# Design and Pressure Loss Reduction in the Hydrogen Flow Heat Exchanger with Tube Bundles

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Design and Pressure Loss Reduction in the Hydrogen Flow Heat Exchanger with Tube Bundles"

## Transcription

1 Design and Pressure Loss Reduction in the Hydrogen Flow Heat Exchanger with Tube Bundles By Ahmad, Ph.D. College of Engineering and Computer Science University of Central Florida Orlando, FL ABSTRACT Pressure drop reduction in the hydrogen gas that enters a heat exchanger with tube bundles coaxially and guided radially for cooling purposes is investigated. Due to the drastic change in the flow direction and its inherently three-dimensional nature, the resultant pressure loss constitutes a long-term cost for the operation of the overall system. To optimize the design, a one-dimensional model of the fluid flow is established to calculate the pressure drop across the Heat Exchanger (HE) using existing correlations. The calculations showed that the proposed enhanced design can reduce the pressure loss across the cooler by about 12% for the studied range of flow rate. Then, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools were used to investigate enhanced designs. The existing geometry of the cooler as well as the test rig geometry from which experimental data were available were used to validate the computational results. Two approaches have been investigated to model the tube bundle finned tubes: porous media approximation and effective diameter concept. The advantage of the latter approach over the former is that the path of the fluid and the detailed history of the pressure and velocity across the tube bundle can be tracked precisely. Hence the effective diameter approach was used to model the flow across the tube bundle for six different designs. The final enhanced design showed a reduction in total mass weighted average pressure drop of 15% compared to existing design at the desired flow rate. Keywords: Heat Exchanger, Tube Bundle, Pressure Drop, CFD Nomenclature: d h = hydraulic diameter (m) g = acceleration of gravity (m/s 2 ) h = elevation (m) l = length of duct or pipe (m) Volume 9 No. 2 ISSN#

2 p = pressure in fluid (Pa (N/m 2 )) p loss = pressure loss (Pa (N/m 2 )) ρ = density of the fluid (kg/m 3 ) v = flow velocity (m/s) f = friction factor Volume 9 No. 2 ISSN#

3 1. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND The performance of electric generators depends on stress, rotor vibrations and thermal behavior. Once the physical size of the machine has been limited by the mechanical constraints, the only remaining way by which the power output may be increased is via increases in the electrical and magnetic loadings in the stator and rotor of the machine. The implied consequential increase in the absolute level of general inefficiencies within the machine necessitates a reliable cooling system to be incorporated into the fundamental design concept. This is to ensure that the thermal losses are dissipated at temperature levels compatible with an acceptable lifespan of the electrical materials used in generator construction. For decades researchers have investigated various aspects of cooling in generators in order to understand flow and heat transfer characteristics in these machines so that more optimal and efficient designs can be achieved. The flow and heat transfer in grooved annuli commonly used in electric rotating machinery have been studied by many researchers [1-3]. Research on heat transfer and fluid flow mainly in large electrical machines can be found in [4]. The author [5-9] has studied several configurations with higher rotation numbers and higher wall heat flux. In Hydrogen cooled large electric generators, hydrogen gas at 414 to 517 kpa is circulated through the generator and cooled by coolers. Hydrogen gas is used because of its high thermal diffusivity (1.5 cm 2 /sec, compared with 0.2 cm 2 /sec of air at STP) that would allow more compact geometry and lower flow rates (i.e., lower costs) and lower power required to blow the gas through the generator and cooler (greater generator efficiency) respectively. Because of the inherent cylindrical geometry of generators, the use of space is greatly enhanced by using a circular water cooler. The hydrogen gas, after leaving the generator is turned around to flow axially in the space between generator housing and the water cooler. The gas will then have to enter the water cooler in the radially inward direction to be cooled before entering the generator assembly, where heat is generated both by friction of bearing and by the generator due to electrical and magnetic dissipation. In summary, hydrogen is blown in a closed loop through the generator components and then through the cooler removing the heat and returned to the generator. The pressure loss for a flow rate of nearly 90 m 3 /sec (average velocity 20 m/s or 45 MPH) in the cross section is expected to be large. However, existing data for similar flow configuration is very limited and focused predominantly on pin fins fixed at the circumference of a cylindrical straight tube that are not even close to the geometry in question. The limited knowledge is the primary obstacle to future improvement on the generator efficiency. As a first step toward generating necessary data for design consideration for pressure reduction, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study was performed and reported in this paper. The objectives of this study are: (1) To investigate, using current state-of-the-art CFD tools, the pressure drop of the existing geometry of the cooler and to compare to experimental pressure drop measurements performed previously. Volume 9 No. 2 ISSN#

4 (2) To investigate several designs that would provide reduction in pressure drop and to determine the best design. The tasks to be completed are: establish a one-dimensional analytical model of the fluid flow, establish a two-dimensional axisymmetric computational model for current geometry as well as for experimental test rig geometry, perform benchmark calculations to determine the pressure drop for the current geometry and for geometry used in the test rig at specified flow rates and validate the computational approach, propose and investigate enhanced designs and compare to current design, and determine the final design that would provide the maximum reduction in pressure drop. Volume 9 No. 2 ISSN#

5 2. GEOMETRY OF THE HEAT EXCHANGER AND THE TEST RIG Figure 1 gives geometry and dimensions for the flow model. Figure 2 provides geometry for experimentally tested flow domain. The tube bundle contains four sections of tubes each section contains 68 finned tubes, which makes the total number of finned tubes in the bundle 272 tubes. The diameter of tubes is 20mm placed at 34.5mm spacing. The fins are made of copper of 0.25 mm thickness and of diameter = 34mm with fin pitch =3.5mm. The experimental pressure drop measurements will be used to validate the computational flow model and the effective diameter concept of the tubes in the bundle. Figure 1: Geometry and flow domain for existing design (Geometry #1). Dimensions are in mm. 5

6 Figure 2: Geometry and flow domain for experimentally tested geometry. (Geometry #0) 3. PRESSURE LOSS CALCULATIONS The pressure drop is calculated analytically based on major and minor pressure losses and the corresponding friction factors. 3.1 Pressure loss calculation in the entrance region The pressure loss in the entrance of the cooler is divided into major loss due to friction and minor loss due to change of velocity in bends, turns, etc. : Major loss - pressure loss - due to friction According to the Energy Equation for a fluid the total energy can be summarized as elevation energy, velocity energy and pressure energy. The Energy Equation can be expressed as [10]: p 1 + ρ v 1 2 / 2 + ρ g h 1 = p 2 + ρ v 2 2 / 2 + ρ g h 2 + p loss (1) where p = pressure in fluid (Pa (N/m 2 ), psi (lb/ft 2 )) p loss = pressure loss (Pa (N/m 2 ), psi (lb/ft 2 )) ρ = density of the fluid (kg/m 3, slugs/ft 3 ) v = flow velocity (m/s, ft/s) g = acceleration of gravity (m/s 2, ft/s 2 ) h = elevation (m, ft) The pressure loss in pipes and tubes depends on the flow velocity, pipe or duct length, pipe or duct diameter, and a friction factor based on the roughness of the pipe or duct, and whether the flow is turbulent or laminar - the Reynolds Number of the flow. The pressure loss in a tube or duct due to friction, major loss, can be expressed as: 6

7 p loss = f (l / d h ) (ρ v 2 / 2) (2) where p loss = pressure loss (Pa, N/m 2 ) f = friction factor l = length of duct or pipe (m) d h = hydraulic diameter (m) Equation (2) is also called the Darcy-Weisbach Equation and is valid for fully developed, steady, incompressible flow, see [10]. The friction coefficient, f depends on the flow - if it is laminar, transient or turbulent - and the roughness of the tube or duct. For turbulent flow the friction coefficient depends on the Reynolds Number and the roughness of the duct or pipe wall. On functional form this can be expressed as: f = f( Re, ε / d h ) (3) where ε = relative roughness of tube or duct wall (mm) ε / d h = the roughness ratio The friction coefficient - λ - can be calculated by the Colebrooke Equation: 1 / f 1/2 = -2,0 log 10 [ (2.51 / (Re f 1/2 )) + (ε / d h ) / 3.72 ] (4) Minor Loss Pressure drops and minor loss in components correlates with the dynamic pressure and the minor loss can be expressed as: p loss = ξ 1/2 ρ v 2 (5) where ξ = minor loss coefficient p loss = pressure loss (Pa (N/m 2 )) v = flow velocity (m/s) The minor losses in components depend primarily on the geometrical construction of the component and the impact the construction has on the fluid flow due to change in velocity and cross flow fluid accelerations. The fluid properties - in general expressed with the Reynolds number - also impact the minor loss. Table 1 provides commonly used in open literature minor loss coefficients for air ducts. Table 1: Minor loss coefficients for different components common in air ducts: Component or Fitting Minor Loss 7

8 90 o bend, sharp o bend, with vanes o bend, rounded radius/diameter duct < o bend, rounded radius/diameter duct > Enlargement, abrupt (due to speed before reduction) (v 1 = velocity before enlargement and v 2 = velocity after enlargement) Enlargement, tapered angle < 8 o (due to speed before reduction) (v 1 = velocity before enlargement and v 2 = velocity after enlargement) Coefficient, ξ (1 - v 2 / v 1 ) (1 - v 2 / v 1 ) Pressure loss calculation in high-finned tube bank Most of the correlations for pressure drop across banks of finned tubes in open literature are subject to great uncertainty, [11], [12]. Robinson and Briggs [13] Correlation is one of the better correlations as discussed in [13] and is given as follows: (6) where fr is the friction factor and Pt is the transverse pitch between adjacent tubes in the same row. The friction factor is defined as (7) where ΔP air is the pressure drop across the tube bank and n is the number of tubes in rows in the bank. The correlation represents data for tube banks with root diameters from to 1.61 in., fin diameters from in. to in., and pitches from to 4.5 in. Theses parameters fall within the range of parameters studied in this paper, which makes Robinson and Briggs [13] Correlation most suitable correlation to be used for validation purposes. 8

9 3.3 One dimensional analytical results of pressure loss Pressure loss for existing design The existing design contains sharp turns and edges as shown in Figure 3. Pressure loss results are given in Tables 2 and 3 for flow rates of Q 1 and Q 2, respectively. Figure 3: Analytical flow domain for existing design Table 2: Pressure loss for Case-1: Q 1 = m 3 /s existing design Losses Loss Coefficient Pressure Drop [ ] [Pa] (1) Major Loss-Friction (2) Minor Loss 1.5 and (3) Loss in Bank of Tubes Total Loss Table 3: Pressure loss for Case-2: Q 2 = m 3 /s existing design Losses Loss Coefficient Pressure Drop [ ] [Pa] (1) Major Loss-Friction (2) Minor Loss 0.5 and (3) Loss in Bank of Tubes Total Loss Pressure loss for proposed enhanced design An enhanced design is proposed by introducing smoothly rounded 90 deg bends and guide vanes to replace sharp turns and edges as shown in Figure 4. Pressure loss results for enhanced design are given in Tables 4 and 5 for flow rates of Q 1 and Q 2, respectively. 9

10 Figure 4: Analytical flow domain for enhanced design Table 4: Pressure loss for Case-1: Q 1 = m 3 /s enhanced design Losses Loss Coefficient Pressure Drop [ ] [Pa] (1) Major Loss-Friction (2) Minor Loss 0.5 and (3) Loss in Bank of Tubes Total Loss Enhancement Table 5: Pressure loss for Case-2: Q 2 = m 3 /s enhanced design Losses Loss Coefficient Pressure Drop [ ] [Pa] (1) Major Loss-Friction (2) Minor Loss 0.5 and (3) Loss in Bank of Tubes Total Loss 1068 Enhancement The above pressure loss calculation showed that the proposed enhanced design can reduce the pressure loss across the cooler by Pa and Pa for Q 1 and Q 2, respectively. 10

11 4. TWO DIMENSIONAL COMPUATIONAL MODEL OF THE FLUID FLOW 4. 1 Computational fluid dynamics numerical grid and details The CFD hardware involves the computer cluster existing in the author s laboratory. It consists of 8 nodes of parallelized computers (2 of the 8 nodes already exist in the UCF laboratory) based on dual AMD 64-bit processors. The software package consists of FLUENT CFD flow solver Version (Version ) and Gambit grid generator Version (Version ). Numerical details are provided below. Numerical Grid: A typical numerical grid for the 2-D numerical model is shown in Figure 5, generated using GAMBIT grid generator [14]. The grid is refined until the maximum difference in pressure at locations of interest is less than 0.2%. The grid details are as follows: Grid elements: Quad and hybrid Grid type: Map and pave Spacing (Interval size) = 4 Minimum Grid size: Number of cells=125,998. Entrance zone Exit zone Tube bundle Figure 5: Typical numerical Grid and zones for existing design model Boundary conditions: At the inlet: Constant mass flow rate in kg/s is applied. At the exits: Pressure outlet with gage pressure = 0 All other walls: Insulated rough walls with roughness constant =0.5 11

12 Turbulence Modeling: - Model: Realizable k-ε - Near-wall treatment: Standard wall functions - Model Constants: C2-Epsilon=1.9, Turbulent Kinetic Energy (TKE) Pr=1, Turbulent Dissipation Rate (TDR) Pr=1.3. Fluid: Air with constant density= 1.22 kg/m 3. Viscosity is constant= kg/m-s. Under-relaxation factors for: Pressure=0.3, density=1, body forces=1, momentum=0.7, TKE=0.7, TDR=0.7, turbulent viscosity=1. Descretization: Standard for pressure, SIMPLE for pressure-velocity coupling and second order upwind for momentum, TKE, and TDR. Convergence: Figure 6 below shows the double precision convergence history of the scaled residual for typical case studied. The minimum convergence criteria for the scaled residual of continuity, x-velocity, y-velocity, k and epsilon=1e-12 for all cases studied. The CPU computational time needed to reach convergence for typical case is approximately 20 hours of continuous running time using one processor only. Figure 6: Convergence history 4. 2 Computational fluid dynamics modeling of finned tube bundle The flow across the bundle with finned tubes is complex and need to be modeled using approaches that are easy to validate with reasonable number of numerical grid points. In this study, two approaches have been investigated to model the tube bundle finned tubes: porous media approximation and effective diameter concept. Discussion of both approaches are provided in the following sections: 12

13 4.2.1 Porous media approximation model of the flow across the finned tube bundle The finned tube bundle is modeled as porous media. Porous media are modeled by the addition of a momentum source term to the standard fluid flow equations. The source term is composed of two parts: a viscous loss term (Darcy, the first term on the right-hand side of Equation 1, and an inertial loss term (the second term on the right-hand side of Equation 1. where Si is the source term for the th (x, y or z) momentum equation, and D and C are prescribed matrices. This momentum sink contributes to the pressure gradient in the porous cell, creating a pressure drop that is proportional to the fluid velocity (or velocity squared) in the cell. To recover the case of simple homogeneous porous media (8) where α is the permeability and C2 is the inertial resistance factor. In laminar flows through porous media, the pressure drop is typically proportional to velocity and the constant C2 can be considered to be zero. Ignoring convective acceleration and diffusion, the porous media model then reduces to Darcy's Law: The pressure drop that the solver computes in each of the two (x, y) coordinate directions within the porous region is then (9) (10) where 1/ αij are the entries in the matrix D in Equation 1, vj are the velocity components in the x and y directions, and and are the thicknesses of the medium in the x, and y directions. Here, the thickness of the medium ( and ) is the actual thickness of the porous region in your model. At high flow velocities, the constant C2 in Equation 9 provides a correction for inertial losses in the porous medium. This constant can be viewed as a loss coefficient per unit length along the flow direction, thereby allowing the pressure drop to be specified as a function of dynamic head. In case of modeling a perforated plate or tube bank, we can sometimes eliminate the permeability term and use the inertial loss term alone, yielding the following simplified form of the porous media equation: 13

14 The viscous and inertial resistance coefficients are both defined in the same manner. The basic approach for defining the coefficients using a Cartesian coordinate system is to define one direction vector in 2D and then specify the viscous and/or inertial resistance coefficients in each direction. In 2D, the second direction, which is not explicitly defined, is normal to the plane defined by the specified direction vector and the direction vector Computational results using porous media approximation The viscous and inertial coefficients are determined for specified fluid flow rate by tuning these coefficients in the CFD model and the solver is allowed to run and converge until the mass weighted average static pressure drop across the tube bank matched the calculated values using Robinson and Briggs correlations. Results are shown in Table 6. Table 6 (11) Pressure distribution across the flow domain including the tube bundle is shown in Figure 7 and velocity vectors are shown by Figure 8 below. All results provided below are for flow rate of Q 2. The pressure and velocity distributions in the entrance zone are not uniform as shown by Figures 7 and 8 especially at the corners where the flow changes direction. As a result, the pressure distribution across the tube bundle is not uniform as well. The disadvantages of the porous media approximation approach are that: The viscous and inertial coefficients, D, and C coefficients need to be tuned for every individual case, a process that requires large amount of computational time. In addition, validation of these coefficients depends on the availability of experimental data for every single case, which are not available. It is not possible to have actual velocity field distribution (velocity vectors and magnitudes) across the tube bundle. This fact makes it impossible to track the fluid path across the tube bundle. Because of these disadvantages, the author used the second approach, the effective diameter concept, which is addressed next. 14

15 Figure 7: Pressure distribution (in Pa) on the inlet and the tube bundle for existing geometry using porous media modeling approach 15

16 Figure 8: Velocity vectors (in m/s) on the inlet and the tube bundle for existing geometry using porous media modeling approach Effective Diameter Concept: Definition and advantages The finned tubes are modeled using the effective diameter concept. The effective diameter is defined as the diameter of the tubes without fins that would provide the same pressure drop as that for finned tubes. The advantage of this approach over the porous media approximation is that the path of the fluid and the detailed history of the pressure and velocity across the tube bundle can be tracked. To demonstrate this advantage, velocity vectors and pressure distribution results are provided by Figures 9 and 10 below for an assumed tube effective diameter of 30mm as starting point to study the flow patterns for fluid flow rate of Q 2 (actual). The pressure distribution along a horizontal path after each row of tubes is shown in Figure 10 where the variation in static pressure magnitudes from left to right sides of the tube bundle can be calculated precisely. Hence the effective diameter approach will be used to model the flow across the tube bundle. 16

17 Figure 9: Velocity vectors (in m/s) distribution using effective diameter approach for an assumed tube effective diameter of 30 mm and Q2(actual). (For demonstration purposes) 17

18 Figure 10: Static pressure (in Pa) distribution using effective diameter approach for an assumed tube effective diameter of 30 mm and Q2(actual). (For demonstration purposes) Effective diameter determination based on experimental test and geometry The concept of effective diameter is validated by tuning the diameter of the tubes and comparing the resulting pressure drop with experimental data for tested geometry with finned tubes. Results provided here are determined based on investigation carried out for three cases of tubes diameter=20mm, 22.5mm and 25mm over a range of flow rate. Geometry # 0 is used for this particular study as this geometry matches the experimental rig geometry. Investigation of pressure drop with tubes of 22.5mm diameter showed that the agreement with corresponding experimental pressure drop data is to within less than 1% at operational flow rates (see Figure 11). Hence, it is determined that tubes with 22.5mm diameter (the effective diameter) with no fins would provide the same pressure drop as finned tubes with 20mm tube diameter and 3mm fin pitch. Figure 12 shows typical velocity vectors and pressure distribution results for the highest volume flow rate tested of 35 m3/s. 18

19 Figure 11: Experimental Data: Pressure drop versus flow rate to determine the effective tube diameter 19

20 Figure 12: Velocity vectors (in m/s) and pressure distribution results for the highest volume flow rate of 35 m3/s. (Geometry # 0) Pressure drop for existing geometry based on effective diameter The finned tubes are modeled using the effective diameter concept. The effective diameter is 22.5mm as shown above. CFD simulations for existing flow geometry (Geometry #1) with finned tubes modeled using the determined effective diameter of 22.5mm showed that the mass weighted average pressure drop across the tube bundle= Pa = 4.29 in H 2 O for the highest volume flow rate of 35 m3/s compared to 944 Pa=3.87 in H 2 O for the straight inlet case (Geometry # 0) and for the same flow rate. Figure 13 shows pressure distribution on the entrance and across tube bundle zones, pressure distribution along the inlet and the exit of the tube bundle and velocity vectors distribution. It is clearly shown that the pressure distribution along each row of tubes is not uniform because of the inlet geometry. 20

21 Figure 13: Pressure distribution (in Pa) on the entrance and across tube bundle zones, pressure distribution along the inlet and the exit of the tube bundle and velocity vectors distribution for Q=35 m3/s Pressure drop for enhanced geometries based on effective diameter The main goal of this study is to reduce the pressure drop across the cooler and to use that reduction in pressure drop to enhance the performance of the cooler by introducing more dense finned tubes of fin pitch = 3.0mm instead of 3.5 mm pitch that is being used at present. With this goal in mind, several enhancements on the inlet zone of the cooler is proposed and CFD model for each geometry is built and pressure drop results for each geometry is compared to pressure drop results of the existing geometry (Geometry #1). Figure 14 shows the velocity vectors and pressure distribution for each investigated geometry at flow rate = 35 m 3 /s. Summary of the corresponding mass weighted pressure drop for each geometry between two different locations is given in Table 7. The pressure drop reduction associated with each geometry compared to the existing geometry is listed in Table 7 as well Pressure drop (1-1) is the mass weighted average pressure at the tube bundle inlet minus the mass weighted average pressure at the tube bundle exit. Pressure drop (2-2) is the mass weighted average pressure at the inlet of the cooler minus the mass weighted average pressure at the tube bundle exit. 21

22 Overall conclusion The following can be concluded based on the above discussion: Geometry # 7 showed that 185 Pa in pressure drop can be saved (16% enhancement) compared to pressure drop found in existing geometry # 1. Geometry # 7 is achieved by replacing the 90 deg sharp turn by a rounded turn with 600 mm fillet. Altering the existing geometry from the right side of the tube bundle shown in Figure 14, did not lead to any reduction in total pressure drop. The saved 185 Pa pressure reduction can be used to enhance the overall performance of the cooler introducing more dense finned tubes of fin pitch = 3.0 mm instead of 3.5mm pitch that is being used at present Effective diameters of finned tube bundle with fin pitch = 3mm Three cases plotted in Figure 15 are studied to determine the effective diameter of the case with fins pitch =3 mm. Tubes with 20mm, 22.5 mm and 25mm are studied for pressure drop at flow rate of Q2 = 33.6 m 3 /s. Based on pressure drop given by Figure 15 and compared to experimental pressure drop for 3mm fin pitch, the tube effective diameter that corresponds to this pressure drop is 23.7mm. Existing Geometry (Geometry #1) (Geometry #2) mm fillet (Geometry # 3) 300 mm fillet 22

23 (Geometry # 4) 300 mm fillet and right side modification 1 (Geometry # 5) 600 mm fillet (Geometry # 6) 600 mm fillet and right side modification 2 23

24 (Geometry # 7) Modified 600 mm fillet Figure 14 Velocity vectors (in m/s) and pressure distribution (in Pa) for each proposed geometry compared to existing geometry at flow rate = 35 m 3 /s. Table 7: Summary of mass weighted average pressure drop for each geometry between two locations: 1-1 and 2-2 at flow rate = 35 m 3 /s 24

25 Figure 15: Pressure drop for tubes with 20mm, 22.5 mm and 25mm at flow rate of Q2 = 33.6 m 3 /s. 5. REFERENCES [1] Lee, Y. N. and Minkowycz, W. J., "Heat Transfer Characteristics of the Annulus of Two Coaxial Cylinders With One Cylinder Rotating," Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., pp , [2] Hayase, T., Humphrey, J. A. C., and Greif, R., "Numerical Calculations of Convective Heat Transfer Between Rotating Coaxial Cylinders With Periodically Embedded Cavities," ASME J. Heat Transfer, vol. 114, pp , [3] Sommerer, Y. and Lauriat, G., "Numerical Study of Steady Forced Convection in a Grooved Annulus Using a Design of Experiments," ASME J. Heat Transfer, vol. 123, pp , [4] Institution of Mechanical Engineers (Great Britain).Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics, Heat transfer and fluid flow in electrical machines: a symposium arranged by the Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics Group, 23rd October London: Institution of Mechanical Engineers, [5] A. K. and J. S. Kapat, 2006 Heat Transfer in Channels in Parallel-Mode Rotating at High Rotation Numbers, AIAA Journal of Thermophysics and Heat Transfer, Vol. 20, No.4, pp , October-December [6] A. K. and J. S. Kapat, 2005, Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in Rotating Curved Duct at High Rotation and Density Ratios, ASME Journal of Turbomachinery, Volume 127, Issue 4, pp [7] A. K. and J. S. Kapat, 2006 An Experimental Investigation of Liquid Jet Array and Single Phase Spray Impingement Cooling Using Polyalphaolefin, Experimental Heat Transfer Journal, Volume 19, No. 2, pp April [8] A. K. and J. S. Kapat, 2006, Effect of Coriolis and Centrifugal Forces at High Rotation and Density Ratios, AIAA Journal of Thermophysics and Heat Transfer), Volume 20, No. 1, pp

26 [9] A. K., 2007, Advanced cooling technology for rotors of high-power low-duty cycle generators using polyalphaolefins Journal of Synthetic Lubrication, Vol. 24, No.2, pp , March [10] F. P. Incropera and D. P. Dewitt, Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, John Wiley, New York, [11] Kays, W.M., and A.L. London, Compact Heat Exchangers, 3rd ed., McGraw-Hill, New York. [12] J. Stasiulevicius and A. Skrinska, Heat Transfer of Finned Tube Bundles in Crossflow, Hemisphere Publication Corporation, New York. [13] Robinson, K.K. and Briggs, D.E Pressure Drop of Air Flowing Across Triangular Pitch Banks of Finned Tubes, Chem. Engng. Prog. Sym. Series, 62(64): [14] Fluent 6.2 Reference Manual 26

### Flow Loss in Screens: A Fresh Look at Old Correlation. Ramakumar Venkata Naga Bommisetty, Dhanvantri Shankarananda Joshi and Vighneswara Rao Kollati

Journal of Mechanics Engineering and Automation 3 (013) 9-34 D DAVID PUBLISHING Ramakumar Venkata Naga Bommisetty, Dhanvantri Shankarananda Joshi and Vighneswara Rao Kollati Engineering Aerospace, MCOE,

### Fluent Software Training TRN Boundary Conditions. Fluent Inc. 2/20/01

Boundary Conditions C1 Overview Inlet and Outlet Boundaries Velocity Outline Profiles Turbulence Parameters Pressure Boundaries and others... Wall, Symmetry, Periodic and Axis Boundaries Internal Cell

### TWO-DIMENSIONAL FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF FORCED CONVECTION FLOW AND HEAT TRANSFER IN A LAMINAR CHANNEL FLOW

TWO-DIMENSIONAL FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF FORCED CONVECTION FLOW AND HEAT TRANSFER IN A LAMINAR CHANNEL FLOW Rajesh Khatri 1, 1 M.Tech Scholar, Department of Mechanical Engineering, S.A.T.I., vidisha

### E 490 Fundamentals of Engineering Review. Fluid Mechanics. M. A. Boles, PhD. Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering

E 490 Fundamentals of Engineering Review Fluid Mechanics By M. A. Boles, PhD Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering North Carolina State University Archimedes Principle and Buoyancy 1. A block

### du u U 0 U dy y b 0 b

BASIC CONCEPTS/DEFINITIONS OF FLUID MECHANICS (by Marios M. Fyrillas) 1. Density (πυκνότητα) Symbol: 3 Units of measure: kg / m Equation: m ( m mass, V volume) V. Pressure (πίεση) Alternative definition:

### COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS (CFD) ANALYSIS OF INTERMEDIATE PRESSURE STEAM TURBINE

Research Paper ISSN 2278 0149 www.ijmerr.com Vol. 3, No. 4, October, 2014 2014 IJMERR. All Rights Reserved COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS (CFD) ANALYSIS OF INTERMEDIATE PRESSURE STEAM TURBINE Shivakumar

### CFD SIMULATION OF SDHW STORAGE TANK WITH AND WITHOUT HEATER

International Journal of Advancements in Research & Technology, Volume 1, Issue2, July-2012 1 CFD SIMULATION OF SDHW STORAGE TANK WITH AND WITHOUT HEATER ABSTRACT (1) Mr. Mainak Bhaumik M.E. (Thermal Engg.)

### Differential Relations for Fluid Flow. Acceleration field of a fluid. The differential equation of mass conservation

Differential Relations for Fluid Flow In this approach, we apply our four basic conservation laws to an infinitesimally small control volume. The differential approach provides point by point details of

### Chapter 8: Flow in Pipes

Objectives 1. Have a deeper understanding of laminar and turbulent flow in pipes and the analysis of fully developed flow 2. Calculate the major and minor losses associated with pipe flow in piping networks

### ANALYSIS OF FULLY DEVELOPED TURBULENT FLOW IN A PIPE USING COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS D. Bhandari 1, Dr. S. Singh 2

ANALYSIS OF FULLY DEVELOPED TURBULENT FLOW IN A PIPE USING COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS D. Bhandari 1, Dr. S. Singh 2 1 M. Tech Scholar, 2 Associate Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bipin

### 1. (Problem 8.23 in the Book)

1. (Problem 8.23 in the Book) SOLUTION Schematic An experimental nuclear core simulation apparatus consists of a long thin-walled metallic tube of diameter D and length L, which is electrically heated

### Numerical Investigation of Heat Transfer Characteristics in A Square Duct with Internal RIBS

merical Investigation of Heat Transfer Characteristics in A Square Duct with Internal RIBS Abhilash Kumar 1, R. SaravanaSathiyaPrabhahar 2 Mepco Schlenk Engineering College, Sivakasi, Tamilnadu India 1,

### Comparison of Heat Transfer between a Helical and Straight Tube Heat Exchanger

International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology. ISSN 0974-3154 Volume 6, Number 1 (2013), pp. 33-40 International Research Publication House http://www.irphouse.com Comparison of Heat Transfer

### Lecture 6 - Boundary Conditions. Applied Computational Fluid Dynamics

Lecture 6 - Boundary Conditions Applied Computational Fluid Dynamics Instructor: André Bakker http://www.bakker.org André Bakker (2002-2006) Fluent Inc. (2002) 1 Outline Overview. Inlet and outlet boundaries.

### Module 2 : Convection. Lecture 20a : Illustrative examples

Module 2 : Convection Lecture 20a : Illustrative examples Objectives In this class: Examples will be taken where the concepts discussed for heat transfer for tubular geometries in earlier classes will

### Experiment 3 Pipe Friction

EML 316L Experiment 3 Pipe Friction Laboratory Manual Mechanical and Materials Engineering Department College of Engineering FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY Nomenclature Symbol Description Unit A cross-sectional

### Adaptation of General Purpose CFD Code for Fusion MHD Applications*

Adaptation of General Purpose CFD Code for Fusion MHD Applications* Andrei Khodak Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory P.O. Box 451 Princeton, NJ, 08540 USA akhodak@pppl.gov Abstract Analysis of many fusion

### Keywords: Heat transfer enhancement; staggered arrangement; Triangular Prism, Reynolds Number. 1. Introduction

Heat transfer augmentation in rectangular channel using four triangular prisms arrange in staggered manner Manoj Kumar 1, Sunil Dhingra 2, Gurjeet Singh 3 1 Student, 2,3 Assistant Professor 1.2 Department

### Optimum fin spacing for fan-cooled heat sinks

Optimum fin spacing for fan-cooled heat sinks Keywords: optimum fin spacing fan-cooled heat sink heatsink optimal fin pitch parallel plate fin array optimization forced air cooling fan curve pressure drop

### HEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS IN A 3D SQUARE CHANNEL LAMINAR FLOW WITH USING BAFFLES 1 Vikram Bishnoi

HEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS IN A 3D SQUARE CHANNEL LAMINAR FLOW WITH USING BAFFLES 1 Vikram Bishnoi 2 Rajesh Dudi 1 Scholar and 2 Assistant Professor,Department of Mechanical Engineering, OITM, Hisar (Haryana)

### Battery Thermal Management System Design Modeling

Battery Thermal Management System Design Modeling Gi-Heon Kim, Ph.D Ahmad Pesaran, Ph.D (ahmad_pesaran@nrel.gov) National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado, U.S.A. EVS October -8, 8, 006 Yokohama,

### Turbulence Modeling in CFD Simulation of Intake Manifold for a 4 Cylinder Engine

HEFAT2012 9 th International Conference on Heat Transfer, Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics 16 18 July 2012 Malta Turbulence Modeling in CFD Simulation of Intake Manifold for a 4 Cylinder Engine Dr MK

### Pipe Flow-Friction Factor Calculations with Excel

Pipe Flow-Friction Factor Calculations with Excel Course No: C03-022 Credit: 3 PDH Harlan H. Bengtson, PhD, P.E. Continuing Education and Development, Inc. 9 Greyridge Farm Court Stony Point, NY 10980

### ME 144: Heat Transfer Convection Relations for External Flows. J. M. Meyers

ME 144: Heat Transfer Convection Relations for External Flows Empirical Correlations Generally, convection correlations for external flows are determined experimentally using controlled lab conditions

### FIGURE P8 50E FIGURE P8 62. Minor Losses

8 48 Glycerin at 40 C with r 1252 kg/m 3 and m 0.27 kg/m s is flowing through a 4-cm-diameter horizontal smooth pipe with an average velocity of 3.5 m/s. Determine the pressure drop per 10 m of the pipe.

### Practice Problems on Boundary Layers. Answer(s): D = 107 N D = 152 N. C. Wassgren, Purdue University Page 1 of 17 Last Updated: 2010 Nov 22

BL_01 A thin flat plate 55 by 110 cm is immersed in a 6 m/s stream of SAE 10 oil at 20 C. Compute the total skin friction drag if the stream is parallel to (a) the long side and (b) the short side. D =

### Pressure drop in pipes...

Pressure drop in pipes... PRESSURE DROP CALCULATIONS Pressure drop or head loss, occurs in all piping systems because of elevation changes, turbulence caused by abrupt changes in direction, and friction

### Effective parameters on second law analysis for semicircular ducts in laminar flow and constant wall heat flux B

International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 32 (2005) 266 274 www.elsevier.com/locate/ichmt Effective parameters on second law analysis for semicircular ducts in laminar flow and constant wall

### Fluid Mechanics Prof. T. I. Eldho Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay. Lecture No. # 36 Pipe Flow Systems

Fluid Mechanics Prof. T. I. Eldho Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay Lecture No. # 36 Pipe Flow Systems Welcome back to the video course on Fluid Mechanics. In today

### Problem Statement In order to satisfy production and storage requirements, small and medium-scale industrial

Problem Statement In order to satisfy production and storage requirements, small and medium-scale industrial facilities commonly occupy spaces with ceilings ranging between twenty and thirty feet in height.

### Simulation Studies on Porous Medium Integrated Dual Purpose Solar Collector

Simulation Studies on Porous Medium Integrated Dual Purpose Solar Collector Arun Venu*, Arun P** *KITCO Limited **Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Calicut arunvenu5213@gmail.com,

### Abaqus/CFD Sample Problems. Abaqus 6.10

Abaqus/CFD Sample Problems Abaqus 6.10 Contents 1. Oscillatory Laminar Plane Poiseuille Flow 2. Flow in Shear Driven Cavities 3. Buoyancy Driven Flow in Cavities 4. Turbulent Flow in a Rectangular Channel

### Effect of Pressure Ratio on Film Cooling of Turbine Aerofoil Using CFD

Universal Journal of Mechanical Engineering 1(4): 122-127, 2013 DOI: 10.13189/ujme.2013.010403 http://www.hrpub.org Effect of Pressure Ratio on Film Cooling of Turbine Aerofoil Using CFD Vibhor Baghel

### Applied Fluid Mechanics

Applied Fluid Mechanics Sixth Edition Robert L. Mott University of Dayton PEARSON Prentkv Pearson Education International CHAPTER 1 THE NATURE OF FLUIDS AND THE STUDY OF FLUID MECHANICS 1.1 The Big Picture

### Review: Convection and Heat Exchangers. Reminders

CH EN 3453 Heat Transfer Review: Convection and Heat Exchangers Chapters 6, 7, 8, 9 and 11 Reminders Midterm #2 Wednesday at 8:15 AM Review tomorrow 3:30 PM in WEB L104 (I think) Project Results and Discussion

### THERMAL STRATIFICATION IN A HOT WATER TANK ESTABLISHED BY HEAT LOSS FROM THE TANK

THERMAL STRATIFICATION IN A HOT WATER TANK ESTABLISHED BY HEAT LOSS FROM THE TANK J. Fan and S. Furbo Abstract Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Brovej, Building 118, DK-28

### Min-218 Fundamentals of Fluid Flow

Excerpt from "Chap 3: Principles of Airflow," Practical Mine Ventilation Engineerg to be Pubished by Intertec Micromedia Publishing Company, Chicago, IL in March 1999. 1. Definition of A Fluid A fluid

### For Water to Move a driving force is needed

RECALL FIRST CLASS: Q K Head Difference Area Distance between Heads Q 0.01 cm 0.19 m 6cm 0.75cm 1 liter 86400sec 1.17 liter ~ 1 liter sec 0.63 m 1000cm 3 day day day constant head 0.4 m 0.1 m FINE SAND

### CFD Based Thermo-Hydrodynamic Analysis of Circular Journal Bearing

International Journal of Advanced Mechanical Engineering. ISSN 2250-3234 Volume 4, Number 5 (2014), pp. 475-482 Research India Publications http://www.ripublication.com CFD Based Thermo-Hydrodynamic Analysis

### EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF HEAT TRANSFER ENHANCEMENT IN A CIRCULAR TUBE WITH DIFFERENT TWIST RATIO OF TWISTED TAPE INSERTS

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEAT AND TECHNOLOGY Vol.33 (2015), No.3, pp.158-162 http://dx.doi.org/10.18280/ijht.330324 EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF HEAT TRANSFER ENHANCEMENT IN A CIRCULAR TUBE WITH DIFFERENT

### ME 305 Fluid Mechanics I. Part 8 Viscous Flow in Pipes and Ducts

ME 305 Fluid Mechanics I Part 8 Viscous Flow in Pipes and Ducts These presentations are prepared by Dr. Cüneyt Sert Mechanical Engineering Department Middle East Technical University Ankara, Turkey csert@metu.edu.tr

### Viscous Flow in Pipes

Viscous Flow in Pipes Excerpted from supplemental materials of Prof. Kuang-An Chang, Dept. of Civil Engin., Texas A&M Univ., for his spring 2008 course CVEN 311, Fluid Dynamics. (See a related handout

### Head Loss in Pipe Flow ME 123: Mechanical Engineering Laboratory II: Fluids

Head Loss in Pipe Flow ME 123: Mechanical Engineering Laboratory II: Fluids Dr. J. M. Meyers Dr. D. G. Fletcher Dr. Y. Dubief 1. Introduction Last lab you investigated flow loss in a pipe due to the roughness

### Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer

2008 AGI-Information Management Consultants May be used for personal purporses only or by libraries associated to dandelon.com network. SIXTH EDITION Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer FRANK P. INCROPERA

### NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF WIND ON BUILDING STRUCTURES

Vol. XX 2012 No. 4 28 34 J. ŠIMIČEK O. HUBOVÁ NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF WIND ON BUILDING STRUCTURES Jozef ŠIMIČEK email: jozef.simicek@stuba.sk Research field: Statics and Dynamics Fluids mechanics

### Commercial CFD Software Modelling

Commercial CFD Software Modelling Dr. Nor Azwadi bin Che Sidik Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Universiti Teknologi Malaysia INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS 1 CFD Modeling CFD modeling can be

### Effect of Aspect Ratio on Laminar Natural Convection in Partially Heated Enclosure

Universal Journal of Mechanical Engineering (1): 8-33, 014 DOI: 10.13189/ujme.014.00104 http://www.hrpub.org Effect of Aspect Ratio on Laminar Natural Convection in Partially Heated Enclosure Alireza Falahat

### Applied Fluid Mechanics

Applied Fluid Mechanics 1. The Nature of Fluid and the Study of Fluid Mechanics 2. Viscosity of Fluid 3. Pressure Measurement 4. Forces Due to Static Fluid 5. Buoyancy and Stability 6. Flow of Fluid and

### Lecture 16 - Free Surface Flows. Applied Computational Fluid Dynamics

Lecture 16 - Free Surface Flows Applied Computational Fluid Dynamics Instructor: André Bakker http://www.bakker.org André Bakker (2002-2006) Fluent Inc. (2002) 1 Example: spinning bowl Example: flow in

### NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER IN A REFRIGERATED TRUCK COMPARTMENT

NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER IN A REFRIGERATED TRUCK COMPARTMENT T. LAFAYE DE MICHEAUX (a), V. SARTRE (a)*, A. STUMPF (b), J. BONJOUR (a) (a) Université de Lyon, CNRS INSA-Lyon, CETHIL,

### FLUID FLOW Introduction General Description

FLUID FLOW Introduction Fluid flow is an important part of many processes, including transporting materials from one point to another, mixing of materials, and chemical reactions. In this experiment, you

### Pushing the Envelope

CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS Pushing the Envelope CFD simulation contributes to increasing the operating envelope of a centrifugal compressor stage. By James M. Sorokes, Principal Engineer; Jorge E. Pacheco,

### Integration of a fin experiment into the undergraduate heat transfer laboratory

Integration of a fin experiment into the undergraduate heat transfer laboratory H. I. Abu-Mulaweh Mechanical Engineering Department, Purdue University at Fort Wayne, Fort Wayne, IN 46805, USA E-mail: mulaweh@engr.ipfw.edu

### Basic Equations, Boundary Conditions and Dimensionless Parameters

Chapter 2 Basic Equations, Boundary Conditions and Dimensionless Parameters In the foregoing chapter, many basic concepts related to the present investigation and the associated literature survey were

### This tutorial provides a recipe for simulating L

Pipe Flow Tutorial for STAR-CCM+ ME 448/548 February 5, 2014 Gerald Recktenwald gerry@me.pdx.edu 1 Overview This tutorial provides a recipe for simulating laminar flow in a pipe with STAR- L CCM+. The

### Macroscopic Balances for Nonisothermal Systems

Transport Phenomena Macroscopic Balances for Nonisothermal Systems 1 Macroscopic Balances for Nonisothermal Systems 1. The macroscopic energy balance 2. The macroscopic mechanical energy balance 3. Use

### Mercury Flow through a Long Curved Pipe

Mercury Flow through a Long Curved Pipe Wenhai Li & Foluso Ladeinde Department of Mechanical Engineering Stony Brook University Summary The flow of mercury in a long, curved pipe is simulated in this task,

### Steady Flow: Laminar and Turbulent in an S-Bend

STAR-CCM+ User Guide 6663 Steady Flow: Laminar and Turbulent in an S-Bend This tutorial demonstrates the flow of an incompressible gas through an s-bend of constant diameter (2 cm), for both laminar and

### Airflow through Mine Openings and Ducts Chapter 5

Airflow through Mine Openings and Ducts Chapter 5 Fundamentals of Airflow Ventilation the application of the principles of fluid mechanics & thermodynamics to the flow of air in underground openings Fluid

### Flow Physics Analysis of Three-Bucket Helical Savonius Rotor at Twist Angle Using CFD

Vol.3, Issue.2, March-April. 2013 pp-739-746 ISSN: 2249-6645 Flow Physics Analysis of Three-Bucket Helical Savonius Rotor at Twist Angle Using CFD Pinku Debnath, 1 Rajat Gupta 2 12 Mechanical Engineering,

### CFD Study of the Heat Pipes with Water- Nanoparticles Mixture

CFD Study of the Heat Pipes with Water- Nanoparticles Mixture Gabriela HUMINIC 1, Angel HUMINIC 1 1 Department of Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics Transilvania University of Brasov, Romania Abstract:

### A LAMINAR FLOW ELEMENT WITH A LINEAR PRESSURE DROP VERSUS VOLUMETRIC FLOW. 1998 ASME Fluids Engineering Division Summer Meeting

TELEDYNE HASTINGS TECHNICAL PAPERS INSTRUMENTS A LAMINAR FLOW ELEMENT WITH A LINEAR PRESSURE DROP VERSUS VOLUMETRIC FLOW Proceedings of FEDSM 98: June -5, 998, Washington, DC FEDSM98 49 ABSTRACT The pressure

### INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET)

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET) Proceedings of the 2 nd International Conference on Current Trends in Engineering and Management ICCTEM -2014 ISSN 0976 6340 (Print)

### Applied Fluid Mechanics

Applied Fluid Mechanics 1. The Nature of Fluid and the Study of Fluid Mechanics 2. Viscosity of Fluid 3. Pressure Measurement 4. Forces Due to Static Fluid 5. Buoyancy and Stability 6. Flow of Fluid and

### XI / PHYSICS FLUIDS IN MOTION 11/PA

Viscosity It is the property of a liquid due to which it flows in the form of layers and each layer opposes the motion of its adjacent layer. Cause of viscosity Consider two neighboring liquid layers A

### Using CFD to improve the design of a circulating water channel

2-7 December 27 Using CFD to improve the design of a circulating water channel M.G. Pullinger and J.E. Sargison School of Engineering University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, 71 AUSTRALIA Abstract Computational

### FRANCIS TURBINE EXPERIMENT

FRANCIS TURBINE EXPERIMENT 1. OBJECT The purpose of this experiment is to study the constructional details and performance parameters of Francis Turbine. 2. INTRODUCTION Turbines are subdivided into impulse

### Modelling and CFD Analysis of Single Stage IP Steam Turbine

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering, ISSN:2051-3232, Vol.42, Issue.1 1215 Modelling and CFD Analysis of Single Stage IP Steam Turbine C RAJESH BABU Mechanical Engineering Department, Gitam

### AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF EXERGY IN A CORRUGATED PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET) Volume 6, Issue 11, Nov 2015, pp. 16-22, Article ID: IJMET_06_11_002 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijmet/issues.asp?jtype=ijmet&vtype=6&itype=11

### NUMERICAL ANALYSIS FOR TWO PHASE FLOW DISTRIBUTION HEADERS IN HEAT EXCHANGERS

NUMERICAL ANALYSIS FOR TWO PHASE FLOW DISTRIBUTION HEADERS IN HEAT EXCHANGERS B.Babu 1, Florence.T 2, M.Punithavalli 3, B.R.Rohit 4 1 Assistant professor, Department of mechanical engineering, Rathinam

### A Comparison of Analytical and Finite Element Solutions for Laminar Flow Conditions Near Gaussian Constrictions

A Comparison of Analytical and Finite Element Solutions for Laminar Flow Conditions Near Gaussian Constrictions by Laura Noelle Race An Engineering Project Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of Rensselaer

### Convection Heat Transfer From Tube Banks in Crossflow: Analytical Approach

AIAA 2005-0958 Convection Heat Transfer From Tube Banks in Crossflow: Analytical Approach M. M. Yovanovich, Fellow AIAA W. A. Khan J. R. Culham Microelectronics Heat Transfer Laboratory Department of Mechanical

### Fluid Mechanics Definitions

Definitions 9-1a1 Fluids Substances in either the liquid or gas phase Cannot support shear Density Mass per unit volume Specific Volume Specific Weight % " = lim g#m ( ' * = +g #V \$0& #V ) Specific Gravity

### CHAPTER 4 CFD ANALYSIS OF THE MIXER

98 CHAPTER 4 CFD ANALYSIS OF THE MIXER This section presents CFD results for the venturi-jet mixer and compares the predicted mixing pattern with the present experimental results and correlation results

### Laminar Flow and Heat Transfer of Herschel-Bulkley Fluids in a Rectangular Duct; Finite-Element Analysis

Tamkang Journal of Science and Engineering, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 99 107 (2009) 99 Laminar Flow and Heat Transfer of Herschel-Bulkley Fluids in a Rectangular Duct; Finite-Element Analysis M. E. Sayed-Ahmed

### Hydraulic losses in pipes

Hydraulic losses in pipes Henryk Kudela Contents 1 Viscous flows in pipes 1 1.1 Moody Chart.................................... 2 1.2 Types of Fluid Flow Problems........................... 5 1.3 Minor

### INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS

INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS SIXTH EDITION ROBERT W. FOX Purdue University ALAN T. MCDONALD Purdue University PHILIP J. PRITCHARD Manhattan College JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. CONTENTS CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

### A COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS STUDY ON THE ACCURACY OF HEAT TRANSFER FROM A HORIZONTAL CYLINDER INTO QUIESCENT WATER

A COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS STUDY ON THE ACCURACY OF HEAT TRANSFER FROM A HORIZONTAL CYLINDER INTO QUIESCENT WATER William Logie and Elimar Frank Institut für Solartechnik SPF, 8640 Rapperswil (Switzerland)

### SBi 2013:12. Use of perforated acoustic panels as supply air diffusers in diffuse ceiling ventilation systems

SBi 2013:12 Use of perforated acoustic panels as supply air diffusers in diffuse ceiling ventilation systems Use of perforated acoustic panels as supply air diffusers in diffuse ceiling ventilation systems

### Natural Convection. Buoyancy force

Natural Convection In natural convection, the fluid motion occurs by natural means such as buoyancy. Since the fluid velocity associated with natural convection is relatively low, the heat transfer coefficient

### Fluids and Solids: Fundamentals

Fluids and Solids: Fundamentals We normally recognize three states of matter: solid; liquid and gas. However, liquid and gas are both fluids: in contrast to solids they lack the ability to resist deformation.

### CFD Analysis of a Centrifugal Pump with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide as a Working Fluid

KNS 2013 Spring CFD Analysis of a Centrifugal Pump with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide as a Working Fluid Seong Gu Kim Jeong Ik Lee Yoonhan Ahn Jekyoung Lee Jae Eun Cha Yacine Addad Dept. Nuclear & Quantum

### DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH SPEED RESPONSE LAMINAR FLOW METER FOR AIR CONDITIONING

DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH SPEED RESPONSE LAMINAR FLOW METER FOR AIR CONDITIONING Toshiharu Kagawa 1, Yukako Saisu 2, Riki Nishimura 3 and Chongho Youn 4 ABSTRACT In this paper, we developed a new laminar flow

### THE PSEUDO SINGLE ROW RADIATOR DESIGN

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET) Volume 7, Issue 1, Jan-Feb 2016, pp. 146-153, Article ID: IJMET_07_01_015 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijmet/issues.asp?jtype=ijmet&vtype=7&itype=1

### Module 1 : Conduction. Lecture 5 : 1D conduction example problems. 2D conduction

Module 1 : Conduction Lecture 5 : 1D conduction example problems. 2D conduction Objectives In this class: An example of optimization for insulation thickness is solved. The 1D conduction is considered

### Eco Pelmet Modelling and Assessment. CFD Based Study. Report Number 610.14351-R1D1. 13 January 2015

EcoPelmet Pty Ltd c/- Geoff Hesford Engineering 45 Market Street FREMANTLE WA 6160 Version: Page 2 PREPARED BY: ABN 29 001 584 612 2 Lincoln Street Lane Cove NSW 2066 Australia (PO Box 176 Lane Cove NSW

### MAXIMISING THE HEAT TRANSFER THROUGH FINS USING CFD AS A TOOL

MAXIMISING THE HEAT TRANSFER THROUGH FINS USING CFD AS A TOOL Sanjay Kumar Sharma 1 and Vikas Sharma 2 1,2 Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Gyan Vihar University, Jaipur, Rajasthan,

### Heat Transfer Prof. Dr. Ale Kumar Ghosal Department of Chemical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati

Heat Transfer Prof. Dr. Ale Kumar Ghosal Department of Chemical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati Module No. # 04 Convective Heat Transfer Lecture No. # 03 Heat Transfer Correlation

### Dr.A.K.Shaik Dawood. N.V.Kamalesh. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Associate Professor, Karpagam University, Coimbatore 641202, India.

CFD Analysis of cooling channels in built-in motorized high speed spindle K.MadhanMuthuGanesh Department of Mechanical Engineering, Research scholar, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore 641107, India.

### Ravi Kumar Singh*, K. B. Sahu**, Thakur Debasis Mishra***

Ravi Kumar Singh, K. B. Sahu, Thakur Debasis Mishra / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 48-96 www.ijera.com Vol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 3, pp.766-77 Analysis of

### HWR 431 / 531 HYDROGEOLOGY LAB SECTION LABORATORY 2 DARCY S LAW

HWR 431 / 531 HYDROGEOLOGY LAB SECTION LABORATORY 2 DARCY S LAW Introduction In 1856, Henry Darcy, a French hydraulic engineer, published a report in which he described a series of experiments he had performed

### CHE 253M Experiment No. 3 LIQUID FLOW MEASUREMENT

Rev 8/15 AW/GW CHE 253M Experiment No. 3 LIQUID FLOW MEASUREMENT The objective of this experiment is to familiarize the student with several types of flow-measuring devices commonly used in the laboratory

### HEAT TRANSFER ENHANCEMENT AND FRICTION FACTOR ANALYSIS IN TUBE USING CONICAL SPRING INSERT

HEAT TRANSFER ENHANCEMENT AND FRICTION FACTOR ANALYSIS IN TUBE USING CONICAL SPRING INSERT Rahul M. Gupta 1, Bhushan C. Bissa 2 1 Research Scholar, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shri Ramdeobaba

### Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620 015, Tamil Nadu, India

Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 32 (2007) 92 97 www.elsevier.com/locate/etfs Studies on heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of laminar flow through a circular tube fitted with right

### CFD Analysis of Flue Gases over Valve Spindle with Rotor Wings in 2 Stroke Marine Diesel Engines

IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IOSR-JMCE) e-issn: 2278-1684,p-ISSN: 2320-334X, Volume 12, Issue 4 Ver. VII (Jul. - Aug. 2015), PP 38-45 www.iosrjournals.org CFD Analysis of Flue Gases

### Exergy Analysis of a Water Heat Storage Tank

Exergy Analysis of a Water Heat Storage Tank F. Dammel *1, J. Winterling 1, K.-J. Langeheinecke 3, and P. Stephan 1,2 1 Institute of Technical Thermodynamics, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 2 Center

### Higher Technological Institute Civil Engineering Department. Lectures of. Fluid Mechanics. Dr. Amir M. Mobasher

Higher Technological Institute Civil Engineering Department Lectures of Fluid Mechanics Dr. Amir M. Mobasher 1/14/2013 Fluid Mechanics Dr. Amir Mobasher Department of Civil Engineering Faculty of Engineering

### Entrance Conditions. Chapter 8. Islamic Azad University

Chapter 8 Convection: Internal Flow Islamic Azad University Karaj Branch Entrance Conditions Must distinguish between entrance and fully developed regions. Hydrodynamic Effects: Assume laminar flow with