1 Nutrition in Chronic Liver Disease Weight Loss Chronic liver disease is often associated with muscle and body fat loss. This may be difficult to detect because of fluid retention. For example, you may be losing muscle, but if you are retaining fluid, you may stay the same weight. If not corrected, muscle and body fat loss can result in a variety of health complications. A high protein diet is important for people with chronic liver disease as the protein is used to maintain muscles and body tissues (including the liver) and to the keep the body working normally. Some people believe that people with liver disease need to avoid protein-rich foods to help prevent a condition called hepatic encephalopathy. However, this is not the case. Hepatic encephalopathy is treated by medications and avoiding protein will only make you more malnourished. To help prevent muscle and fat loss, you need to eat foods high in energy and protein. To increase your energy and protein intake, include at least one food from each of the following columns at each meal or snack. Energy foods Bread and bread products Breakfast cereals Pasta and Rice, noodles Cakes and Biscuits Potato, sweet potato, corn Butter/margarine, oil Cream/mayonnaise Jam, honey, golden syrup Sugar and sugary products Protein foods Milk and milk powder Yoghurt Cheese Custard Meat, Fish, Chicken Eggs Nuts and Seeds- (including pastes) Legumes (baked beans, lentils, chickpeas) Note: Some of these foods may be high in salt. If you have been advised to follow a low salt diet, refer to the low salt information below.
2 Further ideas to increase protein and energy include: Eating six to eight smaller meals and snacks throughout the day can help you get more nutrition than having three normal sized meals. Small frequent meals are also useful if you feel full quickly or if your appetite has decreased. Use fat in cooking, frying and baking; add oils to vegies and salads Add eggs, legumes, yoghurt, or low salt cheese to your meat dishes or salads. Have a small meal of energy rich food before going to bed. This has been shown to be helpful in weight management for people with liver disease. Replace tea, coffee or water with fluids that provide energy (such as milk, juice, cordial or soft drink), especially if you are on a fluid restriction. Milk is a great base for nourishing drinks as it is high in protein and energy. Full cream milk contains more kilojoules than low fat milks, so is preferable to use. Fortified soy milk (eg So Good ) is also suitable. To make your milk higher in protein and calories, other ingredients may be added, such as ice-cream and a variety of flavourings. A number of special nutrition supplements may be able to help increase your calorie and protein intake. Talk to your dietitian-nutritionist about these, if required. Note: If you are overweight you should focus on having a high protein intake and limit fatty and sweet foods. Sometimes people with liver disease require a low fat diet. If your doctor recommends a low fat diet of if you are diabetic see your dietitian for information. Vitamins and Minerals The changes that occur in chronic liver disease can lead to vitamin and/or mineral deficiencies. Problems such as excessive bleeding, osteoporosis, anaemia, and night blindness can result if vitamin and/or mineral levels are too low. Eating a variety of foods can help to avoid deficiencies. However your doctor may still recommend a vitamin and mineral supplement if required. Avoid taking any supplements or following diets not recommended by your doctor or dietitian.
3 Fluid and Salt As liver disease progresses, fluid can be stored around your stomach this is called ascites. If this occurs it becomes very important to limit the amount of salt (sodium) you consume. Because salt acts like a sponge with fluid in your body, by reducing the amount of salt you eat you can limit the amount of fluid that stays in your body. If you have ascites, your doctor and dietitian will recommend you follow a low salt diet. You may also be asked to limit the amount of fluids you drink through the day. This includes all beverages and watery foods such as soup, ice-cream, wet curries, fruits etc. HINTS TO REDUCE SALT 1. Do not add salt at the table or in cooking 2. Choose low salt foods 3. Count your salt 1. Do not add salt at the table or in cooking. What to use instead freshly ground pepper, dry mustard powder lemon juice, lime juice, vinegar a sprinkle of dried herbs chopped fresh herbs- basil, oregano, mint, rosemary, thyme, parsley, chives, sage, tarragon garlic, curry, chilli, onion, fresh ginger, spring onions spices- cinnamon, nutmeg, cardamom, ginger, cumin Also, try. slowly cutting down your salt intake over a few months to allow your taste buds to adjust. tasting food before adding salt or salty sauces Other products such as sea salt, vegetable salt, celery salt, lemon pepper, herb salt can still contain high levels of sodium. Check the nutrition panel and ingredients.
4 FLAVOUR COMBINATIONS TO TRY pork - garlic, lemon rind, coriander, apple sauce, ginger, mustard. beef - bay leaf, thyme, mustard, sage. lamb - mint, ginger, currant jelly, paprika, oregano, rosemary, garlic. chicken - sage, tarragon, garlic, chilli. fish - lemon juice, lemon pepper, lime juice, chives, parsley, vinegar. tomato - basil, garlic, black pepper, parsley, oregano. potato - chives, paprika, mint, parsley, black pepper. carrots - ginger, cinnamon, honey, parsley. 2. Choose low salt foods Most sodium (75%) comes from processed foods. When shopping, buy fresh, unprocessed, or frozen foods. Also choose foods labelled low salt or no added salt. Some foods labelled reduced salt can still contain high levels of sodium. Check the nutrition panel a sodium (Na) content less than 150 mg per 100gm serve is desirable. FOOD Lower Salt - CHOOSE High Salt - AVOID Bread & Cereals Often high in salt salt reduced bread fresh and dried pasta salt reduced and low salt crackers and biscuits eg Ryvita, Vitaweat, rice and corn cakes rolled oats, porridge Weetbix, Sustain, muesli, Just Right, puffed wheat, oat or wheat bran rice plain flour & cornflour savoury crackers sweet biscuits & shortbread croissants, pastry, cakes, scones, muffins savoury breads, bread, bread rolls (products based on self raising flour are high in salt) packet rice & pasta with flavouring, instant noodles breakfast cereals with more than 150 mg sodium per serve eg Cornflakes, Rice Bubbles, Bran Flakes tinned spaghetti
5 FOOD Lower Salt - CHOOSE High Salt - AVOID Fruit fresh fruit dried fruit, tinned fruit fruit juices olives canned plums Vegetables Milk, yoghurt and cheese Meat, Fish, Chicken, Eggs Fats Drinks, Snacks & Extras all fresh and frozen vegetables legumes (lentils, chickpeas, soup mix, soybeans, kidney beans), canned bean mix no added salt canned vegetables milk all types yoghurt custard, dairy desserts, icecream cottage, ricotta or continental (quark) cheese fresh, unprocessed meat (lamb, beef, veal, pork), chicken, turkey, fish and seafood eggs no added salt tinned seafood eg tuna in springwater unsalted butter, oil and avocado no added salt (e.g. Becel, Sundew) or reduced salt (Gold n Canola, Flora) margarines no added salt peanut butter Drink water! cordial, softdrink home made, unsalted soups Milo, tea, coffee unsalted nuts & seeds jam, honey, syrup unsalted popcorn plain chocolate plain lollies pickled and canned vegetables tomato or vegetable juice baked beans or reduced salt baked beans cheese : cheddar, cream, brie, camembert, feta, parmesan cheese spreads reduced salt cheeses (still high in salt) cured, smoked, canned or salted meat eg corned beef, ham, bacon, sausages, salami, brawn, pate, frankfurts meat pies, sausage rolls, fish fingers, crumbed or battered fish, hamburgers, BBQ chicken, pizza, chicken nuggets, Chinese food tinned fish in brine or tomato sauce, anchovies butter margarine peanut butter sports drinks soup, Bonox tomato juice, vegetable juice clear aspirin or panadol effervescent drinks e.g. alkaseltzer, Eno and vitamins e.g. Berocca dips, olives, marinated & pickled foods most sauces - tomato sauce, tartare sauce, BBQ sauce, teriyaki, soy sauce (even reduced salt), Worcestershire sauce, cheese sauce gravox, gravy, stock cubes vegemite, meat & fish paste salted nuts and snacks crisps, pretzels mustard, pickles, relish
6 3. Count your salt Check the nutrition information panel for an accurate measure of sodium per serve in a particular food, and aim to have less than 2000mg of sodium each day. In some cases, a limit of 1400mg daily may be needed. Any food with more than 150mg sodium per 100 gm serve should be limited. The table below provides a general guide. FOOD mg sodium FOOD mg sodium bread, 1 slice 150 fresh, dried, canned fruit 0 crumpet, fresh or frozen veg, 10 average serve porridge, muesli, weetbix, 0-80 tinned vegetables (peas, 150 (low salt) small bowl corn, etc ) ½ cup Cornflakes, Nutrigrain potato crisps 50g packet 450 (high salt) small bowl rice or pasta 1 cup 0 salted nuts 50g crackers 100 unsalted nuts 50g 5 2 sweet biscuits baked beans ½ cup 570 piece of cake/ scone tinned fish in brine 100g sports drink 500mL 200 chicken, fresh 100g 60 cup of soup, ham, 2 thin slices 60g 950 tomato sauce, 20mL 200 bacon, 1 rasher, 20g 650 mayonnaise/dressing 20ml 250 egg, 1 large 70 sausage roll, average 80g 600 cheese, 1 slice 30g 200 meat pie, cottage/ ricotta 30g 60 chicken nuggets glass of milk 100 hamburger, average 1000 small tub yoghurt 120 sausage, 1 thick 650 butter/marg 1 teaspoon 60 pizza, ¼ medium pinches salt (1gram) scone 200 Berocca, 1 tablet 285
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