# PRESSURE DROP ANALYSIS OF INLET PIPE WITH REDUCER AND WITHOUT REDUCER USING CFD ANALYSIS

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1 International Journal of Mechanical Engineering (IJME) ISSN(P): ; ISSN(E): Vol. 4, Issue 3, Apr - May 2015, IASET PRESSURE DROP ANALYSIS OF INLET PIPE WITH REDUCER AND WITHOUT REDUCER USING CFD ANALYSIS V.H.BANSODE, ACHARI SWATI NIVRUTTI, PAWAR SAURABH NANDLAL & BHARDANDE NIKITA SANJAY Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Smt. Kashibai Navale College of Engineering, Pune, Maharashtra, India ABSTRACT A plate heat exchanger uses metal plates to transfer heat between two fluids. The metal plates are made up of stainless steel because of its ability to withstand high temperatures, its strength and its corrosion resistance. PHE is use in industries such as chemical, food and pharmaceutical process and refrigeration. The attempt made in this paper is to study the pressure drop in accessories of plate heat exchanger and to observe which geometry of inlet pipe gives the best results. Using simulation. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) is a tool used in this simulation which consists of ICEM CFD and FLUENT. Volume meshing in ICEM is an important part to be considered before doing simulation in FLUENT as a solver. The velocity for water were calculated using flow rate of 1680m 3 /hour. Inlet dimension of pipe is 500mm and material of pipe is steel. Water is fluid which is passed through pipe. The temperature of water is 25degree Celsius. Thus, this paper presents the simulation of pressure drop at inlet of reducer and without reducer of pipe of plate heat exchanger model. KEYWORDS: Plate Heat Exchanger (PHE), CFD, ICEM, Pressure Drop Analysis INTRODUCTION Over the past quarter century, the importance of plate heat exchanger(phe) in industries all over world has increased rapidly. Heat exchanger is a device in which the flow of thermal energy between two or more fluids at different temperatures. Now-a-days PHE widely used in different industries such as chemical, food and pharmaceutical process and refrigeration due to a many of advantages such as compactness, flexibility, ease maintenance and ability to recover heat at extremely small temperature differences. However, the growth of the process industries include mainly reliable operation and high combination of temperature levels, pressure drop, fouling resistance, hence plate heat exchangers become the fastest growing member of the heat exchanger family. Inlet pipe of Plate heat exchanger is made up of steel. Inlet of pipe is connected to the 2.4 bar motor and outlet of inlet pipe is connected to the PHE. In between inlet and outlet of pipe reducer is installed. Pressure drop is important parameter in pipe flow. Pressure drop generally occurs due to friction, pipe elevation, change in kinetic energy. The pressure drop caused by friction of fluid flow i.e. turbulent flow depends on roughness of pipe.

2 86 V. H. Bansode, Achari Swati Nivrutti, Pawar Saurabh Nandlal & Bhardande Nikita Sanjay The pressure drop between inlet pipe is calculated by analytical as well as by simulation method. This paper makes a contribution to the overall effort to increase understanding of the behaviour fluid flow in PHE inlet pipe. PROBLEM STATEMENT The Plate Heat Exchanger (PHE) with constant flow rate of 1680m 3 /hr. Water is use as cooling fluid which is at room temperature. Reducer and without reducer inlet pipe of standard dimensions are fitted to heat exchanger. To calculate and analyse of pressure drop occurs between cross-section of pipe pe by using CFD and Mathematical equations. Case 1: Pressure drop using reducer. Case 2: Pressure drop without using reducer (i.e. sudden contraction) THERMAL PROPERTIES OF STAINLESS STEEL Thermal Conductivity = 17 W/m.K Density = 7.93Mg/m 3 Specific Heat =490J/kg.k THERMAL PROPERTIES OF FRESH WATER Thermal Conductivity= W/m.k Density =997.4 kg/m 3 Specific Heat= 4181 J/Kg.K MODELLING OF INLET PIPE Modelling is a pre-processor processor tool, modelling of inlet pipe is done in Creo and meshing of inlet pipe is created using the ICEM CFD software. Meshing can be defined as the process of splitting a physical domain into smaller sub domain in order to facilitate the numerical solution of a partial differential equation. Figure 1: Mesh of Inlet Pipe with Reducer Figure 2: Mesh of Inlet Pipe without Reducer Impact Factor (JCC): NAAS Rating: 2.02

3 Pressure Drop Analysis of Inlet Pipe with Reducer and without Reducer Using CFD Analysis 87 ANALYTICAL CALCULATION Given Data Flow Rate (Q) =1680m 3 /hr Flow Rate (Q) = m 3 /s T= 25 D 1 =500 mm D 2 =300 mm SOLUTION A 1 = /4 * (D 1 ) 2 = m 2 A 2 = /4 * (D 2 ) 2 = m 2 By continuity Equation, Similarly, Q= A 1 V 1 V 1 = Q/A 1 = m/s Q=A 2 V 2 V 2 = Q/A 2 = m/s REYNOLD S No:- At T= 25, µ = 0.894*10-3 Pas Re=VD/µ For D 1 =500 mm=0.5 m Re 1 =V 1 D 1 /µ Re 1 = For D 2 = 300 mm=0.3m Re 2 =V 2 D 2 /µ Re 2 = Friction Factor Assuming smooth pipe, For D 1 =0.5m 1/ f =2.03 log 10 (Re 1 f) (Page No-608, Modi & Seth) f=

4 88 V. H. Bansode, Achari Swati Nivrutti, Pawar Saurabh Nandlal & Bhardande Nikita Sanjay By Nikuradse s Experiment, 1/ f =2.03 log 10 (Re 1 f )-0.8 f= For D 1 =0.3m 1/ f =2.03 log 10 (Re 2 f) f= / f =2.03 log 10 (Re 2 f) -0.8 f= Case 1: Pressure drop with reducer. Figure P 1 =2.4 bar.(given) By Darcy Weisbach Equation, For Region 1, h f = flv 1 2 /2gD 1 h f = m P 1 - P 2 /γ =h f P 2 = bar P 2 = Pas For Region 2, By Bernoulli s Theorem, P 2 /γ +V 2 1 /2g =P 3 /γ +V 2 2 /2g +h f h f =4fQˆ2lˆ5/2gπ 2 D 5 2 [1/lˆ4-1/(L+l)ˆ4] ( Page No-475,Modi & Seth) h f = *10ˆ5/9810+(2.3773)ˆ2/2*9.81=P 3 /9810+(6.6021)ˆ2/2* P 3 = bar Impact Factor (JCC): NAAS Rating: 2.02

5 Pressure Drop Analysis of Inlet Pipe with Reducer and without Reducer Using CFD Analysis 89 P 3 =220666Pas For Region 3, h f = flv 2ˆ2/2gD 2 h f = m P 3 -P 4 /γ= h f *10ˆ5 P 4 /9810= P 4 = bar P 4 = Pas Case 2:- Pressure drop without reducer. For Region 1 P 1 =2.4 bar.(given) Figure h f = flv 1 2 /2gD 1 h f = (P 1 -P 2 )/γ=h f P 2 = bar For Region 2 P 2 /γ+v 2 1 /2g=P 3 /γ+v 2 2 /2g+h L Assume Coefficient of Contraction(Cc)=0.5 h L =V 2 2 /2g[1/Cc-1] 2 h L = m *10 5 / /(2*9.81)=P 3 / /(2*9.81) P3= bar For Region 3 h f =FLV 2 2 /2gD 2

6 90 V. H. Bansode, Achari Swati Nivrutti, Pawar Saurabh Nandlal & Bhardande Nikita Sanjay h f = m P 3 -P 4 /γ=h f *10 5 -P 4 /9810= P 4 = bar CFD ANALYSIS Case1: Pressure drop with Reducer Figure 3: Graph of Pressure Drop in Pipe with Reducer Case 2:- Pressure drop without reducer Figure 4: Variation of Pressure in Pipe with Reducer Using CFD Fluent Impact Factor (JCC): NAAS Rating: 2.02

7 Pressure Drop Analysis of Inlet Pipe with Reducer and without Reducer Using CFD Analysis 91 Figure 5: Graph of Pressure Drop in Pipe without Reducer RESULT following table. Figure 6:- Variation of Pressure in Pipe without Reducer Result of Pressure drop with reducer and without reducer by Analytical analysis and CFD analysis shown in Pressure Drop with Reducer Pressure Drop without Reducer Analytical Analysis CFD Analysis Analytical Analysis CFD Analysis P bar 2.38e 5 bar bar 2.39e 5 bar P bar 2.19e 5 bar bar 1.97e 5 bar Pressure drop (P 2 -P 3 ) bar 0.19e 5 bar bar 0.42e 5 bar DISCUSSIONS Thus the CFD result is calculated for inlet with reducer and without reducer. The pressure drop for inlet pipe with

8 92 V. H. Bansode, Achari Swati Nivrutti, Pawar Saurabh Nandlal & Bhardande Nikita Sanjay reducer is 0.19e 5 bar and that for without reducer is 0.42e 5 bar which is more than with reducer inlet pipe. Whereas analytical results are bar for with reducer and bar for without reducer inlet pipe. Therefore range of variation for analytical and CFD results is within 5%. Hence results are validated. Now, from result, the pressure drop with reducer is less than pressure drop without reducer. Hence its observed that inlet pipe with reducer is better as compared to inlet pipe without reducer. CONCLUSIONS After performing all the analysis work for inlet pipe with reducer and without reducer the following observation had been done. From study of result as mentioned in table, after performing the calculation the pressure drop of inlet pipe with reducer and without reducer are bar and bar respectively which is nearer to the value mentioned in CFD analysis. As we change inlet pipe from with reducer to without reducer, the pressure drop (P 2 -P 3 ) had been varied. Analysis has been done by varying the inlet pipe and it is found that inlet pipe with reducer gives better pressure drop than inlet pipe without reducer. REFERENCES 1. Takeshi Hara, Research on pipe flow in manifold block, The Proceedings on Spring Conference of Fluid Power System Society, 2010, pp Osamu ABE, Tetsuhiro TSUKIJI, Takeshi HARA, Pressure drop of pipe flow in manifold block, The Proceedings of the 8 th JFPS International Symposium on Fluid Power, OKINAWA A.G. Kanaris, A.A. Mouza, S.V. Paras, Flow and heat transfer prediction in a corrugated plate heat exchanger using a CFD code, Chem. Eng. Technol. 8 (2006) 923e S. Jun, V.M. Puri, 3D milk-fouling model of plate heat exchangers using computational fluid dynamics, Int. J. Dairy Tech. 84 (4) (2005). 5. ]Y. Wang, Q.W. Dong, M.S. Liu, D. Wang, Numerical study on plate-fin heat exchangers with plain fins and serrated fins at low Reynolds number, Chem. Eng. Technol. 32 (8) (2009) 1219e B.Jayachandriah1, K. Rajasekhar, Thermal Analysis of Tubular Heat Exchangers Using ANSYS, International Journal of Engineering Research Volume No.3 Issue No: Special 1, pp : Colebrook CF, Turbulent flow in pipes, with particular reference to the transition region between the smooth and rough pipe laws, J. Inst. Civil. Eng. (LONDON), 11:133 Impact Factor (JCC): NAAS Rating: 2.02

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