfipteurs pour l'analyse documentaite on negligerait la plupart des possibilités offertes par un lahgage documentaire ddment orgase ; on aurait tot fai ussi de réduirele vocabulaire a la capacite de mémoiie des différents analystes Si roil veut comme il se doit coriduire ex ion au niveau le plus specifique utiliser leskt descnpfeurs dans l'acceptation prescrite traduire rinformation par les ternies les plus'aptes a fa restituer sur demande il est liecessaire de s'établir en la premiere partie du thesiurns Quelle que soit la meitliode choisiepour analyier lesdoeuments que l'on se borne a une simple indexation ou que l'on opte Our un résumé indicant' on les descnpteurs sont coulés dans lelangage naturel (1) c'est toujours a cette premieresartie qieil convient de se référer ; la seconcle a seulement ponr objet d'y introduire elle est la pour luiservir d'index Faute d'aller droit a la partie qui constitue a propsement parler le thesaurus ranalyste sera nes souvent pone a deprecierle langage documentaire qui lui est fourni ; iry verra des insuffisarmes qu'une meilleure attention lui aurait permis de corriger ; il proposera de nouveaux termes faisant doublumploi avec les descripteurs Choisis C'est pourquoi on recornmandé en periode de fonfiation et tout je temps que durera l'itiation au langage documentaire de fonder la pratique de ranalyse sur la premiere partie en faisant domme si la seconde n'existait pas De rutilisation qui sera faite du thesaurus en différentes langues et en divers points du monde il faudra de terrips a autre tirer lecon Un thesaurus n'est jani4s donne une fois pour toutes mais l'exigence de le remettre sur le metier est vraiment irnperieuse quand il s'ordonne commeceli4cc17 a une recherehe en tuelle evolution Sans doute est-il trop tot pour &ruin lei perspectives d'une gestioh ue ; ericbreest-il nkessaire de la prévoir i l'qn veut que le thesatirus fonde a long terme réchange des informations relativ s am?: cornthunications`de masse Ertsciendes sociales et humaines il est encore assez peu de dom od 'on ait expérimenté un langage docum taire de façon suivie et pwcedd en plusieurs langues a des operations déco isées d'analyse documentaire11 est-somme toute normal qu'un thesaurus sur la ainmuniation conteibde a lacommu cation sciemtifique:11 serait dommage queles r(ossibilités d'échange qu'il offre aux cher' euii comme aux praticiens dans un secteur mis particulièrement en evidencespar le changement social fie soientwas pleine ent exploitees -? \ r ' $ 'S (I)VOir a cet égard le proe'éde-en usage au Bureau I h terriationai du TiavaiI a I'OCDE a t'onudiet dans rioulbre dtorganisations internationales I 1 XI 9 A

10 INTRODUCCIOF c - El pre1te tesatiro relativo a la comurucación colecti ha sido confeccionado por la Uriesco a jniciativa de la DiVisiOn de ;InVestigacion y Po Micas de la ComunicaciOn Antes pasar a deseribir su organización y de indicar el modd de utilizarlo se precisara su objeto'sus caracteristicas principales el procedimiehto seguido en-su etaboracion Objeto - Se trate de un lenguaje documental concebido para analizar las obras articulos ormes y otros documentos gem se refieren a los problemas de la comunicación en la medida en que ésta se baseen ls grandemedios de difusion : el libro la prensa el - disco el ciqe la radio la televisión Su objeto principal es situar lasinformaciones con la precision suficiente pare que después de almacenaaos se puedan volver a encontrarzlos documehtos quelas contienen Pero se propone asirnismo propor cionar a la demanda de informacion una forma de expresion capaz de 1cer1a oincidir con la oferta Tiende en sama a hacer explicitas a la vez las respuestas que han de darse y las preguntas planteadas d rnodo que sp puede comprobar la realidad de su ajuste eelos propios'terminos que lo comporien Por ello responde a laicosi ilidad que unoservicio especialiiado de informacion cumpla su misión satisfaciendo las necesidades de suspsuarios Hacien o vilido el intercarnbio de datos entre "- *sistemas dicumentales puede también proporcionara redes organizadas a escala nacional o internacional una base que mantenga su cohesienry asegure su buen funcionamiento 4 Unesco là precisa sobre todo en qteraspecto La División de Inmstigación y Polrticas de la Comunicación y el Centro de Docurnentación de los Medios de Ihfiorrnacion adscrito a la mime eltan'tn efecto al origen detina rpd que omprende el momento instituciones eomo la AsiarrMass Communication Research and Information Centre -AMIC- (Singapur) el Centre Interndtionar d'enseignement Superieur du Joumalisme (Estrasburgo) el CIntre for Mass COmmunication Research' Unive6idad de Leicester el Centro Internacional de Estudioa Surkriores de 14omunicaciOn pare America Latina -CIESPAL2 (trith)-el Nordic Documentation Center (or Mass Communicatidn Research -NORDICOM- con sus cuatro centros; naciiiiiales (Arhus Tampere Bergen Estocolmo) y el Osrodek Badan PrasoznArczycli (Centro de Inifestigaciones sobre la Prensa Cracovia)Cada uno' de estos organisinos que tratan infomiación y desean el intercambio de éstaexperimenta naturalniente la necesidadde lin leniguaje comon / ) Y es ese fenguaje el que se presenta aqui Fruto de los esfilerzos aportados desde hace dos afios con el estimulo de la Unesco por todos los miemdros de la red se presenta coma un conjunto organizado de terminos seleccionados de otantin! acuerdo en el que todos pueden encontrar la clue de las informaciones desead* ya estén consignadas en su propiotistema o en sistemas dines ; Carirteristicas principales i/l El hecho de quebse trate de un instrumento de analisis plurilingfie constituye a este respecto una clara ventaja Los sistemas documentales estalecidos por las orgastizaciones internacionales(e incluso las que pertenecen a las Naciones Unidas) se basan con excesiva frecuencia en el empleo dyfltio idioma Se esgrime dmio argumento pna cierta generalidad que va aneja a este empleo y se acepta de buen grado la Sjificacion que de ello results sin percaterse sin embargo de que esta se traduce en uria It distorsión del mensaje El paso del lenguaje natural al lenguaje documental especialinente justifisado en las ciencias sociales Sr fiumanklades en las que la tegninologia se presta a equivocos plantea por si milno bastantes'problernas porlo que hay que evitar gue se introiluzca en la Practice documental una nueva res/triccion Par ejemplo dedisponer el analisis en inglés de un documento redactado en espil se corre el riesgo defaisear la informacian tal como se ofrece-eh el originaly los especialistas de ta comunicacióa en una era que es la suya no podian dejar de apercibirse de semejante peligro Porello liunesco ha i deeidido establecerdesde un principio el lenguaje documental en espafidi en francea y en ingles sin perjlecio de aplicar otras lenguas en el faturcr -- - t Ertel procekt de elaboración se ha evitado cuidadosamente \ conceder prefereneia a unasle las tres lenguas sobre las otras --- et dos Aun cuan* por razones de caricteraftiramente practico relacionadas cons publicacion de las tres versiones lingii islicas en un sblo voltimen parece que "ae oiorga una cierta primacia a la lengua inglesa-que es Ja citada in primer luar y rip' asi el orden alfabetico de los desfriptores en el plan de la obra en realidad se ha dispensado el mismo tratamien las tres lenguas Se ha estimado peco conveniente el sistema ordinario seguido en la elaboracionxif Osauros plurilingii que consiste en partir de un tesauro de origen redactodo en una lengua debase para deducir de date tantos tesauros de 4eino corno versiones se necesiten en otras lenguas Este sistema se traduce frecuenterdente en la intensificacion de una ci rta forma de impefialismo cultural ya1 desconocer la existencia del genio propio de cada una de las lenguas naturales conduce a presentar en lenguas que constituyert entonces s' pies lenguas de traducción versiones empobrecidas del tesauro de origen palidos reflejos bien incayaces de prestar a la inf acaón el relieve indispensable pata su compredsión Por ello se ha procurado efectuar ya desde un principio la selecc n de los descriptores en cada una ae las lenguas consideradastomando como base documentos existentes ya sea en inglés en trances o en espaiiol y solo después de haber establecido en estas tres direcciones los elementos del lenguaje mas significativos pare la materia de que se trate se ha iniciado la blisqueda de equivalencies entre ellos Este modo de procedea es sin chide et Orlin que puede c6nservar al lenguaje documentaltoda su fuerza ensus diferentes versiones el anico que pueda seguir el curso autenticade una información recibida ensti forma original xm

11 /r ' btrade las principales catacteristicas del tesauro relativo a la comunicación colectiya es su tihilidait con los lengqajes documeniales utilizados en sectores conexoslograr esa compatibitidad 9ra tanto mils- ante cu to que enia Unesco se 1 utalfian Ihrios de esos lenguajes De este mock' en ta selecciondel Vocabularioy en la medida en que se tratttba de jcigmismos conceptogde-una y de otra parte se ha hech21 referencia al Thesaurys de la Unesco en curso de elaboracia Ptir JUAitchii-On para el Seivicio Autornatico de DocumentacTon çque contiene efectivamente una secci6n relativaala-coraunieiclody a la documentaci6n) al Tbetaurus pour le traitemen de l'informhtion en sociologie (1) preparaddpara elllepattarifento de :t Ciencias-Socialps 41 Thesaurus edittado por la Ofi ina Inteinaciontrde Educación y anna Liiikde deseriptores que se ata1iba4e confeccionar aipetici6n de Ta Division de Dearrollo Cuitural:Se ha éstimado también oonveniente tyner en cuentael " "" Ma thesatuus' (2) en la medida en que este Constituy1 un lenguaje documental comnn a muchas organitaciones in ternaciot: nales I Thesaurus multilingue EUDIS*P pour le timment deinformation en éducation (3) que<acabrkdeechtarel instituciónȯ Con jo de EuroPa:Ungran nnmeto de los descriptores que se encuentran en'el'presente tesauro figuran ya enesos diveros lengnajes Se ha tratado con toda interés de conservarles la tnisma significacion de mantener sus equivalenciaslingiiisticas _ inclusdde conservar su fdn-na De es modo te espera facilitar los ihtercambios de campo a campo de institucion a \ r*por 6ltunoiparece preciso in ar que en el tesauro relativo a la comunicticion colectiva se tienen en cuenta los logros alcanzados en informatica Se puede ittilizar en un centro de documentacion de tipo tradicional y no exige por consiguiente -la auteimatizacion del tratarniento documental; sin embargo se ha contebido especialmente para que merced a su utiljzación se pueda satiar el mejor partido posible del tratamiento electronico de los datos Las posibilidades que ofrece'en cuanto a almacenamienio y recuperaci6n de las informacionesrequjeren elethpleo de una calculadora para supleno aprovechamiento LainsatisKcion que se experimenta de ordinario al examinar un lengtraje documental obedece a que su podortle expresion es en bvnaipaite virtual Ese poder radica en la interseccion de losdescriptores en la itarna de sus relaciones en los puentes que 6stas tienden entre distintas facetas o conceptos hindarnentalts y solo la miquina puede ponerlo realmente en evidencia No es de traiiar que el lenguaje doeuniental; en s6 normalización untanto arida y en su fragmentacion deliberada aparezca 1 singulaiiente desprovisto de los atractivos con que'se orna generosamenteel lenguaje natural Pero con 'ello gana en precisi6n y asta c n aplicarlo-a la pregunta formutada para que se recomponga Merced a las estrategias de h6squeda y surninistre los d tosapr sionados en sus redes: 0 Elahnración 1 II' ii t'ara elaborai el presente tesauro ha sido menester recorrer varias etapas ( En la-primera se ha tratado de determinar su ambito/en vez de fijar los limites a priori se hantenidoen cuenta las actividades docpmentales deque se trata; el campo er/quer éstas se desarrollan Ins temas por ellas explotados De esta forma 'se ha adquirido una vision pragmaticade los sectores que ban de ilustrarse_con un vocabuldrio apropiado y se hatratadode Conciliar enfoques diferentes en uni:onjunto suficiontemente general j-la quedado de manifiesto que la tecvlogia de la ' comunicación social ocupaba relativamente poco lugar en las informaciovs tratadas por los miembros de la red Encambio / revestia especial importarrcia todo cuantosereferia mtirco economic social y cultural en que la misma se desarrolla todo cuanto afectaba al proces de lacomunicaci6n s factores'psicosociologicos y a sus efectos Asi puet la problematica de lacomunicacion social encontraba mejor trazado su relieve más marcacili en las ciencias sociales y en humanidades y manifestaba la necesidad de la convergencia de estas tendiendo asu acercamiento a las c' cias exactas y natirrales Ha Sido en este campointerdisciplinario donde se ha emp(eirdido en p?trner tormitio n selec "n de los descriptores a fin de ajustarse directarnente a las tendencias de la investigación En esta segunda etapa se ha rocedido dtrmodo Más empirico analizando en crada lengua los documentos reunidos en el entro de DocuMentación de lo Medios de InforrnaciOn de la Unesco efeettrando el examen de los vocabularios al uso y buscando kits equivalencias entre los terminosfie esta forma se obtuvo una lista irilingde de descriptorescompuesta a la vez de te inás-unitarios y de terminos preciiordinados: Corilo'sucede siempre quo se establece Una lista de este génerocl prob ema principal con que se tropezo fue el nivel de precoordinaci6n al que procedia detenerse Sin-entrar en detalles se indicard que se adopt6 como base eluso m s habitual en el establecimientodelenguajes documentales andlogos tanto mis cuan o que convenia lograr la compatibir adicon algunos de éstos; que se desecharon corno descriptores aquellos terminos - unitatios euyo sentido no podia determifiarse de un modo suficiente; que se tendió a la maxima economia de vocabulario disoeiando expresiones como "festival de cine" y "festival de mnsica" cuando existia la posibiliiad de decir simplemente "festival" + "cine" d+ "musica"; pero que hubo que tener en cuenta las leyes propiasdel establecimiento de tesauros plurilingdes yaique el pluriiingdismo entraria como es sabido una ciernflacion de las precoordinacimes desde el mornento en que se desda mantener la ivaldad de las distintas versiones A fin de evitar la proliferacion del vocabulatio st prefiriel omitir en el tesauro los nombres de paises o de regionesasi como los titulos de las organizaciones'internacionalesesta nomenclatura figura ya en el tesauro utilizado por la Unesco para el tratamiento de susiiropios documentos en el Macr4thesaurus y en el Thesaurus muitilingue EUDISED 'en los clue es facil de - encontrar Despuds de reagrupados los descriptores por tema s la Unesco piesent6 la lista trilingüe a los miembios de la red y a diferentes especialistas en materia de comunicacián social que han tenido a bien examinarla criticarla y presentar SUS' sugestiones al respecto (1)VIE1' Jean Thesaurus for information processing in socology/thesautus pour le traitement-de Pinformation en sociologie Paris - La Haya Mouton p r (Z) Lista de descrlptores en Materia de desarrollo económieo y selcial publicada en inglés trances alemin y espafrol por la COCDE Parrs volumenes (3) VIET jean (ecl) EUDISED Thesaurus multihngue pour le traitement de ['information en MueationMultiiingual thesaurus for information processing in the field of educgion/mehrsprachiger Thesaurtis zur Infolmationqrsehliessung im Bildungsbereieh/aris - La I laya Mouton vaiimenes Se hallan en prepalacion otros dos-volumenes en l'ispaito1; en neerlandés 5erv 1 1

12 1 En la tefitndición del vocabdario practicada a raiz de recibirse los Comentarios;se espe a haber tenido presentes las diticas l'ormuladas en lamayor medida posible Las sugestiones hechas por diversas partes no hanlpddido aceptarse siempre eh ocasioneslior ser incompatibles pero se han examinado todas con cuidado para decidir finbnente en favor del sentido v indicadp con mayor frecuenciaf I Para-estructurar el lenguaje se estimh acertado atenerse a la distribuciim de 144sclescriptores Por temas; a reserwa de -rechnsiderar ciertas reagrupaciones efectutadas en un principiosi se hutiera procedido más a fondo en cuanto a la -determinación de categorlasilegando por ejemploa un tesauro facetado se habrfa dadivioi supuesta la prueba del lenguaje que t queda por efectuar Se hubiera corrido tambj t: el riesgo en una ofera que sepresta AienOsett Ikplasificac16n quqas ciencias exactas ynaturales de estereqtipar prern ramente el vocabulario cuandy el propio movimiento de:lat investigaciones que el mismo tesauro debe traducir le irnpulsa a-evolucidnai En carnbio se ha prefexido imscribir los descriptores en una tupida red& relationts- a tmde contar con una buena base para la recuperacicin de las infprmaciones y de abrir a los peticionarios * por el ewe de iis asociaciorips nuevas viis de investigacian - Otganitacioa del teiluto Al ifrmino de estas operaciones e'l tesauro tal como se presenta consta de os panes' En la Printera se otdenan los 'descriptores pox- temas dentro de un 'plan ge ral qiie figura en primer lugar en tres versiones " lingiiisticary qiie contien9diversas Mbricas dotada cada una de un framer de cinco cifras El co junto de esas nlbricas Se divide' en tres grupos con arreglogo la cifra inicial : J 2 3 ; el grupo 1 se refiere a comunicacion y la - informacion como tales (con la investigaciön de que son objeto) el grupo 2 a los medios de comunicacion colectiva y el grupo 3 a los divert osaspectos de su problematicadentro de los grupos cada nibrica contiene tantas subdivisiones cifradas como se ha estimatio ntasario Asi por ejemplo la:tubrica "Artes deldpecticulo" se subdivide en ; etc Para facilitaildidentificacion de las Mbricas se les ha dado como_titulo uno o dos y en ocasiones tres descriptorei ' : seleccicittadoi en cada una Ve ellas y estimados como particularmente sivificativos de su contenido En etta primera parte figuran las relaciones entre descriptoresqugsorfaf tres Ordenes: relaciones*de sinonimia (o dt cuasi sinonimia) relaciones jerarquicas (de generico a especifico y a la irivdsa) rtlaciones de proxiihidad (del toipa"vease también") En espera de que la Organizacion Internacional tle Normalizacieur adopte un'a simbolizaciem valida para diferentes idipmas se han precfsado estas relaciones con arregjo a la clavi generalmenke'admitida elhingles: USE y UF (u e for)paralas' 'ones disinonimia BT (broader term = termirio generica) y NT (narrower term =- tdothno especifico) p ra las relaciono jefáruias y RT (related terra= termino refacionado) para las relacimines en ntido horizontal Es de advertir que las relacionesentre dos descriptores son siempre reciprocas El sentido que conviene dar a algunos descriptoxes en el uso'documental s explica a pontinuación de la sigla SN (seope note) En general se tratade térininos'multivocos'o de terminbs cuyos coil hidos sernirrticoscoiniidtn con la acepcion de descriptöres conexqsno hay que confundir las SNcon'deftniciones corno Tas que figuran gn los diccionarios; aquellas presffliben un uso Y uno sélo entre los varios Kibles teniendh en-cuenla ta organizacitm general del lenguaje Seriaficil 'multiplicarlas del mismo modo que hubiera podido Introdutiiie euellenguaje un nimero mayor de sinónimns pero la c`onsulta-del tesauro ya alga cornplicada a causa de la presencia dp la/ tres versives lingilisticas en urmnismo volunten no hubier2 facillitado aonas Co-rho quiera que sea se ha eshmado queen'general el sentido de los descriptores quedaba 7 suficientemente precisado por'su inscripcion en air' -faceta'deterthinaufa-inerced a la red de sus relaciones y a las equivalericias ;que figuraban en las otras dos lenguast 1 ' La segunda parte del tesauro conthe en cada una'de las versiones lingilisticas; una lista alfabetica de los descriptores que ofrece tres peculiaridades: basindosefen la letra inicial de locomponentes cite los descriptores corhpuestos tantas vepes corno elementos contienerrihace referencia al ruimero de faceta en que esti inscrito cada descriptor; menciona lopinn imus:con los descripibres a que se remiten La lista permutada es de utilidad general por las aproximaiiones que permite a 0 largo del ' eje alfabético; la referencia a la faceta es indispensable sise desea captar1 sehtido del descnptoren susontexto; la mencion de los-sinimimos evilta bisquedas inirtiles al consignar de entrada el desch toc en7que esti insc_rj111a informacion r Utffizaciôn s l Las facoidades que permite esta segunda parte del tesauro hay que utilizarlas no obstante con moderaciim Caso 4puti1izar exclusixamente laiieta alfabetica de descriptorei para el analisis documental se desperdiciaria la Mayor parte de las posibilitlades que ofrec n len aje documental clebidamente organizado y no se tardaria tampocq qt reducir el vocabulaiiesa la cipacidad de memoria *ferentes apalistas Si como se'debe se desea llevar la indizacion alnhtelmas especifico utilizax IA descriptoreren la acepción prescrita traducir la hiformacion mediante los-terminos mag apropiados para recuperarlaicuando sepida es preciso utilizar la primeruarte tl el tesauro Sea cual fuere el método escogido para analizar los documentos yg selimite /: a una simple indizacit5n o se optipor un resumen indidativo en el que los descriptores se vrertan al lenguaje natulal (I) conviene siemprgoreterirsei es nera parte; El inicci objeto de la segunda es servir de introducción y figura en eltesauro en calidad de indice_si no se dir e threctamente i la parte que constituye el tesauro propiarnente dicho el anilisis se vera inducido con frecuencia a menospreciar el lenguaje' :documental que se pone a-su alconce:ya que vera en it insuficiencias que una mas detenida atención le hubiera permitido corregir y-propondra nulvos tgi-minosquesupondripha repetición de los descript9res seleccionados Poi ello se regomienda que hurante el periodo de formacion y todo el tiempo que se prolongue la iniciación -eil el lenguaje documén talse base la pr4tica del analisis en la phmeraparteomo si no existiese la segunda : : J 9 a (I)_Véaserctc respeeto el proeedirniento clue se utiliza en la Oficina Internaienaldel Trabajo en la OCDE en organizationis internacionales_ 71 <-xv 12 f- ONUDI y en otras numerosas J

13 De la utilizacibn gm' se hagadel tesauro en las diferentes lenguas y en los diferentes puntos del mundo convendri sacar de vez Pri cuando las lecciones oportunas Un tesauro no se establece nunca de und manpra definitiva ahora bien la necesidad de -Tondo al dia se liace verdaderamente imperiosa cuando como este se destina a una investigacion en perpetua evolucion Inaudablemente s demasiado pronto para defmir las perspectivas de uria gestiön continua pero es necesario preverla si se desea que el tesauro sirva de base a largo ptazo alintercambio de las informaciones retativas a là comunicación colectiva En ciehciassdciales y en humanidades son anti demasiado escasos los campos de aotividaden Clue se haya experimentado un lenguaje documental de una manera piolongada y se ha procedido en diferentes idiomas a operaciones descentralizadas docurnentalfin suma lonormal es que un tesauto sobre la comunicaciew contribnya a la comunicación cientifica Seria lamentabletque no se aprovecharan plenarnente las posibilidades de intercambio title ofrece tanto al' investigador cbmo - al usuario practi* en un sector que elcambiosocial pqn`e tspeciarmente de realce ' a t Jp xv1 13

14 PART / PREMIERE PARTIE / PRIMERA PARTE DESCRIPTORS BY SUBJECT FIELDS ' DESCRIPTEJRS PAR T1EMES DESCRIPTORES AGRUP OSSEGUN SU SIGNIFICACION 1 4

15 15 Subject egory f d" 600 COMMUNICATION INFORMATION COMMUNICATION COMMUNICATION STRU6TURE MESSAGE:STRUCTURE CODE LANGUAGE INFORMATION NEWS COMMUNICATION PROCEI'S INFORMATION EXCHANGE AUDIENCE INFORMATION USE' COMMUNICATION RESEARCH MEDIA MASSMEDIA 26200: COMMUNICATION INDUSTRY PRINT MEDIA yrini MEDIA BOOS PRESS f PHOTOGRAPHY ilecord CINEMA FILM INDUSTRY FILM FILM MAKErt FILMOLOGY TELECOMMUNICATION TELECOMMUNICATION INDUSTRY POSTAL SERVICE TELEGRAPH TELEpHONE TELPHOTOGRAPHY RA6IG TELEVISION a0000 'ARTISTIC ASPECT ART : FINE ARTS LtTERATURE MUSIC PERFORMING ARTS CULTURAL ASPECT CULTURE CULTURAL DIFFERENTIATION CULTURAL HERITAGE CULTURAL CHANGE ' CULTURAL poucy

16 32000 ECONOMIC ASPECT ECONOMICS OF COMMUNICKTION' ECONOMIC CONDITIONS E'd6NOMIC POLICY FINANCIAL ASPECT AGRrCULTURE INDUSTRY TRANSPORT COMMERCE MARKET MARKETING \ EDUCATIONAL ASPECT EDUPATION EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION CURRICULUM TEACHING''METHOD f LEGAL ASPECT LA147' LEGISLATION AccEss TO INFORMATION hvil RIGHTS COMMUNICATION CONTROL PRIVACY LEGAL PROTECTION ;34500 INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY COPYRIGHT TOLITICAL'ASPECT PQLITICS POLITICAL SYSTEM POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR POLITICAL IDEOLOGY INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS' PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPEcT COMMUNICATION PSYCHOLOGY PERCEPTION 363&) LEARNING MENTAL DEVELOPMENT PERSONALITY BEHAVIOUR OPINION F> SOCIAL ASPECT SOCIETY SOCIAL STRUCTURE SOCIAL CONTROL SOCIALIZATION SOCIAL CHANGEHISTORY SOCIAL POLICY POPULATION ENVIRONMENT HEALTH '37800 RURAL URBAN LABOUR LEISURE 16

17 3 000 TECHNICAL ASPECT ENGINEERING TEC-HNOLOGY \38200 EQUIPMENT ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRONICS CAMERA YILMING-PROJECTION \38500 SOUND \38600 TECHNICAL-PERSONNEL

18 20100 Stucture de1a iste 18 popo CO:s;NUNICATION INFORMATIOX 'COMMUNICATION STRUCTURE DE COMMUNICATI6N STRUCTURE DU MESSAGE CODE LANGAGE INFOMATION NOUVELLES PROCESkiS DE COMUNICATION ECNANGE D'INFORMATION PUBLIC UTILISATION DE L'INFORMATION RECHERGHE'SUR LA COMMUNICATION MOYENS DE COMMUNICATION MOYENS DE COMMUNICATION DE MASSE INDUSTRIE DES COMMUNICATIONS MOYENS DE COWNICATJON IMPRIMES \ _21100 MOYENS DE COMMUNICATION IrviPRIMES LIVRE I PRESSE PHOTOGRAPHIE A 23'000 DISQUE CINE1M INDUSTRIE CINEMATOGRAPHIQUE 24f00 FILM CINEASTE FILMOLOGIE TELECOMUNICATION INDUSTRIE DES TELECOMMUNICATIONS SERVICE POSTAL TELEGRAPHE TELEPHONE TELEPHOTOGRAPHIE RADIO JELEVISION ASPECT ARTISTIQUE ART BEAUX-ARTS /300 (LITTERATURE 0400 JIUSIQUE ARTS DU SPECTACLE 1r 3100 ASPECT CATUREL CULTURE DIFFERENCIATION CULTURELLE PATRIMOINE CULTUREL' CHANGEMENT CULTUREL * VLITIQUE QULTURELLE

19 32000 ASPE CT ECONOMIQUE E CONOMIE DE COMMUNICATION COND ITIONS ONOMIQUES POL I TIQUE ECONOMIQUE ASPECT' F INANCIER AGRICULTURE INDUSTRIE TRANSPORT COMMERCE MA R C Hg MA RKE T I Ng AS PIECT EDUCATIONNEL j'education ETABL IS S EMENT D ENS E IGNEMENT PROCiRAMME D ETUDES METHODE PEDA90AQUE 4-\ A PECTI% JURIDI UE 34190! D ROI T LEO LAT I ON k 34(260; ACCES A IAINfORMATION DROITS DU CITOYEN CONTRÔLE DE LA COMMUNI CAT I ON VIE PRIVEEPROTECTION JURIDIQUt 'PROPRIETE INTELLECTUELLE DROIT-D'AUTEUR ASPECT POLITIQUE POLI TIQUE 3520O REGIME POLITIQUE IMPORTEMENT POLITIQUE IDEOLOG IE POLITIqUE 3540 ' RELATIONS INTERNATIONALES : ASPECT PS'iCHOLOG IQUE PPYCHOLOGIE DE LA COMMUNICATION PERCEPTION ACQUISITION DE CONNA I SSANCE S DEVELOPPEMENT INTELLECTUEL PERSONNALITE COMP ORTE ME NT OPINION A PE CT SOCIAL SOCIETE STRUCT BE SOCIALE REGULATION SOCIALE : kcialisation VA 7300 CHANGEMENT SOCIAL : HISTOIRE 3741)0 POLITIQUE SOCIALE POPULATION E NVIRONNEUENT 7700 \ ANTE \ URAL' URBAIN k RAVAIL LOISIR ii 19

20 A3JCT TECHNIQUE INGENIERIE TECRIOLOGIE EQUIPEMENT ELECTROTECIINIQUE ELECTRONIQUE' CAMERA:JILMAGE_ PROJECT;ON SON 38600IPERSONNEL TECHNIQUE 14 f --

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