# Regression 3: Logistic Regression

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1 Regression 3: Logistic Regression Marco Baroni Practical Statistics in R

2 Outline Logistic regression Logistic regression in R

3 Outline Logistic regression Introduction The model Looking at and comparing fitted models Logistic regression in R

4 Outline Logistic regression Introduction The model Looking at and comparing fitted models Logistic regression in R

5 Modeling discrete response variables In a very large number of problems in cognitive science and related fields the response variable is categorical, often binary (yes/no; acceptable/not acceptable; phenomenon takes place/does not take place) potentially explanatory factors (independent variables) are categorical, numerical or both

6 Examples: binomial responses Is linguistic construction X rated as acceptable in the following condition(s)? Does sentence S, that has features Y, W and Z, display phenomenon X? (linguistic corpus data!) Is it common for subjects to decide to purchase the good X given these conditions? Did subject make more errors in this condition? How many people answer YES to question X in the survey Do old women like X more than young men? Did the subject feel pain in this condition? How often was reaction X triggered by these conditions? Do children with characteristics X, Y and Z tend to have autism?

7 Examples: multinomial responses Discrete response variable with natural ordering of the levels: Ratings on a 6-point scale Depending on the number of points on the scale, you might also get away with a standard linear regression Subjects answer YES, MAYBE, NO Subject reaction is coded as FRIENDLY, NEUTRAL, ANGRY The cochlear data: experiment is set up so that possible errors are de facto on a 7-point scale Discrete response variable without natural ordering: Subject decides to buy one of 4 different products We have brain scans of subjects seeing 5 different objects, and we want to predict seen object from features of the scan We model the chances of developing 4 different (and mutually exclusive) psychological syndromes in terms of a number of behavioural indicators

8 Binomial and multinomial logistic regression models Problems with binary (yes/no, success/failure, happens/does not happen) dependent variables are handled by (binomial) logistic regression Problems with more than one discrete output are handled by ordinal logistic regression, if outputs have natural ordering multinomial logistic regression otherwise The output of ordinal and especially multinomial logistic regression tends to be hard to interpret, whenever possible I try to reduce the problem to a binary choice E.g., if output is yes/maybe/no, treat maybe as yes and/or as no Here, I focus entirely on the binomial case

9 Don t be afraid of logistic regression! Logistic regression seems less popular than linear regression This might be due in part to historical reasons the formal theory of generalized linear models is relatively recent: it was developed in the early nineteen-seventies the iterative maximum likelihood methods used for fitting logistic regression models require more computational power than solving the least squares equations Results of logistic regression are not as straightforward to understand and interpret as linear regression results Finally, there might also be a bit of prejudice against discrete data as less scientifically credible than hard-science-like continuous measurements

10 Don t be afraid of logistic regression! Still, if it is natural to cast your problem in terms of a discrete variable, you should go ahead and use logistic regression Logistic regression might be trickier to work with than linear regression, but it s still much better than pretending that the variable is continuous or artificially re-casting the problem in terms of a continuous response

11 The Machine Learning angle Classification of a set of observations into 2 or more discrete categories is a central task in Machine Learning The classic supervised learning setting: Data points are represented by a set of features, i.e., discrete or continuous explanatory variables The training data also have a label indicating the class of the data-point, i.e., a discrete binomial or multinomial dependent variable A model (e.g., in the form of weights assigned to the dependent variables) is fitted on the training data The trained model is then used to predict the class of unseen data-points (where we know the values of the features, but we do not have the label)

12 The Machine Learning angle Same setting of logistic regression, except that emphasis is placed on predicting the class of unseen data, rather than on the significance of the effect of the features/independent variables (that are often too many hundreds or thousands to be analyzed singularly) in discriminating the classes Indeed, logistic regression is also a standard technique in Machine Learning, where it is sometimes known as Maximum Entropy

13 Outline Logistic regression Introduction The model Looking at and comparing fitted models Logistic regression in R

14 Classic multiple regression The by now familiar model: y = β 0 + β 1 x 1 + β 2 x β n x n + ɛ Why will this not work if variable is binary (0/1)? Why will it not work if we try to model proportions instead of responses (e.g., proportion of YES-responses in condition C)?

15 Modeling log odds ratios Following up on the proportion of YES-responses idea, let s say that we want to model the probability of one of the two responses (which can be seen as the population proportion of the relevant response for a certain choice of the values of the dependent variables) Probability will range from 0 to 1, but we can look at the logarithm of the odds ratio instead: p logit(p) = log 1 p This is the logarithm of the ratio of probability of 1-response to probability of 0-response It is arbitrary what counts as a 1-response and what counts as a 0-response, although this might hinge on the ease of interpretation of the model (e.g., treating YES as the 1-response will probably lead to more intuitive results than treating NO as the 1-response) Log odds ratios are not the most intuitive measure (at least for me), but they range continuously from to +

16 From probabilities to log odds ratios logit(p) p

17 The logistic regression model Predicting log odds ratios: logit(p) = β 0 + β 1 x 1 + β 2 x β n x n Back to probabilities: p = elogit(p) 1 + e logit(p) Thus: p = eβ 0+β 1 x 1 +β 2 x β n x n 1 + e β 0+β 1 x 1 +β 2 x β n x n

18 From log odds ratios to probabilities p logit(p)

19 Probabilities and responses p logit(p)

20 A subtle point: no error term NB: logit(p) = β 0 + β 1 x 1 + β 2 x β n x n The outcome here is not the observation, but (a function of) p, the expected value of the probability of the observation given the current values of the dependent variables This probability has the classic coin tossing Bernoulli distribution, and thus variance is not free parameter to be estimated from the data, but model-determined quantity given by p(1 p) Notice that errors, computed as observation p, are not independently normally distributed: they must be near 0 or near 1 for high and low ps and near.5 for ps in the middle

21 The generalized linear model Logistic regression is an instance of a generalized linear model Somewhat brutally, in a generalized linear model a weighted linear combination of the explanatory variables models a function of the expected value of the dependent variable (the link function) the actual data points are modeled in terms of a distribution function that has the expected value as a parameter General framework that uses same fitting techniques to estimate models for different kinds of data

22 Linear regression as a generalized linear model Linear prediction of a function of the mean: Link function is identity: g(e(y)) = Xβ g(e(y)) = E(y) Given mean, observations are normally distributed with variance estimated from the data This corresponds to the error term with mean 0 in the linear regression model

23 Logistic regression as a generalized linear model Linear prediction of a function of the mean: Link function is : g(e(y)) = Xβ g(e(y)) = log E(y) 1 E(y) Given E(y), i.e., p, observations have a Bernoulli distribution with variance p(1 p)

24 Estimation of logistic regression models Minimizing the sum of squared errors is not a good way to fit a logistic regression model The least squares method is based on the assumption that errors are normally distributed and independent of the expected (fitted) values As we just discussed, in logistic regression errors depend on the expected (p) values (large variance near.5, variance approaching 0 as p approaches 1 or 0), and for each p they can take only two values (1 p if response was 1, p 0 otherwise)

25 Estimation of logistic regression models The β terms are estimated instead by maximum likelihood, i.e., by searching for that set of βs that will make the observed responses maximally likely (i.e., a set of β that will in general assign a high p to 1-responses and a low p to 0-responses) There is no closed-form solution to this problem, and the optimal β tuning is found with iterative trial and error techniques Least-squares fitting is finding the maximum likelihood estimate for linear regression and vice versa maximum likelihood fitting is done by a form of weighted least squares fitting

26 Outline Logistic regression Introduction The model Looking at and comparing fitted models Logistic regression in R

27 Interpreting the βs Again, as a rough-and-ready criterion, if a β is more than 2 standard errors away from 0, we can say that the corresponding explanatory variable has an effect that is significantly different from 0 (at α = 0.05) However, p is not a linear function of Xβ, and the same β will correspond to a more drastic impact on p towards the center of the p range than near the extremes (recall the S shape of the p curve) As a rule of thumb (the divide by 4 rule), β/4 is an upper bound on the difference in p brought about by a unit difference on the corresponding explanatory variable

28 Goodness of fit Again, measures such as R 2 based on residual errors are not very informative One intuitive measure of fit is the error rate, given by the proportion of data points in which the model assigns p >.5 to 0-responses or p <.5 to 1-responses This can be compared to baseline in which the model always predicts 1 if majority of data-points are 1 or 0 if majority of data-points are 0 (baseline error rate given by proportion of minority responses over total) Some information lost (a.9 and a.6 prediction are treated equally) Other measures of fit proposed in the literature, no widely agreed upon standard

29 Binned goodness of fit Goodness of fit can be inspected visually by grouping the ps into equally wide bins (0-0.1, ,... ) and plotting the average p predicted by the model for the points in each bin vs. the observed proportion of 1-responses for the data points in the bin We can also compute a R 2 or other goodness of fit measure on these binned data

30 Deviance Deviance is an important measure of fit of a model, used also to compare models Simplifying somewhat, the deviance of a model is 2 times the log likelihood of the data under the model plus a constant that would be the same for all models for the same data, and so can be ignored since we always look at differences in deviance The larger the deviance, the worse the fit As we add parameters, deviance decreases

31 Deviance The difference in deviance between a simpler and a more complex model approximates a χ 2 distribution with the difference in number of parameters as df s This leads to the handy rule of thumb that the improvement is significant (at α =.05) if the deviance difference is larger than the parameter difference (play around with pchisq() in R to see that this is the case) A model can also be compared against the null model that always predicts the same p (given by the proportion of 1-responses in the data) and has only one parameter (the fixed predicted value)

32 Outline Logistic regression Logistic regression in R Preparing the data and fitting the model Practice

33 Outline Logistic regression Logistic regression in R Preparing the data and fitting the model Practice

34 Back to the Graffeo et al. s discount study Fields in the discount.txt file subj Unique subject code sex M or F age NB: contains some NA presentation absdiff (amount of discount), result (price after discount), percent (percentage discount) product pillow, (camping) table, helmet, (bed) net choice Y (buys), N (does not buy) the discrete response variable

35 Preparing the data Read the file into an R data-frame, look at the summaries, etc. Note in the summary of age that R understands NAs (i.e., it is not treating age as a categorical variable) We can filter out the rows containing NAs as follows: > e<-na.omit(d) Compare summaries of d and e na.omit can also be passed as an option to the modeling functions, but I feel uneasy about that Attach the NA-free data-frame

36 Logistic regression in R > sex_age_pres_prod.glm<-glm(choice~sex+age+ presentation+product,family="binomial") > summary(sex_age_pres_prod.glm)

37 Selected lines from the summary() output Estimated β coefficients, standard errors and z scores (β/std. error): Coefficients: Estimate Std. Error z value Pr(> z ) sexm * age * presentationpercent e-14 * presentationresult < 2e-16 * Note automated creation of binary dummy variables: discounts presented as percents and as resulting values are significantly more likely to lead to a purchase than discounts expressed as absolute difference (the default level) use relevel() to set another level of a categorical variable as default

38 Deviance For the null model and for the current model: Null deviance: on 1175 degrees of freedom Residual deviance: on 1168 degrees of freedom Difference in deviance (169.3) is much higher than difference in parameters (7), suggesting that the current model is significantly better than the null model

39 Comparing models Let us add a presentation by interaction term: > interaction.glm<-glm(choice~sex+age+presentation+ product+sex:presentation,family="binomial") Are the extra-parameters justified? > anova(sex_age_pres_prod.glm,interaction.glm, test="chisq")... Resid. Df Resid. Dev Df Deviance P(> Chi ) Apparently, yes (although summary(interaction.glm) suggests just a marginal interaction between sex and the percentage dummy variable)

40 Error rate The model makes an error when it assigns p >.5 to observation where choice is N or p <.5 to observation where choice is Y: > sum((fitted(sex_age_pres_prod.glm)>.5 & choice=="n") (fitted(sex_age_pres_prod.glm)<.5 & choice=="y")) / length(choice) [1] Compare to error rate by baseline model that always guesses the majority choice: > table(choice) choice N Y > sum(choice=="n")/length(choice) [1] Improvement in error rate is nothing to write home about...

41 Binned fit Function from languager package for plotting binned expected and observed proportions of 1-responses, as well as bootstrap validation, require logistic model fitted with lrm(), the logistic regression fitting function from the Design package: > sex_age_pres_prod.glm<lrm(choice~sex+age+presentation+product, x=true,y=true) The languager version of the binned plot function (plot.logistic.fit.fnc) dies on our model, since it never predicts p < 0.1, so I hacked my own version, that you can find in the r-data-1 directory: > source("hacked.plot.logistic.fit.fnc.r") > hacked.plot.logistic.fit.fnc(sex_age_pres_prod.glm,e) (Incidentally: in cases like this where something goes wrong, you can peek inside the function simply by typing its name)

42 Bootstrap estimation Validation using the logistic model estimated by lrm() and 1,000 iterations: > validate(sex_age_pres_prod.glm,b=1000) When fed a logistic model, validate() returns various measures of fit we have not discussed: see, e.g., Baayen s book Independently of the interpretation of the measures, the size of the optimism indices gives a general idea of the amount of overfitting (not dramatic in this case)

43 Mixed model logistic regression You can use the lmer() function with the family="binomial" option E.g., introducing subjects as random effects: > sex_age_pres_prod.lmer<lmer(choice~sex+age+presentation+ product+(1 subj),family="binomial") You can replicate most of the analyses illustrated above with this model

44 A warning Confusingly, the fitted() function applied to a glm object returns probabilities, whereas if applied to a lmer object it returns odd ratios Thus, to measure error rate you ll have to do something like: > probs<-exp(fitted(sex_age_pres_prod.lmer)) / (1 +exp(fitted(sex_age_pres_prod.lmer))) > sum((probs>.5 & choice=="n") (probs<.5 & choice=="y")) / length(choice) NB: Apparently, hacked.plot.logistic.fit.fnc dies when applied to an lmer object, on some versions of R (or lme4, or whatever) Surprisingly, fit of model with random subject effect is worse than the one of model with fixed effects only

45 Outline Logistic regression Logistic regression in R Preparing the data and fitting the model Practice

46 Practice time Go back to Navarrete s et al. s picture naming data (cwcc.txt) Recall that the response can be a time (naming latency) in milliseconds, but also an error Are the errors randomly distributed, or can they be predicted from the same factors that determine latencies? We found a negative effect of repetition and a positive effect of position-within-category on naming latencies are these factors also leading to less and more errors, respectively?

47 Practice time Construct a binary variable from responses (error vs. any response) Use sapply(), and make sure that R understands this is a categorical variable with as.factor() Add the resulting variable to your data-frame, e.g., if you called the data-frame d and the binary response variable temp, do: d\$errorresp<-temp This will make your life easier later on Analyze this new dependent variable using logistic regression (both with and without random effects)

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