Castes in Social Insects

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Castes in Social Insects"

Transcription

1 Castes in Social Insects Module Chemical Ecology, Ayasse Outline Castes in Social Insects 1. definition 2. castes in social insects 3. caste determination A. psychophysiological caste determination B. blastogenic und trophogenic caste determination - effect of juvenile hormone C. genetic caste determination 4. advantages of castes 5. summary 1

2 castes: individuals of a colony of one species that differ in morphology, physiology and behaviour. (ecological caused polymorphisms) (Wilson 1971) caste polymorphism: individuals with a functionally different form (e.g. workers and queen). further differentiation in (Wilson, 1985): physical castes: different function and morphology, same genotype (termites, ants). temporal castes: (=age polyethism) age dependent division of labour (honeybees, wasps) caste differentiation: different specification of the characteristics of individuals with identical genetic information caste determination: causes and mechanisms of caste differentiation (preimaginal or imaginal). caste regulation: caste determination in adult instars intercastes: morphological intermediates of two clearly distinguishable extreme forms 2

3 further differentiation mainly in ants: gynomorph: winged females or wingless females after mating (queenlike) ergatomorph: animal of a typical worker s form intermorph: commonly intermediates in ants all of the three forms can functionally be a queen (mated and fertile) or a worker larvae nymphs workers (higher termites: wingless, rudimentary genital apparatus, eyes reduced or absent) Isoptera Termitidae, Nasutitermes higher rermites 3

4 larvae nymphs workers (higher termites: wingless, rudimentary genital apparatus, eyes reduced or absent) workers of lower termites: immature stages, the worker function is being filled by nymphs and pseudergates pseudergates regressed from a.) nymphal stages by reduction of wing buds or b.) larvae by non-differentiating molts Isoptera Isoptera soldier with morph. features specialized for defence different types within the caste of soldiers: Mandibulate soldiers, Snapping soldiers, Nasute soldiers 4

5 Isoptera primary reproductives (colony founder) replacement reproductives (sec. developed) Hymenoptera queens workers different size, morphology and function in bees and wasps no subcastes division of labour is mostly based on temporal polyethism only ants with morphological subcastes 5

6 Hymenoptera Halictidae Hymenoptera Wasps 6

7 Age polyethism Hymenoptera Stingless bees and honeybees Hymenoptera Ants 7

8 Hymenoptera Ants Social insects Characteristics of Isoptera (termites) hemimetabol larvae contribute to caste system (lower termites) bisexual colony, castes consist of males and females XX XY mechanism of sex determination long-living males Hymenoptera (bees, ants, wasps) holometabol castes consist of adult animals only castes consist of females only haploid-diploid-mechanism of sex determination short-living males 8

9 1. definition 2. castes in social insects 3. caste determination A. psychophysiological caste determination B. blastogenic und trophogenic caste determination - effect of juvenile hormone C. genetic caste determination 4. advantages of castes 5. summary Epigenetic 1. Psychophysiological caste determination (often acting on adult individuals) pheromones and behaviour sexual predisposition (importance of mating) temporal predisposition (attractiveness and rank) 9

10 e.g. lower termites (Kalotermes) pheromones e.g. higher termites (Termitidae) Complex caste system and determination in a higher termite. What determines caste? Depending on species: Condition of colony (stress factors) Contact between nestmates Hormones, especially JH Pheromones, especially from reproductives from Gullen & Cranston

11 Fire ants pheromones Polistes behaviour temporal predisposition: commonly the oldest female is fertile with developed ovaries 11

12 Sweat bees sexual predisposition: mated female becomes a queen 1. definition 2. castes in social insects 3. caste determination A. psychophysiological caste determination B. blastogenic und trophogenic caste determination - effect of juvenile hormone C. genetic caste determination 4. advantages of castes 5. summary 12

13 Epigenetic 2. Blastogenic and trophogenic caste determination nutrition factors in larval development (e.g. honeybee, royal jelly) egg ingredients (reserve substances, RNA content) colony size (important in determination of young queens) further: nest temperature during breeding in bumblebees nutrition factors in larval development castes similar size 13

14 in bumblebees nutrition factors in larval development castes similar size castes different size in honeybees nutrition factors in larval development (trophogenic determination) 14

15 in stingless bees nutrition factors in larval development in ants nutrition amount: larva fed with a high quantity of food develop into queens egg size: queens often hatch from large, yolk-rich eggs pheromones: reproductive queens can inhibit production of new queens colony size: important for the determination of young queens 15

16 in ants nest temperature during breeding: in species that overwinter its brood in the larval stage females develop into queens in winter and into workers in summer age of the queen: younger queens produce a lot of workers, old queens more reproductives Influence of juvenile hormone? on caste determination in ants 16

17 Influence of juvenile hormone on caste determination in honeybees JH mediator between environmental impacts (nutrition, pheromones, and morphological specification) 1. definition 2. castes in social insects 3. caste determination A. psychophysiological caste determination B. blastogenic und trophogenic caste determination - effect of juvenile hormone C. genetic caste determination 4. advantages of castes 5. summary 17

18 3. Genetic caste determination contribution of genetic factors to caste determination is poorly understood indications in: A. Higher termites certain castes consist of the same sex Genetic caste determination in higher termites JH application causes development of soldiers of the false sex epigenetic mechanisms 18

19 3. Genetic caste determination contribution of genetic factors to caste determination is poorly understood indications in: A. Higher termites certain castes consist of the same sex B. Bees Meliponinae queens develop from diploid eggs with paired heterozygous loci that determine the caste Genetic caste determination in Meliponinae two-locus model JH appl. causes development of queens nutrition factors Geraniol (Jarau et al. 2010) 19

20 3. Genetic caste determination contribution of genetic factors to caste determination is poorly understood indications in: A. Higher termites certain castes consist of the same sex B. Bees Meliponinae queens develop from diploid eggs with paired heterozygous loci that determine the caste C. Ants Genetic caste determination in Harpagoxenus Crossing experiments carriers of allele E are more frequently workers, of allele e more frequently queens E suppresses wing building Only ee can develop into queens ee, ee and EE develop into workers under presence of a nutrition factor epigenetic nutrition factor!!! 20

21 Advantages of castes division of labour and cooperative nest defence specialisation (tasks can be performed more effectively and at the same time) less mistakes because of the specialisation - Summary description of castes caste determination regulation of reproduction (morph./phys./behav.) (larval) (adult) bees minimal morph. food quantity physical (primitive eusocial) phys. + dominance pheromone behaviour mating, age bees morphological food quantity physical (highly eusocial) phys. +quality + dominance pheromone behaviour wasps minimal morph. food quantity physical (primitive eusocial) phys. + dominance pheromone behaviour age wasps morph. food quantity physical (highly eusocial) phys. (+ quality?) + dominance pheromone behaviour ants morph. food quantity physical (highly eusocial) phys. (quality) + dominance pheromone behaviour temp., egg factors lower termites morph. food (highly eusocial) phys. pheromones dominance pheromone behaviour further abiot. factors higher termites morph. food (highly eusocial) phys. pheromones dominance pheromone behaviour further abiot. factors 21

Social Insects. Social Insects. Subsocial 4/11/10. More widespread 13 orders of insects no reproductive division of labor

Social Insects. Social Insects. Subsocial 4/11/10. More widespread 13 orders of insects no reproductive division of labor Social Insects Sociality evolved multiple times in insects Much of Earth s fauna consists of social insects They play major roles in entire ecosystems Proliferation of ants and termites associated with

More information

Class Insecta - The insects

Class Insecta - The insects A Introduction 1. Very species rich 2. Characteristics a. 3 pairs of legs b. 2 pairs of wings (most) except flies (1 pair of wings - Diptera) B. Distribution 1. All habitats except saltwater - replaced

More information

1. Cooperative care of the young involving more individuals than just the mother.

1. Cooperative care of the young involving more individuals than just the mother. Eusociality Animals must have three features to be called eusocial 1. Cooperative care of the young involving more individuals than just the mother. 2. Specialized castes that are sterile a. Facultatively

More information

Second Grade Insects Assessment

Second Grade Insects Assessment Second Grade Insects Assessment 1a. The stiff shell that covers an insect s body is called an: a. outer shell b. exoskeleton 1b. The stiff shell that covers and insect s body is called an: a. outer shell

More information

COMMENTARIES. Ecology, evolution and division of labour in social insects

COMMENTARIES. Ecology, evolution and division of labour in social insects Anim. Behav., 1997, 53, 209 213 COMMENTARIES Ecology, evolution and division of labour in social insects JAMES F. A. TRANIELLO & REBECA B. ROSENGAUS Department of Biology, Boston University (Received 27

More information

Bug Power. Amazing Ants. Busy Bees. Teamwork. How do some insects work together?

Bug Power. Amazing Ants. Busy Bees. Teamwork. How do some insects work together? Non-fiction: Bug Power Bug Power Teamwork How do some insects work together? What do termites, ants, and honeybees have in common? They are all social (SOHshuhl) insects. Social insects live together in

More information

honey bee By Henry Touray

honey bee By Henry Touray honey bee By Henry Touray Introduction For my project I have chosen to research Bees. I chose to find out about the bee because bees have been in the news lately. Lots of hives have died out and scientists

More information

INTERMEDIATE BEEKEEPING WEEK 1 CAROL COTTRILL

INTERMEDIATE BEEKEEPING WEEK 1 CAROL COTTRILL INTERMEDIATE BEEKEEPING WEEK 1 CAROL COTTRILL BEE BIOLOGY WHY IT MATTERS There is a spectrum there are different ways to try to do things. I once thought you could do it all by a cookbook, and now I think

More information

TECHNICALPUBLICATION TERMITES IN NEW SOUTH WALES PART 1. TERMITE BIOLOGY. MA Horwood and RH Eldridge TERMITE COLONIES

TECHNICALPUBLICATION TERMITES IN NEW SOUTH WALES PART 1. TERMITE BIOLOGY. MA Horwood and RH Eldridge TERMITE COLONIES TECHNICALPUBLICATION FOREST RESOURCES RESEARCH NUMBER 21 ISSN: 0155-7548 TERMITES IN NE SOUTH ALES PART 1. TERMITE BIOLOGY MA Horwood and RH Eldridge Termites are pallid, secretive creatures colloquially

More information

Recall: Sexual selection can lead to antagonistic coevolution: At the level of individuals:

Recall: Sexual selection can lead to antagonistic coevolution: At the level of individuals: Recall: Sexual selection can lead to antagonistic coevolution: selection for traits in one sex that reduce the fitness of the other sex At the level of gametes: e.g., sperm protein (lysin) vs. egg membrane

More information

We ve got the technology NOW you ve got the control

We ve got the technology NOW you ve got the control We ve got the technology NOW you ve got the control THE REALITY OF TERMITES Unfortunately the old saying, There are only 2 types of homes in Australia, those that have termites and those that will get

More information

LAB : PAPER PET GENETICS. male (hat) female (hair bow) Skin color green or orange Eyes round or square Nose triangle or oval Teeth pointed or square

LAB : PAPER PET GENETICS. male (hat) female (hair bow) Skin color green or orange Eyes round or square Nose triangle or oval Teeth pointed or square Period Date LAB : PAPER PET GENETICS 1. Given the list of characteristics below, you will create an imaginary pet and then breed it to review the concepts of genetics. Your pet will have the following

More information

Introduction to Eastern Subterranean Termites

Introduction to Eastern Subterranean Termites Introduction to Eastern Subterranean Termites Order: Isoptera Family: Rhinotermitidae Scientific Name: Reticulitermes Flavipes (Kollar) Termites are relatively common pests, which can cause structural

More information

Carpenter Ants and Control in Homes

Carpenter Ants and Control in Homes Page 1 of 6 Carpenter Ants and Control in Homes Introduction Fact Sheet No. 31 Revised May 2000 Dr. Jay B Karren, Extension Entomologist Alan H. Roe, Insect Diagnostician Carpenter ants are members of

More information

Unique reproductive strategies have developed to ensure maximum reproductive success.

Unique reproductive strategies have developed to ensure maximum reproductive success. Animal Reproductive Strategies The ultimate goal of each species is to produce the maximum number of surviving offspring using the least amount of energy. This is called the reproductive effort. Asexual

More information

CAMPBELL BIOLOGY. Chapter 13

CAMPBELL BIOLOGY. Chapter 13 Lecture 10 Population Genetics CAMPBELL BIOLOGY Chapter 13 Hox Genes Control development Hox genes need to be highly regulated to get expressed at the right time and correct level to orchestrate mammalian

More information

Insect senses: how to hear with your legs and taste with your feet (yum!)

Insect senses: how to hear with your legs and taste with your feet (yum!) Insect senses: how to hear with your legs and taste with your feet (yum!) INSECT SENSES PART I: The obvious: Vision Hearing Smell PART II: The less obvious: A sense of time and direction PART III: Smell

More information

Queen Management Notes New Hampshire Bee Meeting October 28, 2006

Queen Management Notes New Hampshire Bee Meeting October 28, 2006 Queen Management Notes New Hampshire Bee Meeting October 28, 2006 By Dan Conlon Warm Colors Apiary South Deerfield, Massachusetts warmcolors@verizon.net 413-665-4513 www.warmcolorsapiary.com Understanding

More information

ELF Insect Life Cycles February 20, Mitchell Elementary School. Introduction:

ELF Insect Life Cycles February 20, Mitchell Elementary School. Introduction: ELF Insect Life Cycles February 20, 2015 Mitchell Elementary School Introduction: Focus: Insects go through different stages as they grow from egg to adult. The stages of their life cycles are timed to

More information

Animal Behavior. Evaluation copy

Animal Behavior. Evaluation copy Animal Behavior Computer 11 Perhaps one of the most difficult fields of biology to study is ethology, the study of animal behavior. Observation of a behavior is simple; interpreting what has been observed

More information

Investigation of the life of the praying mantis

Investigation of the life of the praying mantis INTRODUCTION Investigation of the life of the praying mantis Praying mantis (Orthodera novaezealandiae (Colenso)) was first recorded in New Zealand in the 1870s. It is found throughout New Zealand, although

More information

STUDENT VERSION INSECT COLONY SURVIVAL OPTIMIZATION

STUDENT VERSION INSECT COLONY SURVIVAL OPTIMIZATION STUDENT VERSION INSECT COLONY SURVIVAL OPTIMIZATION STATEMENT We model insect colony propagation or survival from nature using differential equations. We ask you to analyze and report on what is going

More information

Termites. Identification. Termites are social and can form large nests or colonies, consisting of three (3) major castes (types):

Termites. Identification. Termites are social and can form large nests or colonies, consisting of three (3) major castes (types): Termites Termites are small, white, tan or black insects that can cause severe damage to wooden structures. Termites belong to the insect order Isoptera, an ancient insect group that dates back more than

More information

Chapter 4 The development of behavior: a focus on the environment

Chapter 4 The development of behavior: a focus on the environment Chapter 4 The development of behavior: a focus on the environment Hormones can influence behavioral development in a variety of ways, some more obvious than others Organizational effects: involve hormonal

More information

Genetics Lecture Notes 7.03 2005. Lectures 1 2

Genetics Lecture Notes 7.03 2005. Lectures 1 2 Genetics Lecture Notes 7.03 2005 Lectures 1 2 Lecture 1 We will begin this course with the question: What is a gene? This question will take us four lectures to answer because there are actually several

More information

The Termite Problem in Utah

The Termite Problem in Utah BULLETIN OF THE UNIVERSITY OF UTAH Volume 30 December 27, 1939 No. 8 The Termite Problem in Utah B Y DON M. REES and ARDEN R. GAUFIN Department of Biology, University of Utah BIOLOGICAL SERIES, Vol. V,

More information

Honey Bee Biology. Dr. Debbie Delaney

Honey Bee Biology. Dr. Debbie Delaney Honey Bee Biology Dr. Debbie Delaney Morphology of the Honey Bee The honey bee has three body divisions Head Thorax Abdomen Head Drawing modified from R. E. Snodgrass Exoskeleton Body Hairs Morphology

More information

Introducing the Read-Aloud

Introducing the Read-Aloud Introducing the Read-Aloud Social Insects: Ants and Termites 5A 10 minutes What Have We Already Learned? 5 minutes Remind students that they learned about the habits of honeybees and paper wasps in the

More information

Pumpkin Pollinators. By Alex Surcică, Penn State Cooperative Extension

Pumpkin Pollinators. By Alex Surcică, Penn State Cooperative Extension Pumpkin Pollinators By Alex Surcică, Penn State Cooperative Extension Pumpkin fruit set can be affected by a number of production and environmental factors. For example, high plant densities can limit

More information

America s #1 Termite Defense.

America s #1 Termite Defense. America s #1 Termite Defense. Trust America s #1 termite defense to keep your home termite free. There are lots of termite control products available today. But determining which one is best for your home

More information

Honey Bee Background Information

Honey Bee Background Information Honey Bee Background Information Honey bees are very important. Honey bees are the strongest link in the chain between the people who grow the food and the people who eat the food. Without honey bee pollination,

More information

Power over reproduction in social Hymenoptera

Power over reproduction in social Hymenoptera FirstCite e-publishing Received 9 September 2002 Accepted 17 December 2002 Published online Power over reproduction in social Hymenoptera Madeleine Beekman 1,2* and Francis L. W. Ratnieks 2 1 Schools of

More information

with Termidor. Rest Assured termiticide/insecticide

with Termidor. Rest Assured termiticide/insecticide with Termidor. Rest Assured termiticide/insecticide America s # 1 Termite Defense. Determining which termite control product is best for your home means considering a number of factors. Needless to say,

More information

with Termidor. Rest Assured termiticide/insecticide

with Termidor. Rest Assured termiticide/insecticide with Termidor. Rest Assured termiticide/insecticide America s # 1 Termite Defense. Determining which termite control product is best for your home means considering a number of factors. Needless to say,

More information

Cloake Board Method of Queen Rearing and Banking

Cloake Board Method of Queen Rearing and Banking Cloake Board Method of Queen Rearing and Banking Rearing your own queens is one of the more interesting and rewarding aspects of beekeeping. It provides a means to maintain young, vigorous queens in colonies

More information

How do populations evolve?... Are there any trends?...

How do populations evolve?... Are there any trends?... How do populations evolve?... Are there any trends?... Gene pool: all of the genes of a population Allele frequency: the percentage of any particular allele in a gene pool A population in which an allele

More information

Mendelian Genetics in Drosophila

Mendelian Genetics in Drosophila Mendelian Genetics in Drosophila Lab objectives: 1) To familiarize you with an important research model organism,! Drosophila melanogaster. 2) Introduce you to normal "wild type" and various mutant phenotypes.

More information

Biology 1406 - Notes for exam 5 - Population genetics Ch 13, 14, 15

Biology 1406 - Notes for exam 5 - Population genetics Ch 13, 14, 15 Biology 1406 - Notes for exam 5 - Population genetics Ch 13, 14, 15 Species - group of individuals that are capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring; genetically similar 13.7, 14.2 Population

More information

Heredity - Patterns of Inheritance

Heredity - Patterns of Inheritance Heredity - Patterns of Inheritance Genes and Alleles A. Genes 1. A sequence of nucleotides that codes for a special functional product a. Transfer RNA b. Enzyme c. Structural protein d. Pigments 2. Genes

More information

Metamorphosis. reflect. look out!

Metamorphosis. reflect. look out! reflect Look at a picture of yourself when you were younger. Do you look the same now as you did then? Many things have probably changed. You have gotten taller, your body weighs more, and you are able

More information

Termitology (Grades 3 5)

Termitology (Grades 3 5) Lesson Overview This series of activities will engage students in an inquiry-based study of the ecology of termites. Students will explore the life cycle of termites, the termite s role in the food web,

More information

Metamorphosis 5.10C. A butterfly changes in size and shape as it develops from a young insect into an adult Rice University All Rights Reserved

Metamorphosis 5.10C. A butterfly changes in size and shape as it develops from a young insect into an adult Rice University All Rights Reserved Look at a picture of yourself when you were younger. Do you look the same now as you did then? Many things have probably changed. You have gotten taller, your body weighs more, and you are able to do things

More information

Animal behavior can be investigated in a variety of

Animal behavior can be investigated in a variety of 7 Behavioral Ecology Concept Outline 7. Evolutionary forces shape behavior. Behavioral Ecology. Behavior is shaped by natural selection. Foraging Behavior. Natural selection favors the most efficient foraging

More information

The presentation of the life cycle comes in different forms so you can just choose the kind of presentation you like and print it.

The presentation of the life cycle comes in different forms so you can just choose the kind of presentation you like and print it. Hello! Thank you for downloading my Animal Life Cycles learning materials. I create this material for my son who loves animals and loves to learn anything about them. We use this file for our Animal Kingdom

More information

Sexual Reproduction. The specialized cells that are required for sexual reproduction are known as. And come from the process of: GAMETES

Sexual Reproduction. The specialized cells that are required for sexual reproduction are known as. And come from the process of: GAMETES Sexual Reproduction Sexual Reproduction We know all about asexual reproduction 1. Only one parent required. 2. Offspring are identical to parents. 3. The cells that produce the offspring are not usually

More information

Sex Linkage. Reciprocal Cross. Exceptions 8/26/10

Sex Linkage. Reciprocal Cross. Exceptions 8/26/10 Sex Linkage Reciprocal Cross Organisms that have different sexes can be crossed in two different ways Phenotype A male X Phenotype B female Phenotype B male X Phenotype A female Mendel concluded that reciprocal

More information

Science Life Cycle of the Butterfly

Science Life Cycle of the Butterfly Science Life Cycle of the Butterfly Here is a big word for you to remember: metamorphosis. Metamorphosis means that an animal changes in the way it looks and behaves as it develops. Most insects go through

More information

Wood- Destroying Organism Inspection

Wood- Destroying Organism Inspection InterNACHI free online course is at http://www.nachi.org/wdocourse.htm. The purpose of the course is to define and teach good practice for: 1) conducting a wood- destroying organism inspection of a building;

More information

B R.ARY L I U N I OF THE VERS ITY ILLINOIS. U6c. no. 1-24. cop. 6 ^TURAL HISTORV SURVEY

B R.ARY L I U N I OF THE VERS ITY ILLINOIS. U6c. no. 1-24. cop. 6 ^TURAL HISTORV SURVEY L I U N I OF B R.ARY OF THE VERS ITY ILLINOIS 570 U6c no. 1-24 cop. 6 ^TURAL HISTORV SURVEY Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2011 with funding from University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign http://www.archive.org/details/habitscontroloft19mill

More information

2. is a process of nuclear division in which the number of chromosomes in certain cells is halved during gamete formation.

2. is a process of nuclear division in which the number of chromosomes in certain cells is halved during gamete formation. Meiosis 1. P. J. van Beneden proposed that an egg and a sperm, each containing half the complement of chromosomes found in somatic cells, fuse to produce a single cell called a. 2. is a process of nuclear

More information

Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles

Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Chapter 13 1 Ojectives Distinguish between the following terms: somatic cell and gamete; autosome and sex chromosomes; haploid and diploid. List the phases of meiosis I and

More information

Kristin Petrie BUGS!

Kristin Petrie BUGS! Kristin Petrie BUGS! ABDO Publishing Company Termites Kristin Petrie visit us at www.abdopublishing.com Published by ABDO Publishing Company, 8000 West 78th Street, Edina, Minnesota 55439. Copyright 2009

More information

Introduction. Swarm Intelligence - Thiemo Krink EVALife Group, Dept. of Computer Science, University of Aarhus

Introduction. Swarm Intelligence - Thiemo Krink EVALife Group, Dept. of Computer Science, University of Aarhus Swarm Intelligence - Thiemo Krink EVALife Group, Dept. of Computer Science, University of Aarhus Why do we need new computing techniques? The computer revolution changed human societies: communication

More information

Bio EOC Topics for Cell Reproduction: Bio EOC Questions for Cell Reproduction:

Bio EOC Topics for Cell Reproduction: Bio EOC Questions for Cell Reproduction: Bio EOC Topics for Cell Reproduction: Asexual vs. sexual reproduction Mitosis steps, diagrams, purpose o Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase, Cytokinesis Meiosis steps, diagrams, purpose

More information

Workshop on Microevolution

Workshop on Microevolution Workshop on Microevolution by Dana Krempels I. Discuss the meaning of: a. species f. heritable traits (consider "nature vs. nurture") b. population g. lethal alleles c. gene pool h. adaptive, maladaptive,

More information

Host a Learning Bee Hive!

Host a Learning Bee Hive! Host a Learning Bee Hive! Frequently Asked Questions Honeybees are incredibly important for two main reasons: pollination and honey creation! Pollination: According to the USDA Agricultural Research Service,

More information

Metamorphosis Rock, Paper, Scissors

Metamorphosis Rock, Paper, Scissors Teacher Lesson Plan Animal Life Cycles Pre-Visit Lesson Duration: 30-40 minutes Minnesota State Science Standard Correlations: 3.4.3.2.1. Wisconsin State Science Standard Correlations: C.4.1, C.4.2, F

More information

We have put together the following guidance on the different kinds of pests that we treat.

We have put together the following guidance on the different kinds of pests that we treat. Pest Control Guidance Document: We have put together the following guidance on the different kinds of pests that we treat. If you need advice or help with pests, please contact us on 01942 404364. Contents

More information

Total Course Hours. Semester Degree code. ID Course Name Professor Course Content Summary. 90 1 st 11070

Total Course Hours. Semester Degree code. ID Course Name Professor Course Content Summary. 90 1 st 11070 LEA0170 Invertebrate Zoology I Italo Delalibera Junior Characterization and importance of the Porifera, Cnidaria, Platyhelminthes, Nemata, Mollusca, Annelida, Echinodermata phyla and smaller invertebrate

More information

GUIDELINES FOR THE REGISTRATION OF BIOLOGICAL PEST CONTROL AGENTS FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS

GUIDELINES FOR THE REGISTRATION OF BIOLOGICAL PEST CONTROL AGENTS FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS GUIDELINES FOR THE REGISTRATION OF BIOLOGICAL PEST CONTROL AGENTS FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS -ii- GUIDELINES ON THE REGISTRATION OF BIOLOGICAL PEST CONTROL AGENTS FOOD AND

More information

CCR Biology - Chapter 7 Practice Test - Summer 2012

CCR Biology - Chapter 7 Practice Test - Summer 2012 Name: Class: Date: CCR Biology - Chapter 7 Practice Test - Summer 2012 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. A person who has a disorder caused

More information

Home Termite Control. Handouts. Presented By: Brad Anderson

Home Termite Control. Handouts. Presented By: Brad Anderson Home Termite Control Handouts Presented By: Brad Anderson Table of Contents How to distinguish ants and termites... 3 Life Cycle of Termites... 3 Termite Prevention: How to Control Termites at Home...

More information

Whitepaper: By: Martin Lenich Owner, Inspect-It 1 st, Phoenix martinlenich@inspectit1st.com

Whitepaper: By: Martin Lenich Owner, Inspect-It 1 st, Phoenix martinlenich@inspectit1st.com Whitepaper: Everything You Need to Know (but may not WANT to know!) About Termites The different types, the signs of infestation, and the preventative measure every homeowner should take By: Martin Lenich

More information

Simulation Model of Mating Behavior in Flies

Simulation Model of Mating Behavior in Flies Simulation Model of Mating Behavior in Flies MEHMET KAYIM & AYKUT Ecological and Evolutionary Genetics Lab. Department of Biology, Middle East Technical University International Workshop on Hybrid Systems

More information

Chapter 13: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles

Chapter 13: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Name Period Chapter 13: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Concept 13.1 Offspring acquire genes from parents by inheriting chromosomes 1. Let s begin with a review of several terms that you may already know.

More information

Unit 3 Section 1 Lesson 1: Extreme Makeover

Unit 3 Section 1 Lesson 1: Extreme Makeover Focus Areas: Animal Life Styles; Science, Math, Language Arts Focus Skills: researching a topic using multiple sources, using mathematical functions, comparing and contrasting, following verbal directions

More information

The most effective undetectable termite control product available in New York

The most effective undetectable termite control product available in New York The most effective undetectable termite control product available in New York The most serious threat The Eastern Subterranean termite is the most common termite species and poses the most serious threat

More information

Introduction to Integrated Pest Management. John C. Wise, Ph.D. Michigan State University MSU Trevor Nichols Research Complex

Introduction to Integrated Pest Management. John C. Wise, Ph.D. Michigan State University MSU Trevor Nichols Research Complex Introduction to Integrated Pest Management John C. Wise, Ph.D. Michigan State University MSU Trevor Nichols Research Complex What is Integrated Pest Management? Integrated Pest Management (IPM) New concept;

More information

9.1: Mechanisms of Evolution and Their Effect on Populations pg. 350-359

9.1: Mechanisms of Evolution and Their Effect on Populations pg. 350-359 9.1: Mechanisms of Evolution and Their Effect on Populations pg. 350-359 Key Terms: gene flow, non-random mating, genetic drift, founder effect, bottleneck effect, stabilizing selection, directional selection

More information

Complete and Incomplete Metamorphosis. Let s look at the difference!

Complete and Incomplete Metamorphosis. Let s look at the difference! Complete and Incomplete Metamorphosis Let s look at the difference! What is metamorphosis? Metamorphosis refers to the way that certain organisms develop, grow, and change form. Metamorphosis actually

More information

AARHUS UNIVERSITY JUNE 15, 2010 BED BUGS OLE KILPINEN DANISH PEST INFESTATION LABORATORY INSTITUTE OF INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT DENMARK

AARHUS UNIVERSITY JUNE 15, 2010 BED BUGS OLE KILPINEN DANISH PEST INFESTATION LABORATORY INSTITUTE OF INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT DENMARK BED BUGS OLE KILPINEN DANISH PEST INFESTATION LABORATORY INSTITUTE OF INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT AARHUS DENMARK 1 Bed bug problems in Europe Bed bug biology -new results and importance for control Host

More information

Worksheets. (Caterpillars of Singapore s Butterflies) Worksheet Title Recommended level. Adaptations of the caterpillar defence mechanism

Worksheets. (Caterpillars of Singapore s Butterflies) Worksheet Title Recommended level. Adaptations of the caterpillar defence mechanism Worksheets (Caterpillars of Singapore s Butterflies) Worksheet Title Recommended level 1 Life cycle of a butterfly P3 2 Am I an insect? P3 3 4 Adaptations of the caterpillar defence mechanism The butterfly

More information

The Genetics of Drosophila melanogaster

The Genetics of Drosophila melanogaster The Genetics of Drosophila melanogaster Thomas Hunt Morgan, a geneticist who worked in the early part of the twentieth century, pioneered the use of the common fruit fly as a model organism for genetic

More information

MCB41: Second Midterm Spring 2009

MCB41: Second Midterm Spring 2009 MCB41: Second Midterm Spring 2009 Before you start, print your name and student identification number (S.I.D) at the top of each page. There are 7 pages including this page. You will have 50 minutes for

More information

17. A testcross A.is used to determine if an organism that is displaying a recessive trait is heterozygous or homozygous for that trait. B.

17. A testcross A.is used to determine if an organism that is displaying a recessive trait is heterozygous or homozygous for that trait. B. ch04 Student: 1. Which of the following does not inactivate an X chromosome? A. Mammals B. Drosophila C. C. elegans D. Humans 2. Who originally identified a highly condensed structure in the interphase

More information

The Developing Person Through the Life Span 8e by Kathleen Stassen Berger

The Developing Person Through the Life Span 8e by Kathleen Stassen Berger The Developing Person Through the Life Span 8e by Kathleen Stassen Berger Chapter 3 Heredity and Environment PowerPoint Slides developed by Martin Wolfger and Michael James Ivy Tech Community College-Bloomington

More information

King, B.H. and S.W. Skinner. 1991. Sex ratio in a new species of Nasonia with fully-winged males. Evolution 45:225-228.

King, B.H. and S.W. Skinner. 1991. Sex ratio in a new species of Nasonia with fully-winged males. Evolution 45:225-228. King, B.H. and S.W. Skinner. 1991. Sex ratio in a new species of Nasonia with fully-winged males. Evolution 45:225-228. This version matches the text but not the formatting of the published article. SEX

More information

WHAT'S HAPPENING IN THE ENVIRONMENT? 3 SEPTEMBER 2014

WHAT'S HAPPENING IN THE ENVIRONMENT? 3 SEPTEMBER 2014 WHAT'S HAPPENING IN THE ENVIRONMENT? 3 SEPTEMBER 2014 Lesson Description In this lesson we: Look at predator-prey relationships Discuss types of competition Consider specialisation Look at the different

More information

Lesson Goals: Students will describe differences and similarities in how organisms are adapted to survive

Lesson Goals: Students will describe differences and similarities in how organisms are adapted to survive Lesson Title: Body Systems of a tick Lesson Abstract: Students will compare body systems of a tick and human. Length of lesson: 30 40 min Lesson Goals: Students will describe differences and similarities

More information

Lifecycle of an Insect: Guessing Game Created by Marie Sayles, Garden Educator Sunset Elementary, San Francisco Unified School District

Lifecycle of an Insect: Guessing Game Created by Marie Sayles, Garden Educator Sunset Elementary, San Francisco Unified School District Lifecycle of an Insect: Guessing Game Created by Marie Sayles, Garden Educator Sunset Elementary, San Francisco Unified School District LESSON SUMMARY In this lesson, students will learn the lifecycles

More information

Worksheets. (Caterpillars of Singapore s Butterflies) Worksheet Title Recommended level. Adaptations of the caterpillar defence mechanism

Worksheets. (Caterpillars of Singapore s Butterflies) Worksheet Title Recommended level. Adaptations of the caterpillar defence mechanism Worksheets (Caterpillars of Singapore s Butterflies) Worksheet Title Recommended level 1 Life cycle of a butterfly P3 2 Am I an insect? P3 3 4 Adaptations of the caterpillar defence mechanism The butterfly

More information

PLANT EVOLUTION DISPLAY Handout

PLANT EVOLUTION DISPLAY Handout PLANT EVOLUTION DISPLAY Handout Name: TA and Section time Welcome to UCSC Greenhouses. This sheet explains a few botanical facts about plant reproduction that will help you through the display and handout.

More information

Chapter 9 Patterns of Inheritance

Chapter 9 Patterns of Inheritance Bio 100 Patterns of Inheritance 1 Chapter 9 Patterns of Inheritance Modern genetics began with Gregor Mendel s quantitative experiments with pea plants History of Heredity Blending theory of heredity -

More information

White-footed Ants 1. Introduction. Where Did The White-footed Ant Come From And Where Is It Now? ENY-635

White-footed Ants 1. Introduction. Where Did The White-footed Ant Come From And Where Is It Now? ENY-635 ENY-635 White-footed Ants 1 J. Warner, R.H. Scheffrahn, and B.J. Cabrera. 2 Introduction The white-footed ant has become a major household pest in Florida. Homeowners, pest control companies, and the news

More information

Mendelian and Non-Mendelian Heredity Grade Ten

Mendelian and Non-Mendelian Heredity Grade Ten Ohio Standards Connection: Life Sciences Benchmark C Explain the genetic mechanisms and molecular basis of inheritance. Indicator 6 Explain that a unit of hereditary information is called a gene, and genes

More information

Genetics Copyright, 2009, by Dr. Scott Poethig, Dr. Ingrid Waldron, and Jennifer Doherty Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania 1

Genetics Copyright, 2009, by Dr. Scott Poethig, Dr. Ingrid Waldron, and Jennifer Doherty Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania 1 Genetics Copyright, 2009, by Dr. Scott Poethig, Dr. Ingrid Waldron, and Jennifer Doherty Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania 1 We all know that children tend to resemble their parents in

More information

Life cycle of a butterfly. Egg

Life cycle of a butterfly. Egg Worksheet 1 Life cycle of a butterfly Egg Adult / butterfly Larva / caterpillar Pupa / chrysalis Worksheet 2 Am I an insect? An insect has _3 body parts: head, thorax and abdomen. It has _6_ legs coming

More information

The Concept of Inclusive Fitness 1 Ethology and Behavioral Ecology Spring 2008

The Concept of Inclusive Fitness 1 Ethology and Behavioral Ecology Spring 2008 The Concept of Inclusive Fitness 1 Ethology and Behavioral Ecology Spring 2008 I. The components of Fitness A. Direct fitness W d, darwinian fitness, W gained by increasing ones own reproduction relative

More information

INTRODUCTION TO DROSOPHILA GENETICS

INTRODUCTION TO DROSOPHILA GENETICS INTRODUCTION TO DROSOPHILA GENETICS DROSOPHILA CULTURE We will study basic principles of Mendelian inheritance with the use of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster [the name means black-bodied fruit-lover

More information

Structural Pest Control Learning Objectives

Structural Pest Control Learning Objectives Category 7C: Structural Pest Control (Wood-Destroying Pests) Structural Pest Control Learning Objectives After studying this section, you should be able to: Describe the most common wood destroying pest

More information

The Cricket Lab. Introduction

The Cricket Lab. Introduction The Cricket Lab Introduction Humans have always been fascinated by crickets, mostly because crickets sing. Movie producers add their songs to sound tracks. The Chinese have used them for medicinal purposes,

More information

3. Which statement best describes the growth pattern of a population of organisms in nature?

3. Which statement best describes the growth pattern of a population of organisms in nature? North arolina Testing Program EO iology Sample Items Goal 5 1. The snowshoe rabbit has white fur in winter and dark fur in summer. What is the main advantage of this fur color change to the rabbit? The

More information

240Tutoring Life Science Study Material

240Tutoring Life Science Study Material 240Tutoring Life Science Study Material This information is a sample of the instructional content and practice questions found on the 240Tutoring GACE Early Childhood Education. This information is meant

More information

Adapted from activities and information found at University of Surrey Website http://www.mcs.surrey.ac.uk/personal/r.knott/fibonacci/fibnat.

Adapted from activities and information found at University of Surrey Website http://www.mcs.surrey.ac.uk/personal/r.knott/fibonacci/fibnat. 12: Finding Fibonacci patterns in nature Adapted from activities and information found at University of Surrey Website http://www.mcs.surrey.ac.uk/personal/r.knott/fibonacci/fibnat.html Curriculum connections

More information

The Life Cycle of Butterflies and Beetles By: Sue Peterson

The Life Cycle of Butterflies and Beetles By: Sue Peterson www.k5learning.com Objective sight words (life cycle, stages, oval, intended, enclose, transformation, structures, reproductive, mates, colonizes, metamorphosis, emerges); concepts (stages of growth) Vocabulary

More information

with Termidor. Rest Assured termiticide/insecticide

with Termidor. Rest Assured termiticide/insecticide with Termidor. Rest Assured termiticide/insecticide America s # 1 Termite Defense. Determining which termite control product is best for your home means considering a number of factors. Needless to say,

More information

Exam 1. CSS/Hort 430. 2008 All questions worth 2 points

Exam 1. CSS/Hort 430. 2008 All questions worth 2 points Exam 1. CSS/Hort 430. 2008 All questions worth 2 points 1. A general definition of plants is they are eukaryotic, multi-cellular organisms and are usually photosynthetic. In this definition, eukaryotic

More information

Basics of Marker Assisted Selection

Basics of Marker Assisted Selection asics of Marker ssisted Selection Chapter 15 asics of Marker ssisted Selection Julius van der Werf, Department of nimal Science rian Kinghorn, Twynam Chair of nimal reeding Technologies University of New

More information

Symbiosis, Competition, Predator/Prey

Symbiosis, Competition, Predator/Prey Symbiosis, Competition, Predator/Prey Why Do Living Things Interact With Each Other? Because, in order to survive, a living organism depends on other living things. Organisms may interact to find food

More information