A Guide to Reducing Dietary Sodium Intake

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1 Salt and High Blood Pressure A Guide to Reducing Dietary Sodium Intake A Look at the DASH eating plan My Plate Basics Sodium is a mineral element most commonly found in salt (sodium chloride) Sodium occurs naturally in small amounts in animal and plant foods, and water normally sufficient for our needs without having to add salt to our diet Sodium is an essential nutrient and is needed by the body in relatively small quantities, provided that substantial sweating does not occur Excess sodium can cause water retention, and increase the risk of developing hypertension A strong body of evidence in adults documents that as sodium intake decreases, so does blood pressure Salt and High Blood Pressure Sodium and Processed Food Virtually all Americans consume more sodium than they need Estimated average intake of sodium in Americans age 2 and older is approximately 3,400 mg per day Everyone should reduce sodium intake to less than 2,300 mg per day (about 1 teaspoon of salt) Adults age 51 and older, African Americans of any age, and individuals with high blood pressure, diabetes, or chronic kidney disease should further reduce their sodium intake to 1,500 mg per day (Dietary Guidelines for Americans) On average, less than one third of our sodium intake comes from the salt shaker The rest is hidden in processed foods that have salt added during manufacture Examples of foods high in sodium Canned soups Meats: ham, bacon, sausage, luncheon meats, smoked meat Snack foods (chips, pretzels) Canned vegetables, beans Cheese, butter, margarine Condiments, sauces, pickles, olives Frozen meals/entrees

2 Sodium in Fast Food McDonald s quarter pounder w/ cheese = 1,190 mg McDonald s Angus Bacon & Cheese = 2,070 mg Pizza Hut ½ of 12 Supreme Pan = 2,800 mg Subway 6 Club (w/o condiments or cheese) = 1,150 mg Taco Bell Supreme beef burrito = 1,400 mg KFC Extra Crunchy Chicken Breast = 1,010 mg Burger King Whopper w/ cheese = 1,450 mg Chipotle chicken burrito (cheese, hot sauce, sour cream, lettuce, beans, rice, chicken) = 2,000 mg How to Reduce Sodium Intake: Eat at Home more often Reducing your intake of fast food can help reduce intake of sodium You are in control of what s in the food you prepare Preparing your own foods allows you to limit the amount of sodium in them How to Reduce Sodium Intake: Skip the Salt How to Reduce Sodium Intake: Check the Label Skip adding salt when cooking Keep salt off the kitchen counter and the dinner table Pay attention to condiments Foods like soy sauce, ketchup, pickles, olives, salad dressings and seasoning packets are high in sodium Use sparingly! Use spices, herbs, garlic, vinegar, or lemon juice to season foods, or use no-salt seasoning mixes Try black or red pepper, basil, curry, ginger, or rosemary

3 How to Reduce Sodium Intake: Stock Up on Lower Sodium Items Buy frozen foods in bulk Frozen vegetables, lower-sodium frozen meals (aim for 500mg or less per serving) Stock your pantry Sodium-reduced canned soups Reduced-sodium whole grain crackers Dried fruit Unsalted nuts and seeds Reduced-sodium pasta sauce Whole grain pasta, brown rice How to Reduce Sodium Intake: Pack Lunch and Snacks for Work Sliced veggies with hummus, light ranch, or saltfree guacamole Baby carrots, cucumbers, cherry tomatoes, bell peppers, broccoli, cauliflower, sugar snap peas Fruit (bananas, apples, grapes, oranges, pears, etc.) Unsalted nuts and seeds (almonds, walnuts, peanuts, pistachios, etc.) Low-fat yogurt (Greek or regular) Single serving low-fat milk Home-made trail mix (dried fruit, unsalted nuts, whole grain cereal) DASH Eating Plan Choose more fruits and vegetables Shown to lower blood pressure, improve blood lipids, and reduce cardiovascular disease risk compared to diets that were designed to resemble a typical American diet (Dietary Guidelines for Americans) Further reduced blood pressure when combined with a reduced sodium intake Emphasizes vegetables, fruits, low-fat milk and milk products; includes whole grains, poultry, seafood, and nuts Is lower in sodium, red and processed meats, sweets, and sugar containing beverages than typical intakes in the U.S. Fruits and vegetables are naturally lower in sodium Fruits and vegetables contain potassium Potassium lessens the effects of sodium (American Heart Association) Try to eat a fruit or vegetable at every meal Choose fresh or frozen Buy in season produce to save money Choose a variety of colored fruits and vegetables Great for snacks Rinse canned vegetables to remove excess sodium

4 Choose low-fat of fat-free dairy Choose lean meats Choose more fat-free or low fat milk and yogurt in place of cheese, which is higher in sodium Meat and poultry should be lean or low-fat Even lean meat contains cholesterol and fat, so it is a good idea to cut back on your portion sizes Fish and poultry without skin are leaner options Fatty fish (salmon, tuna, mackerel, herring, trout) provide healthy fats (Omega 3 fatty acids) Choose lean meats Choose more whole grains Trim away visible fat Broil, grill, roast, or poach, instead of frying To limit sodium, choose fresh meat, poultry and fish. Check the food label of packaged items to help avoid added salt Deli or luncheon meats, sausages, and canned products like corned beef are higher in sodium; limit these items U.S. Dietary Guidelines suggest that half of your grains be whole grains Choose whole grain cereals Limit the amount of bakery goods you purchase Choose whole-wheat bread and pasta, brown rice, grain mixes, quinoa, bulgur, and barley. Compare the sodium content, and choose the lower sodium options

5 Nuts, seeds, and legumes Fats and Oils Legumes These are a class of vegetables that include beans, peas, and lentils Are low in fat, contain no cholesterol, provide fiber and protein Examples: black beans, chick peas, black-eyed peas, edamame, fava beans, lentils, lima beans, red kidney beans, soy nuts Note: rinse canned beans to remove excess sodium Nuts and seeds Provide healthy fats Choose unsalted almonds, walnuts, peanuts, sunflower seeds, etc. Note: nuts and seeds are high in calories; limit serving size Limit saturated fats: found in butter, cream, lard, shortening, high fat meats Avoid trans fats: found in processed foods such as crackers, baked goods, fried foods Read food labels on salad dressing and margarine so you can choose those that are lowest in saturated fats and free of trans fat Canola oil and olive oil are better options; limit serving sizes Sweets and Added Sugar Alcohol Intake and Blood Pressure Cut back on added sugar, which has has minimal nutritional value, but adds extra calories Limit sweets When you eat sweets, try to choose those that are fat-free or low-fat (juice, hard candy, gelatin, low-fat cookies) Drinking too much alcohol can raise your blood pressure Consult your physician American Heart Association Recommendation: If you drink, limit your alcohol consumption to no more than two drinks per day for men and no more than one drink per day for women

6 Remember to use the My Plate guidelines when planning healthy meals Your Plate Should Contain ½ fruits and vegetables ¼ protein ¼ grains Add a low-fat dairy product on the side Example Example 2 slices 100% whole grain bread 1 Tbsp. peanut butter and 2 tsp. strawberry jam 4-6- strawberries 1 cup baby carrots and sugar-snap peas 1 cup 1% or skim milk 4 oz. grilled salmon 1 small baked sweet potato w/ 2 tsp. trans-fat free margarine and 1 tsp. cinnamon/sugar Large mixed green salad with grapes and walnuts, 1 tsp. olive oil, cracked black pepper 1 cup 1% or skim milk

7 Conclusion Reducing sodium intake and following the DASH eating plan has been shown to reduce blood pressure Reading food labels, choosing more fruits and vegetables, packing lunch and snacks, and preparing more meals at home are great ways to get started Questions????

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