# Psychology 205: Research Methods in Psychology

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1 Psychology 205: Research Methods in Psychology Using R to analyze the data for study 2 Department of Psychology Northwestern University Evanston, Illinois USA November, / 38

2 Outline 1 Getting ready 2 Data analysis with R Descriptive analysis Linear modeling Graphic displays of linear model effects 3 ANOVA 4 Simple effects 5 Advanced tricks Recoding the data Plotting ANOVA values 2 / 38

3 Steps for data analysis Install software on your computer or locate computer with software (e.g., R, systat, SPSS) Prepare data for analysis Subjects (rows) x variables (columns) first row contains labels Read data either copy and read.clipboard, or read a file 3 / 38

4 Using R Install R (download from Choose your appropriate operating system Follow the installation directions run R add psych package using the package installer on a PC, click on package options and install packages on a Mac, go to package installer and get list, choose psych or, just install.packages("psych") Remember R is an introverted and somewhat obsessive compulsive program. It will not volunteer information unless you ask It is sensitive to spelling errors But it is very patient and very powerful. It will do anything you ask (if you ask politely). 4 / 38

5 R is just a fancy desk calculator It will Add Multiply Exponentiate follow directions explicitly treat data as vectors > 2+3 [1] 5 > 3*4 [1] 12 > 2^5 [1] 32 > exp(1:4) [1] > round(exp(1:4)) [1] > round(exp(1:4),2) [1] > x <- 2:6 > y <- 3:7 > x [1] > y [1] > x*y [1] / 38

6 R is also a very fancy graphical device op <- par(mfrow=c(1,2)) curve(dnorm(x),-3,3,main="the normal curve") curve(dt(x,4),-3,3,main="the t distribution") the normal curve the t distribution dnorm(x) dt(x, 4) x x 6 / 38

7 R is a statistical look up table > pnorm(1.96) [1] > pnorm(1.96) #Probability of a normal < 1.96 [1] > pt(1.96,22) #probability of a t with df = 22 < 1.96 [1] > pt(2,40) #probability of a t with df=40 < 2 [1] > pf(4,1,40) #probability of F(1,40) < 4 [1] > dbinom(0:10,10,.5) * 1024 #binomial distribution [1] / 38

8 R will block randomize for you library(psych) #make sure that you have already installed it #note that you need to say library(psych) the first time after starting \R{} cond <- block.random(16,c(drug=2,time=2)) #specify two variables cond #show the resulting output blocks drug time S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S / 38

9 Descriptive analysis Consider the simulation experiment 205/simulation/simulation.experiment.php Not a good way to do an experiment, but will produce data for examples Chose to generate 100 completely random subjects 205/simulation/simulation.specification.php my results at 205/simulation/simulating.personality.results.php These results will differ each time I do the experiment Results will differ as a function of conditions 9 / 38

10 Descriptive analysis Data analysis with R library(psych) #Make this package active #go to your browser, copy the results to the clipboard sim.data <- read.clipboard() #read the data from clipboard describe(sim.data) #basic descriptive statistics var n mean sd median trimmed mad min max range skew kurtos se snum sex drug time anxiety impulsivity arousal tension performance cost NaN NaN / 38

11 Descriptive analysis Simple descriptive graphics boxplot(sim.data) #this includes all variables boxplot(sim.data[2:6]) #this just includes the important variales snum drug impulsivity cost sex drug time impulsivity 11 / 38

12 Descriptive analysis Graphical Summary: a SPLOM (scatter plot matrix) op <- par(mfrow=c(1,1)) #change the figure back to a one panel pairs.panels(sim.data[2:9]) #scatter plot matrix of variables sex drug time anxiety impulsivity arousal tension performance / 38

13 Descriptive analysis A more detailed plot of just two variables, showing the LOESS fit pairs.panels(sim.data[c(4,7)],ellipses=false) time arousal / 38

14 Linear modeling Linear regression: Dependent Variables as a function of Independent Variables 1 We want to model the observed data (the DV) in terms of a set of predictors Does the DV change as function of each predictor? Does the effect of one predictor (IV) change as a function of some other predictor (IV)? 2 The basic linear model is that y = x 1 + x 2 + x 1 x 2 + residual The x s may be either categorical variables or continuous variables If both are categorical, we call this an ANOVA if one is categorical and the other continuous, we call it a moderated multiple regression if both are continuous and we ignore interactions we call it multiple regression if both are continuous and we consider interactions, it is a moderated multiple regression 14 / 38

15 Linear modeling Using the linear regression model requires centering the data 1 ANOVA and regression are equivalent models if the Independent Variables are centered around 0. Then the product terms (interactions) are not confounded with main effects. 2 Centering is done using the scale function we set the scale parameter=false to just center, not standardize. we set the scale parameter=true if we want standard scores. 3 But we need to turn the data back into a data frame when we are finished. 15 / 38

16 Linear modeling Centering the data for regression analysis #dont type in the leading > This is just a symbol that is used as a prompt > cen.data <- scale(sim.data,scale=false) #uses the scale function > cen.data <- data.frame(cen.data) #convert to a data frame > describe(cen.data) var n mean sd median trimmed mad min max range se snum sex drug time anxiety impulsivity arousal tension performance cost > 16 / 38

17 Linear modeling Linear modeling (aka linear regression) is a generalization of ANOVA #specify the model > model1 <- lm(arousal~drug * time,data=cen.data) > summary(model1) #now show the results Call: lm(formula = arousal ~ drug * time, data = cen.data) Residuals: Min 1Q Median 3Q Max Coefficients: Estimate Std. Error t value Pr(> t ) (Intercept) drug *** time ** drug:time Signif. codes: 0 ^O***~O ^O**~O 0.01 ^O*~O 0.05 ^O.~O 0.1 ^O ~O 1 Residual standard error: on 96 degrees of freedom Multiple R-squared: , Adjusted R-squared: F-statistic: on 3 and 96 DF, p-value: 4.43e / 38

18 Graphic displays of linear model effects Why graphics? Powerful graphics are valuable ways of showing results. 1 The previous analysis shows that drug has a positive effect on arousal (the slope was 26.8) as does time of day (the slope is 2.1) But it would help if we could see this effect. Draw it with a continuous independent variable (e.g., time of day) as the X axis, the Dependent variable as the Y axis, and a different line for the two drug conditions. 2 This is a two step process. First draw the data 3 Then draw the slopes. arousal increases 26.8 units for one unit change in drug arousal increases 2.1 units for one unit change in time (but there are more time units!) 18 / 38

19 Graphic displays of linear model effects Graphing two experimental levels the basic graphic with(sim.data,plot(arousal~time)) #plot the data points by(sim.data,sim.data\$drug,function(x) abline(lm(arousal~time,data=x))) #add the lines arousal time 19 / 38

20 Graphic displays of linear model effects Graphing two experimental levels: Spice it up with(sim.data,plot(arousal~time)) #plot the data points by(sim.data,sim.data\$drug,function(x) abline(lm(arousal~time,data=x))) #add the lines text(15,85,"caffeine") text(15,55,"placebo") title("arousal varies by time and drug") Arousal varies by time and drug arousal caffeine placebo time 20 / 38

21 Graphic displays of linear model effects Graphing two experimental levels: Even more advanced graphing with(sim.data,plot(arousal~time,pch=(21-drug))) #plot the data points with different symbols by(sim.data,sim.data\$drug,function(x) abline(lm(arousal~time,data=x))) #add the lines text(15,85,"caffeine") text(15,55,"placebo") title("arousal varies by time and drug") Arousal varies by time and drug arousal caffeine placebo time 21 / 38

22 Graphic displays of linear model effects Even fancier graphics Although you should not use color in publications, for slide shows it helps. symb=c(19,25,3,23) #choose some nice plotting symbols colors=c("black","red","green","blue") #choose some nice colors with(sim.data,plot(arousal~time,pch=symb[drug+1], col=colors[drug+1]) ) #plot the data points with different symbols by(sim.data,sim.data\$drug,function(x) abline(lm(arousal~time,data=x))) #add the lines text(15,85,"caffeine") text(15,55,"placebo") title("arousal varies by time and drug") 22 / 38

23 Graphic displays of linear model effects The same graph but with colors Arousal varies by time and drug arousal caffeine placebo time 23 / 38

24 Anova as a special case of linear regression If variables are categorical, we frequently will treat the data using an Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Y = bx + c is the linear model ANOVA is a special case of the linear model where the predictor variables are categorical factors rather than continuous variables. We can specify variables as factors or use anova. 24 / 38

25 Compare ANOVA and lm > mod0 <- aov(arousal~ drug * sex,data=cen.data) > summary(mod0) Df Sum Sq Mean Sq F value Pr(>F) drug *** sex drug:sex Residuals Signif. codes: 0 ^O***~O ^O**~O 0.01 ^O*~O 0.05 ^O.~O 0.1 ^O ~O 1 25 / 38

26 Subtle difference > mod2 <- lm(arousal ~drug *sex,data=cen.data) > summary(mod2) Call: lm(formula = arousal ~ drug * sex, data = cen.data) Residuals: Min 1Q Median 3Q Max Coefficients: Estimate Std. Error t value Pr(> t ) (Intercept) drug *** sex drug:sex Signif. codes: 0 ^O***~O ^O**~O 0.01 ^O*~O 0.05 ^O.~O 0.1 ^O ~O 1 Residual standard error: on 96 degrees of freedom Multiple R-squared: , Adjusted R-squared: F-statistic: on 3 and 96 DF, p-value: / 38

27 High level interactions can be decomposed into simpler effects Interpreting a high level (3 way or more) interaction is made easier if we consider lower level effects. This can be done by subsetting the data into groups, and then doing the analysis within groups Multiple ways this can be done (e.g., by sex, by drug, by level of something else) Most useful for doing multipanel graphics, but also for doing lower level regressions/anovas 27 / 38

28 Using the subset command to form two new data.frames op <- par(mfrow=c(1,2)) #get ready for a two panel graph > males <- subset(sim.data,sex=="1") #form a new data.frame for the males > dim(males) #how many males and how many variables [1] > females <- subset(sim.data,sex=="2") #and another for the females > dim(females) #how many females and how many variables [1] symb=c(19,25,3,23) #choose some nice plotting symbols colors=c("black","red","green","blue") #choose some nice colors #plot the data points with different symbols with(males,plot(arousal~time,pch=symb[drug+1],col=colors[drug+1]) ) #add the lines by(males,males\$drug,function(x) abline(lm(arousal~time,data=x))) text(15,85,"caffeine") text(15,55,"placebo") title("males") #plot the data points with different symbols with(females,plot(arousal~time,pch=symb[drug+1],col=colors[drug+1]) ) by(females,females\$drug,function(x) abline(lm(arousal~time,data=x))) #add the lines text(15,85,"caffeine") text(15,55,"placebo") title("females") 28 / 38

29 A two panel graph shows multiple effects - note the scales are different Males Females arousal caffeine placebo arousal caffeine placebo time time 29 / 38

30 modify that plot to use the same scale op <- par(mfrow=c(1,2)) #get ready for a two panel graph symb=c(19,25,3,23) #choose some nice plotting symbols colors=c("black","red","green","blue") #choose some nice colors with(males,plot(arousal~time,pch=symb[drug+1],col=colors[drug+1], ylim=c(0,150)) ) #plot the data points with different symbols by(males,males\$drug,function(x) abline(lm(arousal~time,data=x))) #add the lines text(15,85,"caffeine") text(15,55,"placebo") title("males") with(females,plot(arousal~time,pch=symb[drug+1],col=colors[drug+1], ylim=c(0,150)) ) #plot the data points with different symbols by(females,females\$drug,function(x) abline(lm(arousal~time,data=x))) #add the li text(15,85,"caffeine") text(15,55,"placebo") title("females") op <- par(mfrow=c(1,1)) #set it back to do one panel graphs 30 / 38

31 A two panel graph shows multiple effects use the same scale Males Females arousal caffeine placebo arousal caffeine placebo time time 31 / 38

32 Recoding the data The scrub function allows you to recode your data?scrub #ask what it does. The help (some function) command is most useful A utility for basic data cleaning and recoding. Changes values outside of minimum and maximum limits to NA. Description A tedious part of data analysis is addressing the problem of miscoded data that need to be converted to NA. For a given data.frame or matrix, scrub will set all values of columns from=from to to=to that are less than a set (vector) of min values or more than a vector of max values to NA. Can also be used to do basic recoding of data for all values=isvalue to newvalue. Usage scrub(x, where, min, max,isvalue,newvalue) Arguments x a data frame or matrix where The variables to examine. (Can be by name or by column number) min a vector of minimum values that are acceptable max a vector of maximum values that are acceptable isvalue a vector of values to be converted to newvalue (one per variable) newvalue a vector of values to replace those that match isvalue 32 / 38

33 Recoding the data Recoding using the scrub function new.data <- scrub(sim.data,where=4,min=15,newvalue=1) new.data <- scrub(new.data,where=4,max=2,newvalue=2) describe(new.data) var n mean sd median trimmed mad min max range skew kurtosis se snum sex drug time anxiety impulsivity arousal tension performance cost NaN NaN / 38

34 Recoding the data Use the recoded data in an ANOVA > mod4 <- aov(arousal~drug*time,data=new.data) > summary(mod4) print(model.tables(mod4,"means"),digits=3) #report the means and the number of subjects/cell Df Sum Sq Mean Sq F value Pr(>F) drug e-05 *** time ** drug:time Residuals Signif. codes: 0 ^O***~O ^O**~O 0.01 ^O*~O 0.05 ^O.~O 0.1 ^O ~O 1 Tables of means Grand mean drug drug time time / 38

35 Recoding the data Or, to treat them as factors, as we should > mod4 <- aov(arousal~as.factor(drug)*as.factor(time),data=new.data) > summary(mod4) > print(model.tables(mod4,"means"),digits=3) Df Sum Sq Mean Sq F value Pr(>F) as.factor(drug) e-05 *** as.factor(time) ** as.factor(drug):as.factor(time) Residuals Signif. codes: 0 ^O***~O ^O**~O 0.01 ^O*~O 0.05 ^O.~O 0.1 ^O ~O 1 as.factor(drug) rep <- this is the number of subjects in the conditions as.factor(time) rep as.factor(drug):as.factor(time) as.factor(time) as.factor(drug) rep rep / 38

36 Plotting ANOVA values Graphing anova results Hard coding to show how to make a generic graph Change the values to plot your data IV1 <- c(8,15,22) #the values of the first Independent Variable (time of day) iv2low=c(54.5, 61.3,68.0) #the Dependent variable values for low, medium and hi iv2high=c(59.4, 66.3, 73.1) #the Dependent variable values for low, mediuam and h IV1 <- c(8,15,22) #the values of the first Independent Variable plot(iv1,iv2low,xlim=c(8,22),ylim=c(0,100),type="b",lty="dashed", xlab="independent Variable 1", ylab="dependent Variable", pch=19,main="some title goes here") #plot character is closed circle points(iv1,iv2high,pch=22,type="b") #plot character is an open square text(15,60,"dv2 = low") #change the location of these labels to fit the data text(15,70,"dv2 = high") 36 / 38

37 Plotting ANOVA values A generic plot some title goes here Dependent Variable DV2 = high DV2 = low Independent Variable 1 37 / 38

38 Plotting ANOVA values For more guidance Katherine Funkhouser s guide; 205/analysing-data.pdf The 205 guide http: //personality-project.org/r/r.205.tutorial.html A longer guide: The guide to the simulation experiment: 205/simulation/simulating-experiments.pdf Don t Panic 38 / 38

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