1 May 28, 2015 ACCESS TO SUCCESS IN AMERICA Kati Haycock President, Education Trust Copyright 2015 The Education Trust
2 America: Two Powerful Stories
3 1. Land of Opportunity: Work hard, and you can become anything you want to be.
4 2. Generational Advancement: Through hard work, each generation of parents can assure a better life and better education for their children.
5 Powerful narratives. Slipping away.
6 Within the U.S., income inequality has been rising. Big gains at the top of the economic ladder, while those at the bottom have fallen backwards.
7 Gini Coefficient Instead of being the most equal, the U.S. has the third highest income inequality among OECD nations United States Note: Gini coefficient ranges from 0 to 1, where 0 indicates total income equality and 1 indicates total income inequality. Source: United Nations, U.N. data, 2011
8 Median Wealth of White Families 20 X that of African Americans 18 X that of Latinos Source: Rakesh Kochhar, Richard Fry, and Paul Taylor, Twenty-to-One: Wealth Gaps Rise to Record Highs Between Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics, Pew Social & Demographic Trends, 2011.
9 Not just wages and wealth, but social mobility as well.
10 Earnings Elasticity U.S. intergenerational mobility was increasing until 1980, but has sharply declined since. 0.6 The falling elasticity meant increased economic mobility until Since then, the elasticity has risen, and mobility has slowed Source: Daniel Aaronson and Bhashkar Mazumder. Intergenerational Economic Mobility in the U.S.,1940 to Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago WP : Dec THE 2015 THE EDUCATION TRUST
11 Earnings Elasticity The US now has one of lowest rates of intergenerational mobility 0.6 Cross-country examples of the link between father and son wages United Kingdom Italy United States France Spain Germany Sweden Australia Canada Finland Norway Denmark Source: Corak, Miles. Chasing the Same Dream, Climbing Different Ladders. Economic Mobility Project; e: Pew Charitable Trusts, 2010.
12 At macro level, better and more equal education is not the only answer. But at the individual level, it really is.
13 Agenda #1 Working together to get more low-income students and students of color through college THE 2014 EDUCATION THE EDUCATION TRUST
14 Among black men, education makes a huge difference in life outcomes
15 Median Earnings ($) College Grads Earn More $100,000 Taxes Paid After-Tax Earnings $102,200 $91,000 $80,000 $70,000 $20,300 $23,400 $60,000 $40,000 $20,000 $- $25,100 $4,100 $21,000 $40,400 $44,800 $35,400 $7,500 $8,600 $6,400 $29,000 $32,900 $36,200 $56,500 $11,400 $45,100 $14,800 $55,200 $70,700 $78,800 Education Level Source: College Board, Education Pays, 2013, Figure 1.1: Median Earnings and Tax Payments of Full-Time Year-Round Workers Ages 25 and Older, by Education Level, 2011
16 College Grads Less Likely to be Unemployed 30.0% Unemployment Rate (August 2011) 25.0% 20.0% 15.0% 14.3% 10.0% 9.6% 8.2% 5.0% 4.3% 0.0% Less than high school diploma High school graduate Some college or associate's degree Bachelor's degree or higher Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Table A-4, THE THE EDUCATION EDUCATION TRUST TRUST
17 They also stand out on the other things we value.
18 100% 80% College graduates more likely to vote Percent of US Citizens Aged Who Voted in the 2012 Presidential Election by Education Level 60% 50% 60% 40% 20% 23% 29% 0% Less than high school High school/ged Some Bachelor's degree college/associate's or higher degree Note: Data include both those who are and are not registered to vote. Source: Education Pays 2013, The College Board
19 College graduates more likely to volunteer 100% Percent of Adults 25 and Over Who Volunteered in 2012 by Education Level 80% 60% 40% 20% 9% 17% 29% 42% 0% Less than high school High school Some college or associate's degree Bachelor's degree or higher Note: Data represent percentage of total population that reported volunteering from September 2008 to September 2009 Source: Education Pays 2013, The College Board THE THE EDUCATION TRUST TRUST
20 College Grads of all races far more likely to be in Very Good or Excellent Health Black Latino American Indian High School Dropout College Graduate 73.3 White Sourc e: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Commission for a Healthier America, 2009
21 College Grads Even Have Better Mental Health Percentage of respondents reporting themselves to be in excellent mental health 100% 80% 60% 40% 37% 45% 54% 60% 20% 0% High school or less Some college Bachelor's degree Advanced degree Source: Gallup, Strong Relationship Between Income and Mental Health (2007) THE THE EDUCATION TRUST TRUST
22 What schools and colleges do, in other words, is hugely important to our economy, our democracy, and our society.
23 So, how are we doing? THE THE EDUCATION EDUCATION TRUST TRUST
24 Over past 30 years, we ve made a lot of progress on the access side. n/a
25 Percentage of High School Graduates Enrolled in College the Fall After Graduation Immediate College-Going Up 80.0% 70.0% 60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0% Note: Percent of high school completers who were enrolled in 2-year or 4-year college the October after completing high Source: school NCES, The Digest of Education Statistics 2013 (Table ).
26 College-going is up for all groups. NCES, The Condition of Education 2010 (Table A-20-3) and The Condition of Education 2011 (Table A-21-2).
27 Percentage of High School Graduates Enrolled in College the Fall After Graduation 80% Immediate College-Going Increasing for All Racial/Ethnic Groups: 1972 to % 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% African American Latino White Note: Percent of high school completers who were enrolled in college the October after completing high school Source: NCES, The Digest of Education Statistics 2013 (Table ).
28 Percentage of High School Graduates Enrolled in College the Fall After Graduation 90% College-Going Generally Increasing for All Income Groups 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Low-Income High-Income Note: Percent of high school completers who were enrolled in college the October after completing high school Source: NCES, The Condition of Education 2010 (Table A-20-1) and The Digest of Education Statistics 2013 (Table ).
29 But though college going up for low-income students
30 Low-Income Students Today Still Not Reaching the College-going Rate for High-Income Students in 1972 Percentage of high school graduates immediately enrolling in college, % 64% 82% 23% Low Income High Income Note: Data for black, Hispanic, and low-income represent two-year moving average because of small sample sizes. Source: NCES, The Condition of Education 2010 (Table A-20-1) and The Digest of Education Statistics 2013 (Table )
31 But access isn t the only issue: There s a question of access to what
32 Low-Income Students and Students of Color Twice as Likely to Enter For-profit Colleges, Where They are Least Likely to Graduate and Most Likely to End up with Debt Asian White Black Hispanic American Indian Pell recipient Non-Pell recipient % 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% For Profit Public 2-Year Public 4-Year Private 4-Year Other Ed Trust analysis of IPEDS Fall enrollment, Fall 2012 (by race) and IPEDS Student Financial Aid survey, (by Pell recipient status). 32
33 And what about graduation in colleges more generally?
34 Graduation Rates (%) Black, Latino, and American Indian Freshmen Complete College at Lower Rates Than Other Students year bachelor s completion rates for first-time, full-time freshmen, Fall 2006 cohort at 4-year institutions Overall rate: 59% % 40% 52% 71% 40% 10 0 White Black Latino Asian American Indian Source: NCES (December 2013). Enrollment in Postsecondary Institutions, Fall 2012; Financial Statistics, Fiscal Year 2012; and Graduation Rates, Selected Cohorts, , First Look (Provisional Data) Table 3.
35 Graduation Rates (%) Graduation rates at public community colleges % 3 - year completion rates (associate degrees and certificates) for first-time, full-time freshmen, Fall 2009 cohort at public two-year institutions 13% 18% 28% Overall rate: 21.2% 18% White Black Latino Asian American Indian Source: NCES (Dec. 2013). First Look: Enrollment in Postsecondary Institutions, Fall 2012; Financial Statistics, Fiscal Year 2012; and Graduation Rates, Selected Cohorts, , First Look (Provisional Data) Table 3.
36 Chance of attaining a bachelor s degree within six years, among students who aspire to a Bachelors degree and begin at community college? n/a
37 Bachelor s Attainment Rate (%) Only 14 percent Percent of students who started at a community college intending to earn a Bachelor s in 2003 and earned a BA degree by % Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study, First Follow-up (BPS:04/06).
38 Add it all up
39 Different groups of young Americans obtain degrees at very different rates. n/a
40 Whites attain bachelor s degrees at nearly twice the rate of blacks and almost three times the rate of Hispanics Bachelor s Degree Attainment of Young Adults (25-29-year-olds), % 20% 16% White African American Latino Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Educational Attainment in the United States: 2013
41 Percent with Bachelor s Degree by Age % Young adults from high-income families are 7 times more likely to earn bachelor s degrees by age 24 80% 60% 40% 79% 7x 20% 0% Highest income quartile 11% Lowest income quartile Tom Mortenson, Bachelor s Degree Attainment by age 24 by Family Income Quartiles, 1970 to 2010, Postsecondary Education Opportunity, 2012.
42 WHAT S GOING ON? Many in higher education would like to believe that these patterns are mostly a function of lousy high schools and stingy federal and state policymakers.
43 They are not all wrong.
44 Low Income and Minority Students Continue to be Clustered in Schools where we spend less, expect less, and assign our weakest teachers
46 So, too, are misguided government aid policies
47 Federal Pell Grants have failed to keep pace with rising college costs 100% 80% 99% Total Cost of Attendance Covered by Maximum Pell Grant Award 77% 60% 52% 40% 31% 36% 20% 14% 0% Public 2-Year Public 4-Year Private 4-Year American Council on Education (2007). Status Report on the Pell Grant Program, 2007 and CollegBoard, Trends in Student Aid,
48 Why? Not because we re not spending a lot more on student aid. But, rather, because we ve changed who gets those dollars.
49 88% of savings from tuition tax deductions go to middle- and upper-income families Distribution of Tax Deduction Savings by Adjusted Gross Income 12% Low-income ($0-49,999) 88% Middle and upper-income ($50,000+) Note: Percentages may not add to 100% because of rounding. Source: The College Board, Trends in Student Aid 2013.
50 Pattern is the same at state level, even in tough times. Source: Trends in Student Aid 2010, The College Board
51 So yes, government policy is part of the problem, too.
52 But colleges and universities are not unimportant actors in this drama of shrinking opportunity, either. 52
53 For one thing, the shifts away from poor students in institutional aid money are MORE PRONOUNCED than the shifts in government aid.
54 In 2011, four-year public and private nonprofit colleges spent over $21 billion on grant aid. But, they spent a lot of aid on students who didn t need it Education Trust analysis of NPSAS:12 using PowerStats. Results based on full-time, full-year, oneinstitution dependent undergraduates.
55 Institutional Grant Aid at Public 4- Year Institutions, (in millions) Public 4-year colleges used to spend more than twice as much on needy students, but now spend more on wealthy students $1,000 $900 $800 $700 $600 $500 $400 $300 $200 $100 $0 $869 $809 $340 $ Lowest income quintile Highest income quintile Education Trust analysis of NPSAS:96, NPSAS:08, NPSAS:12 using PowerStats. Results based on full-time, full-year, one-institution dependent undergraduates.
56 Institutional Grant Aid at Private NFP 4-Year Institutions, (millions) Private nonprofit 4-year colleges used to spend more on lowincome students, but now spend nearly twice as much on wealthy students $4,500 $4,000 $4,042 $3,500 $3,000 $2,500 $2,625 $2,000 $1,500 $1,000 $500 $721 $605 $ Lowest income quintile Highest income quintile Education Trust analysis of NPSAS:96, NPSAS:08, NPSAS:12 using PowerStats. Results based on full-time, full-year, one-institution dependent undergraduates.
57 Result? Low-income students must devote an amount equivalent to 76% of their family income towards college costs Family Income Percentile Average Income Average Cost of Attendance Average Expected Family Contribution (EFC) Average Grant Aid 0 20% $12,783 $27,428 $13,565 Average Unmet Need After EFC and Grant Aid Average % of Income Required to Pay Out-of- Pocket Expenses 21 40% $36,205 $29,345 $2,138 $12,246 $15,006 46% 41 60% $65,20 4 $276 $8,059 $29,804 $8,465 $13,59 1 $13, % $97,733 $30,719 $16,259 $6,842 $9,465 25% 76% 33% % $185,81 9 $34,370 $6,041 $35,925 $5,281 17% Source: Source: Education Trust analysis of NPSAS:12 using PowerStats, Results based on full-time, full-year, one-institution dependent undergraduates at public and private nonprofit four-year colleges
58 So it s not all about the students or about government. The choices that colleges make are important in who comes and who doesn t.
59 Moreover, what colleges do also turns out to be very important in whether students graduate or not.
60 College Completion Rates: 4-Year Colleges Fewer than 4 in 10 (38%) entering full-time freshmen obtain a bachelor s degree from the same institution within 4 years. Within six years of entry, that proportion rises to just under 6 in 10 (58%). If you go beyond IPEDS, and look at graduation from ANY institution, number grows to about twothirds. Source: NCES (December 2013). Enrollment in Postsecondary Institutions, Fall 2012; Financial Statistics, Fiscal Year 2012; and Graduation Rates, Selected Cohorts, , First Look (Provisional Data) Table 4.
61 Many Four-Year Colleges Have Very High Graduation Rates and Many, Very Low 250 Distribution of Graduation Rates (2012) 6-year bachelor's completion rates for first-time, full-time freshmen, Fall 2006 cohort at 4-year institutions Source: Ed Trust analysis of IPEDS Graduation Rates Series1
62 Some of these differences are clearly attributable to differences in student preparation and/or institutional mission. n/a
63 But when you dig underneath the averages, one thing is very clear: Some colleges are far more successful than their students stats would suggest. Ed Trust analysis of College Results Online dataset
64 College Results Online
65 Research Institutions Similar Students, Different Results Median SAT Size % Pell % URM Overall Grad Rate URM Grad Rate Penn State University Indiana University University of Minnesota Purdue University 1,195 37,763 16% 8.6% 86.7% 74.6 % 1,170 31,427 21% 8.0% 72.0% 52.1% 1, ,656 23% 7.6% 70.2% 44.4% 1,165 30,812 21% 6.9% 68.1% 54.1% Source: College Results Online, 2013:
66 Elizabeth City University Delaware State University Norfolk State University University of Arkansas Pine Bluff Coppin State University Source: College Results Online, 2013: Historically Black Colleges Similar Students, Different Results Median SAT Size % Pell Overall Graduation Rate 835 3,020 80% 43.7% 875 3,167 59% 34.6% 865 5,373 65% 33.2% 780 3,096 82% 23% 855 2,832 70% 14.7%
67 Bottom Line: So yes, we have to keep working to improve our high schools; And yes, government has to do its part; But we ve got to focus on changing what our colleges do, too.
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