ISCH 08 Interactive Systems for Cultural Heritage Lakeside Science and Technology Park

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1 Martin Hitz, Gerhard Leitner, Rudolf Melcher (Hrsg.) ISCH 08 Interactive Systems for Cultural Heritage Lakeside Science and Technology Park Seminarkonferenz 16. Jänner 2009 Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt Wintersemester 2008/2009

2 Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme: Format und Ablaufplan Konferenzseminare haben an der Informatik der Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt Tradition. Die Forschungsgruppe Interaktive Systeme hat sich dieser Tradition angeschlossen und über einige Jahre hinweg ihr eigenes Format entwickelt, das sich mittlerweile gut bewährt hat, aber naturgemäß weiterhin als Work in Progress verstanden wird. An dieser Stelle des Entwicklungsprozesses soll das aktuelle Lehrveranstaltungsformat festgehalten werden, um als wohldefinierter Ausgangspunkt für weitere Optimierungen zur Verfügung zu stehen. Ziel von Konferenzseminaren ist es, den Studierenden neben dem primären Training der Recherche und Rezeption von (i. A. englischsprachiger) wissenschaftlicher Originalliteratur auch den Prozess der Entwicklung eines Beitrags zu einer wissenschaftlichen Konferenz näher zu bringen. Zu diesem Zweck sind im Laufe des Semesters mehrere einschlägige Rollen zu probieren, wobei der Schwerpunkt auf der Rolle eines Autors bzw. einer Autorin einer eigenen (Überblicks-) Arbeit liegt. Wir beginnen so früh wie möglich im Semester (WS 2008/09: 2. Oktober, 18:00) mit einer Vorbesprechungseinheit, in der das Rahmenthema sowie der Ablauf erläutert werden. Es wird ein kurzes Impulsreferat gehalten und ein Call for Papers besprochen, das wie alle Lehrmaterialien auf der Lehrplattform zu Verfügung gestellt wird (https://elearning.uni-klu.ac.at/moodle/course/view.php?id=2384). Das Impulsreferat wird durch eine Reihe von Einstiegsarbeiten (Originalartikel, evt. auch Lehrbuchkapitel) ergänzt, die ebenfalls auf der Lehrplattform verfügbar gemacht werden. Diese Basisliteratur soll den Studierenden einerseits einen Anker in die einschlägige Literatur, andererseits aber auch ein Muster für das Qualitätsniveau der als relevant erachteten Literatur bieten. Abgeschlossenen wird die Vorbesprechungseinheit mit der Vorstellung von Quellen und Werkzeugen zur Literaturrecherche sowie mit Hinweisen auf Zitierregeln und auf die allgemeine gute wissenschaftliche Praxis. An diese Vorbesprechung schließt eine Phase der Literaturrecherche an (WS 2008/09: Oktober), in der sich die Studierenden in das Gebiet einlesen und schließlich eine thematische Nische für ihre eigene Überblicksarbeit finden sollen. Dabei gilt, dass jede als relevant erachtete gelesene Arbeit auf der Lehrplattform zu hinterlegen ist, und zwar jedenfalls mit vollständiger Quellenangabe, mit einer eigenen Kurzfassung (1-2 Absätze) mit Hinweisen auf für das Konferenzthema relevante Aspekte und, falls möglich, mit einem Link auf den Volltext der besprochenen Arbeit. Die so entstehende Literatursammlung steht allen Teilnehmern zur Verfügung und soll den Prozess der Literaturrecherche insgesamt beschleunigen 1. Die wöchentlichen Plenareinheiten der Lehrveranstaltung dienen in dieser Phase zur Vorstellung solcher»literaturfunde«: Die Teilnehmer erläutern in jeweils etwa 10 Minuten die Essenz des Inhalts eines von ihnen gelesenen und als besonders relevant eingestuften Artikels, wobei mindestens ein solcher Beitrag pro Person verpflichtend ist 2. Aus diesen Diskussionen entstehen erste Ideen über die konkreten Beitragsthemen der Studierenden. Diese Beitrags-Ideen werden in der folgenden Konzeptionsphase (WS 2008/09: 23. Oktober 7. November) konkretisiert, während der ein vorläufiger Titel und ein Abstract ausgearbeitet werden müssen, sowie mindestens drei 1 Seit SS 2007 wird dafür ein Wiki definiert, das mit einem Beispieleintrag initialisiert wird. Ein Eintrag eines Seminarteilnehmers ist nachstehend dargestellt. Über den Link in der Quellenangabe ist der Artikel im Volltext zu beziehen. Weiters ist vorgesehen, über dasselbe Wiki auch ein Glossar wichtiger Begriffe zu etablieren (im Beispiel nicht ersichtlich). Es werden üblicherweise zwischen 3 und 15 derartige Beiträge pro Person erfasst (Mittelwert bei etwa 5 / Person). 2 Auf Grund der i. A. stattfindenden Diskussion sind je 90 Minuten etwa sechs solcher Beiträge unterzubringen. I

3 »Forschungsfragen«, die im Rahmen der zu erstellenden Arbeit beantwortet werden sollen. Gleichzeitig wird die Literaturarbeit (zielgerichtet) fortgesetzt. Am Ende dieser Phase (WS 2008/09: 13. November) werden die Abstracts an alle verteilt und die Themenstellungen in einer Plenarsitzung abgeglichen und endgültig festgelegt. Nun folgt die Ausarbeitungsphase (WS 2008/09: 14. November 3. Dezember), in der die Erstfassungen der Beiträge erstellt werden. Die Literaturarbeit wird weiter fortgesetzt. Am Ende dieser Phase liegen alle Erstfassungen als (formatvorgabenkonforme) PDF-Dateien auf der Lehrplattform vor. In einer Plenarsitzung zu Beginn der Begutachtungsphase (WS 2008/09: Dezember) werden für jede Arbeit zwei bis drei Gutachter bzw. Gutachterinnen festgelegt und die Kriterien für ein konstruktives Gutachten vorgestellt, unterstützt durch ein reales Beispiel (Gutachten aus einem Begutachtungsprozess eines Konferenzbeitrags eines Mitglieds der Forschungsgruppe) und eine Erfassungsschablone für die numerische Beurteilung einer Reihe von Standardkriterien. Abgesehen von der Bewertung von diesen Standardkriterien sind die studentischen Gutachterinnen und Gutachter angehalten, eine Gesamtempfehlung abzugeben, und zwar durch Klassifikation der ihnen zugeordneten Beiträge in Work in Progress Arbeiten (»noch nicht ganz ausgereift«) und Full Papers (»ordentliche Publikation«). Da diese Klassifikation letztlich eine (wenn auch sehr schwache) Auswirkung auf die notenmäßige Beurteilung des Autors bzw. der Autorin hat 3, ist diese Phase gruppendynamisch relativ anspruchsvoll. Die endgültige Klassifikation der Arbeiten erfolgt in einer abschließenden Plenarsitzung (Program Committee Meeting, WS 2008/09: 18. Dezember), in der die einzelnen (auf der Lehrplattform abgelegten) Gutachten von den Gutachterinnen und Gutachtern vorgestellt und diskutiert werden. Die Finalisierungsphase (WS 2008/09: 19. Dezember 7. Jänner) dient zur Überarbeitung des eigenen Beitrags und zur Erstellung der Camera Ready Copy. Neben der verbesserten Arbeit ist eine kurze Stellungnahme abzugeben, in welcher Weise auf die Vorschläge der Gutachten eingegangen wurde. In einer Plenarsitzung wird diese Stellungnahme von den einzelnen AutorInnen vorgetragen; die GutachterInnen äußern sich zur Qualität der Überarbeitung. Letzte Optimierungen an der Endversion der Arbeit können noch angebracht werden. Schließlich wird die Lehrplattform hochgeladene PDF-Version von der Seminarleitung in einen Konferenzband übernommen (und mit Deckblatt, Seitennummern, Inhaltsverzeichnis, Kopf- und Fußzeilen ausgestattet), von dem zum Konferenztermin vorab für jede teilnehmende Person ein Exemplar vorbereitet wird. Die Präsentationsphase (WS 2008/09: 16. Jänner 8:30-17:30, ggfs. auch zweitägig) entspricht dem simulierten Kongress. Dieser findet typischerweise außerhalb der üblichen Lehrveranstaltungsräumlichkeiten statt (Lakeside Demoraum, B01) und wird mit Pausenverpflegung und getränken sowie einem gemeinsamen Konferenzessen»garniert«. Die Präsentationen sind mit 20 Minuten (Full Paper) bzw. 15 Minuten (Work in Progress) limitiert, dazu kommen Zeit für Diskussion und Vortragendenwechsel, sodass pro Beitrag 30 Minuten Bruttozeit zu veranschlagen sind. Die Teilnehmerinnen und Teilnehmer werden angehalten, über die drei besten Präsentationen abzustimmen die Preisverleihung des Best Presentation Awards beschließt das Seminar. Vorbereitete Materialien Die Lehrplattform wird von der Seminarleitung mit folgenden Artefakten initialisiert: Strikte Formatvorlagen für LaTex und Word (nach den ACM SIGCHI Publikationsvorlagen) Quellen zur Literaturrecherche (insbes. digitale Bibliotheken, Google Scholar, CiteSeer ) Basisliteratur Muster einer Überblicksarbeit (i. A. aus ACM Computing Surveys) Muster eines Eintrags in das Literatur-Wiki Muster der gutachterlichen Rückmeldungen zu einem realen Konferenzbeitrag Erfassungsschablone (Excel) für die numerische Beurteilung von Standardkriterien Erfahrungen 2007/08 Im vergangenen Wintersemester 2007/08 wurde das Seminar von 13 Studierenden belegt. Im Laufe des Semesters haben sich drei der Studierenden wegen Überlastung abgemeldet, die verbleibenden zehn haben positiv abgeschlossen (2xA, 3xB, 5xC). Das Ende der Lehrveranstaltung bereits Mitte Jänner erlaubt den Studierenden, sich zu Semesterende noch voll auf den Abschluss anderer Lehrveranstaltungen zu konzentrieren. Klagenfurt, Martin Hitz 3 Der Normalwert (= Note für eine ordentliche Leistung) liegt bei Full Papers bei 2, bei Work in Progress Papers bei 3. Besonders gute Gesamtleistungen können diesen Normalwert um einen Grad verbessern, genauso kann er um einen Grad verschlechtert werden, was ein Beurteilungsintervall von 1-3 bzw. 2-4 ergibt. Die Note 5 wird nur bei Nichterfüllung notwendiger Bedingungen vergeben. II

4 Inhalt Sustainability of Cultural Artifacts Anton Pum Long Time Archiving of Digital Data in Context of Digital Preservation of Cultural Heritage... 1 Sudheer Karumanchi Data Management of Cultural Artifacts... 7 Andreas Stiglitz Copyrights, Storage & Retrieval of Digital Cultural Artifacts Carmen Volina Libraries in the digital age Augmentation of Cultural Objects Bonifaz Kaufmann Using Narrative Augmented Reality Outdoor Games in Order to Attract Cultural Heritage Sites BS Reddy Jaggavarapu Personalized Touring with Augmented Reality Claus Liebenberger Augmented reality telescopes Guntram Kircher Interactive museum guides: Identification and recognition techniques of objects and images Digitalization Techniques Manfred A. Heimgartner Photorealistic vs. non-photorealistic rendering in AR applications Helmut Kropfberger Digitalizing Intangible Cultural Artefacts Stefan Melanscheg Technologien zur digitalen Aufbereitung historischer Bauwerke und Denkmäler Christian Blackert Digital Scanning Techniques and Their Utility for Mobile Augmented Reality Applications Interacting with Digital Environments Daniel Finke Möglichkeiten einer digitalen Umwelt René Scheidenberger Psychological Aspects of User Experience in Virtual Environments Simon Urabl Indoor Tracking Techniques III

5 Long Time Archiving of Digital Data in Context of Digital Preservation of Cultural Heritage Anton Pum Alpen-Adria Universität Klagenfurt 9020 Klagenfurt ABSTRACT Time is an unstoppable factor in human s life. Every lifeform becomes older while the time passes by. And while it is (actually) not possible to store human beings for the posterity, it is possible with almost every kind of data. We live in a very fast paced and dynamic world, where technology evolves faster than one can follow. This includes new technologies, e.g. new formats for data storage and new ways how data can be obtained at all. Sometimes when developed technologies are so radically new, old data storages become obsolete. Either there are new ways of saving data or even new ways of gathering that may lead to absolutely new devices, formats and ways of presenting information. This development stands in conflict with the wish to keep data for a long time and to have undestroyable data storages that keeps consistent over decades, maybe even centuries. This paper shows the challenges in terms of long term archiving of digital data and already existing initiatives and solutions. Author Keywords Cultural Preservation, Long Term Archiving, Challenges, Initiatives INTRODUCTION This paper deals with the topic of long-term preservation of data, in general and especially in terms of cultural heritage as a chosen scientific field. In times of fast paced technology development the choice of a possibilty for persistent data storage is not an easy one. There are several initiatives, which deal with the preservation of cultural heritage. I want to discuss their effort together with the different challenges they face. First off there is a short description of cultural preservation and its benefits. Then the challenges of digital cultural preservation will be Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. To copy otherwise, or republish, to post on servers or to redistribute to lists, requires prior specific permission and/or a fee. Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme WS07/08, January, 2008, Klagenfurt, Austria Copyright 2008 Klagenfurt University discussed, followed by an explanation of the resulting paradox. Afterwards some methods and possibilities of effective digital cultural preservation will be shown in detail. CULTURAL PRESERVATION Cultural preservation can be described as the process of saving all sorts of material of cultural relevance for the future. This includes the selection of material to be saved and the search for a proper way for long-time archiving. In general, archiving of digital data is more complicated than archiving printed information, because of some important differences. [1] A printed document is a physical object, a digitally saved one is a logical object. The physical object is always readable, just by using the human eyes, but to read and understand a logical object (which only saved on a physical data storage) it is necessary to have the right equipment, be it respective software or hardware. Also most of the time physical objects (especially documents) are still readable and understandable if they have been slightly damaged. Digital data is more likely to be completely unreadable, if it has been damaged in any way. So it gets clear that there are some challenges with the digital preservation of cultural heritage. The challenge gets even greater when we are talking about long term archiving. We ll see about that later in this paper. BENEFITS So why should one think about preserving cultural heritage. I want to show the aspects of cultural preservation that have a positive influence on today s life. This does not only include digital preservation, but also the care for natural habitats and other real life heritage (like buildings,...). There are several areas benefitting from cultural preservation. [2] 1 Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Sustainability of Cultural Artifacts 1

6 - Area of environment It has a positive effect on the appearance of city centers and also causes a reduction in air pollution, if there are any significant efforts made in cultural heritage preservation. This is mainly caused by a improvent in the planning of local transport systems. Both, the cultural heritage and the people in the local area benefit from better air conditions. - Area of education It helps to stimulate the social and material vitality of areas around museums. Such places are generally used to obtain information and not only by school classes, but also other institutions. So there are absolute improvements in teaching and accessing information. - Area of construction Places of cultural heritage are often places of social inclusion at the same time. This raises the quality of life of the local inhabitants. Also when restoring actual buildings and other objects, cultural goods may serve as a model and experience gathered by refurbishing an old building, book or something else of cultural relevance can be helpful also with actual objects. - Local economy The economy is effected in a positive way too, because of greater attractivness for tourism in the respective area. Further the preservation of cultural heritage is also often the origin of new developed technologies and may stimulate small and medium sized enterprizes to develop new markets. So it should be clear that cultural heritage has great influence on our everyday life and affects many different areas and businesses. WHAT CULTURAL HERITAGE IS PRESERVED? So the next question may be, what kind of cultural heritage is preserved for posterity. LONG TERM PRESERVATION Now we are talking especially about digital data. We spend uncountable time in producing digital information. Doing this requires much effort, often great investments economical and personal, so do not want to loose the outcome of all this work. This is why we have the need for preserving digital data over long time. It is the same case with cultural heritage that is saved in a logical way as data on a storage device. For example you have a book from the medieval, which is dangerous to touch, because it would possibly break. So there is the need for another way to keep the data of the book persistent, in today s case, the need for saving the information in a digital way. So you have a certain storage device to save the data, of course the newest technology. But here starts the problem. How long will this technology be new? This leads us to the paradox of long term archiving. THE PARADOX So we have the need for saving our data over a long time. This could mean several decades to hundrets of years, so we need a way to save digital data permanently and consistent. Look back the last 30 years. In this time, several new and influencial technologies have been developed. We had the CD, DVD, some other storage formats that experienced significant changes (especially concerning personal computer hardware) and maybe the most important of all: the internet. Think about how these technologies influenced peoples life and the way things are done. Look back 60 years where people in the computer business (if something like that existed in those days) said, that no more than 5 computers will ever be necessary worldwide (This is a famous misquote from Thomas J. Watson made 1943, the author was although unable to find any specific citation). Speaking about technology changes we can assume that there will be more such massive changes in the coming decades, like they appeared in the past. So technology changes, no matter what, but we want our data to be persistent over a long time. This causes an inevitable paradox. [3] On the one hand we want to keep our old data unchanged and on the other hand we want to access this data and interact with it with the newest technology and tools. So this means there are several great challenges in this field, which need further discussion. CHALLENGES There are some main challenges to enlist, when talking about long term digital preservation. This also considers cultural heritage preservation, but in general it is valid for all types of digital archiving. There are generally three different digital preservation requirements we have on preserved data. Those requirements are determined by the creation context of the preserved data, based on if it was originally digital data or if it is converted data based on a real-life object. [3] Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Sustainability of Cultural Artifacts 2

7 Its content must be stored consistently.[3] So if one accesses the data one year later, there must be the same complete and valid information coming in return. This can be a difficult task if we are talking about dynamic content, that is for example linked to another dynamic content and both change over time. Nontheless consistency must be guaranteed. In terms of cultural heritage data can be very complex, widespread and distributed, which leads to problems in terms of consistency. The preserved data is stored in a certain format and style, which can be problematic concerning the tools needed to access it. [3] One may not have the proper software/hardware to get information from the respective storage device. Standards are generally used to surpass this problem, but even standards become old over time. Sometimes also the context in which the data has been created is important.[3] This always requires further research to learn about the circumstances data has been generated. Also for cultural heritage this fact is very important, for example if you need to know, why a certain ancient book was written, ship was buildt or something else. Lorie presents a typical case of data access in the future. [4] A file (F2000) has been stored in the year 2000 on a storage device (M2000). If in the year 2100 one wants to obtain the respective data, following conditions must be met: [4] - F2000 must be physically intact. This requires bit-stream preservation. - A device must be available to read the bit stream. Of course this would not be the same as to the time, when the data has been stored 100 years before. - The bit stream must be correctly interpreted. Lorie discusses the conditions as followed: [4] 1. The first condition can only possibly be met, if the data is copied to a newer storage device periodically, due to the finite life time of any physical device. 2. The second condition has the same requirement as condition 1, one must copy the data from old media to new one, so it can be used be the latest technology. [4] This is also vital to benefit from the advantages of the newest technology. 3. The third condition is probably the hardest one to meet.[4] A bit stream must therefore be interpreted in the same way in the future as it is today, despite of new findings and technology. We will discuss several sketches of solutions on this problem later on. One general problem of digital cultural heritage data is its scale and diversity [5] in terms of connections to other information, complexity and right interpretation. Also the Task Force on Archiving of Digital Information mentions the problem of the longevity of physical data storages. [5] So even under the best conditions any physical media can be fragile and has limited shelf life, so it has to be replaced sooner or later. So technology becomes obsolete over time because of new systems and technologies replacing it. It is said that migration of the data is the better and more general solution, though it is not always possible to migrate the data in exactly the same way it existed before and it s a time consuming, costly and much more complex process, than the simple refreshing from one media to another one of the same kind. Also legal and organizational issues are relevant, when thinking of how to distribute one s knowledge and data (in terms of price and availability), so it may not be either too easy or too hard to obtain. Margulies et al. say there is also the necessity to administrate the metadata of the preserved data. [6]Metadata must be preserved with the same attention as it is done with the concerning data. There are two ways of presenting the data (after it has been found): [6] - Data-format migration The data is copied on a storage device of the latest technology and read then by actual drives. - Emulation A new machine is limited to the old presentation processes. Those processes base on the fact that digital data in its essence cannot be read and understood by the human eye (as it would be the case with written paper, books and documents).[6] So we need the process of transforming the information in digital data, which can only be understood by machines. So the information data (Daten) is digitalized (Digitalisierung) via a machine and then saved to a storage device (Speichermedium). Information Machine Storage device Data Digitalisation Data Fig.1 modified on [6] Transformation of information to digital data To read and understand this saved information again, certain machines are necessary, which are able to interpret the saved information in the right way. The machine grants access to the storage device and the user of the archive (Archivbenutzer) can then understand the data in the right way, as it has been saved. 3 Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Sustainability of Cultural Artifacts 3

8 Storage device Data Machine Access Archive User Fig.2 modified on [6] Interpretation of digital data This process shows some criteria of digital data too. [6] The independence of the storage device (as the data can be saved to every kind storage device), the dependence of the machine that interprets the information and the possibility of no losses involved in the process. Based on this criteria there can be some promises for solutions, as seen later on. Chen [3] says, the solutions, which facilitate migrating digital records across generations of both, technology and people, must be capable of interfacing with the digital access systems shown in figure 3. So one main task to accomplish will be the provision of proper interfaces, able to handle the connection between user and machine, considering real data and metadata. Data needed in this case. In some cases it might even be not possible to access the old data via emulation, because the old program only displayed the data in a certain way, but grants no access to it. In my opinion those are many intolerable drawbacks, so advanced solutions have to be found. Lorie in [4] makes a proposal: This is where the distinction of the archiving of data and the archiving of programs becomes relevant. Data archiving: In this case the system must be able to extract the data out of a bit stream and present it in the way it has originally been saved.[4] To interpret the data in the right way the user is also supported with metadata, which explains the means of the real data. So the logical model for data archiving must be simple in order to minimize the effort, that has to be done when one needs metadata to understand the model and data. And it is only used to restore the data and not to work with it. In his example [4] he uses a Universal Virtual Computer (UVC), which will be explained later. The data is stored as a bit stream in 2000, represented by Ri.[4] In 2100 the client accesses the data, which the clients sees as a set of data elements, that follow a certain data schema Sd. The method is the decoding algorithm returning the data to the client in the appropriate way, based on Sd. With a language L the metadata is saved in 2000, means the description how to decode the data. In addition a mechanism Ss allows the client to read Sd as if it was data. This mechanism Ss is a schema to read schemas and should be simple and intuitive, so that it will be not changed over a long time and remains known. Fig.3 [3] A digital appraisal, preservation and access model. It is one suggestion, which permits migration of digital recordings across generations of technology and people. METHODS, TOOLS AND INITIATIVES As shown in Figure 3, there are some general proposals for solutions regarding long term archiving of digital data. Lorie makes an interesting distinction between the preservation of data and the preservation of programs, including their behavior. [4] Conversion of the data from one system change to another may be appropriate when handling business data, needed nearly everday, but when it comes to longtime saving of data, that may not be accessed over some decades, such conversion are a big burden and not free of risks. On the other hand the emulation of the old systems can be very expensive (not just in terms of money) and are also often an overkill, when one just wants to see a record again, the whole program functionality of the past is Fig. 4: Overall mechanism for data archival [4] Lorie shows an example for a practical implementation of such a decoding system. The whole idea in the implementation process is based on the UVC machine.[4] It is a computer only existing virtually, it has the functionality of a computer and its definition is so basic that it will endure forever (universal). Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Sustainability of Cultural Artifacts 4

9 My only complaint is, that I m not sure if even such a UVC would survive a technology change so drastically that it could make all other computers on the market obsolete. Look back a hundret years, no one knew that there will ever be computers. So what will be in a hundret years, we cannot imagine now. Program Archival In terms of program archival it is also proposed to use the UVC approach. It is extended to serve as a program archival mechanism too. [4] Instead of archiving the UVC method to decode the data, the whole program, saved on the actual machine, will be saved together with the UVC code that emulates the instruction set of the actual machine. So an emulator is written in the present. To keep it possible to adapt the data to whatever output device there will be in a hundret years, it is a proposal to keep the data structure produced by an output processor simple and well documented.[4] In this way it will be easy to write a mapping for the output data according to the actual output device of the future. Distarnet Margulies [6] provides a sketch for a solution based on the processes of migration and emulation. They say that one must eliminate as many costly factors out of the process as possible to make it efficient. This is solved via automatization. Distarnet is a project with the goal for a development of a communicationsprotocol for a distributed and automated archiving system. [6] They have a process model to assure that data keeps unchanged and consistent, which is of great use when building a distributed system. A P2P networl is used to communicate, where every node saves a certain amount of redundant information. The nodes communicate with each other via internet technologies. The exchange of the data is supported via metadata which are also part of the data in Distarnet. Chronopolis Chronopolis is a project for a preservation model facility that for long-term support of irreplacable and important national data collection.[7] It ensures that, (1) standard reference data sets remain available to provide critical science reference material; (2) Collections can expand and evolve over time, as well as withstand evolution in the underlying technologies and (3) preservation of last resort is available for critical disciplinary and interdisciplinary digital resources at risk of being lost. The project reacts on many calls from different experts that preservation must be done now not some time in the future.[7] The preservation architecture of Chronopolis includes a digital library system, data grid technology, a research and development laboratory and an administration and policy effort, as shown in figure 6. Fig. 5: Distarnet node processes In Figure 5 one can see the processes of one node of the network. There are evaluation steps over and over again to check the right redundance of the saved information. The algorithm is capable of deleting, copying and checking the information and to initiate the according process. The solution provides an automated way of data migration and to keep the data consistent over a distributed system. Fig. 6 Chronopolis components Moore et.al. mentions in [7] that preservation environments have to support the following set of archival processes: - appraisal - accession - description - arrangment - storage - preservation - access The main idea behind Chronopolis is the federation of several systems to minimize the typical risks. So the preservation facility provides three functionalities: [7] 5 Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Sustainability of Cultural Artifacts 5

10 - Core center Supports user access to the digital data, it is the primary access resource. - Replication center This functionality provides mirror copies of the digital holdings to guarantee user access if the core center is unavailable - Deep archive This is the most complex functionality. It stages all submitted data, that comes from archivist controlled processes, allows no remote user changes and handles all changes on the data via versions. So via the combination of a core center and a replication center, the system can handle the risks of media failure, natural disasters (if the replication center is geographically disrtibuted from the core center), local operational errors (if different teams handle different centers) and systemic system failures, if the centers are build by different vendor products. [7] The deep archive finally can handle malicious users By evolving the replication center to an autonomous center, also other things can be replicated, especially namespaces for identifying archivists, storage resources and managing constraints concerning the access. [7] This leads to a total independency of the technological storage device. This is one of the key components of such preservation facilities, as mentioned before. There are some other initiatives, such as the DANA (Digital Archive Network for Anthropolgy), which less focuses on the long term preservation of digital data, but on the effective and distributed preservation and access on cultural heritage objects. [8] Even with the PDF format it is tried to provide an according archiving technology, as it was nevertheless originally intended as an independend format for documentation representation. [9] CONCLUSION Long term preservation of digital data is very complex in terms of distribution of data, longevity of physical storage devices and consistency and integrity of the data itself, so that it can be accessed the same way nowadays and in the far future. We ve seen, that some key aspects to do so are the exchange of data involving no losses, the independency of the storage device and the dependency on the output machine. To raise the chances of a successful preservation of cultural heritage data that is digitally stored, we also have to think about simplifying the way data is saved including its metadata, which is also indispensible. With the right combination of saved data and metadata and an effective way to keep data consistent from system change to system change it can be possible to save all important data for nearly eternity. REFERENCES 1. Steenbakkers, Johan F. Digital Archiving in the 21 st century: Practice and the national library of the netherlands. Library Trends Vol. 54, No , p Cassar, May Evaluating the benefits of cultural heritage preservation: An overview of international initiatives. Center for Sustainable Heritage, London Chen, Su-Shing. The Paradox of Digital Preservation. IEEE Comuter 34 (3), p (2001). 4. Lorie, Raymond A. Long Term Preservation of Digital Information, Proceedings of the 1st ACM/IEEE-CS joint conference on Digital Libraries, p , January 2001, Roanoke, Virginia, USA. 5. Hedstrom, M. It s about time: Research Challenges in Digital Archiving and Long Term Preservation: Final Report. The National Science Foundation and the Library of Congress, August Margulies, S., Subotic, I., Rosenthaler, L. Langzeitarchivierung digitaler Daten DISTributed ARciving NETwork DISTARNET, IS & T Conference San Antonio, Moore, Reagan W., et.al. CHRONOPOLIS Federated Digital Preservation Across Time and Space. In: Local to Global Interoperability Challenges and Technologies, Sardinia, Italy, p , June Clark, Jeffrey T. et.al. Preservation and Access of Cultural Heritage Objects Through a Digital Archive Network for Anthropology. In: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Virtual Systems and Multimedia. Enhanced Realities: Augmented and Unplugged, IEEE Computer Society Press (2001), pp Davies, A.N. Adobe PDF use in analytical information storage and archiving, Spectroscopyeurope, vol.19, no , p Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Sustainability of Cultural Artifacts 6

11 Data Management of Cultural Artifacts Sudheer Karumanchi Institut für Informatik-Systeme Universität Klagenfurt ABSTRACT Virtual Reality is a tool to describe, visualize, record and store the data in a visual figure which is easier to understand and translate, work on sites without interfering with the physical environment. Virtual Reality application in archaeology and heritage are frequently identified with the reconstruction of ancient sites in the form of 3D models for desktop viewing. We can summarize the objectives of virtual cultural heritage projects in three words: initially to reconstruct the data representation, to present and visualize the virtual environment experience, and providing the ability to gain insights and modifying the experience interaction. Almost all virtual heritage related projects will include all three of these characteristics in their implementations, yet very few examples exist where all the three is achieved. This is due to many factors like increasing amount of heterogeneous data and decreasing storage space. This paper reviewed the challenges that virtual museums face in making their content available. This paper will explore the current state of virtual reality for the cultural heritage, and discuss the issues involved in using state-ofthe-art interactive virtual environments for learning, historic research, and entertainment. Keywords Virtual Museums, Virtual Reality, Content Production, Content Visualization, Content Management. INTRODUCTION Cultural heritage is an important resource for any country from several perspectives whether it deals with paintings, historical monuments, sculptures etc. Virtual Reality is the simulation of a real or imagined environment that can be experienced visually. Virtual Reconstructions are the most commonly used applications of virtual reality in cultural heritage. Virtual environment presents exciting Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. To copy otherwise, or republish, to post on servers or to redistribute to lists, requires prior specific permission and/or a fee. Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme WS07/08, January, 2008, Klagenfurt, Austria Copyright 2008 Klagenfurt University...$5.00. opportunities to reconstruct and preserve the cultural and historical artifacts in new contexts with meaningful relationships. In the last few years museums have been exploring the use of virtual environments to make their content available in digital form. Museums can save space, prevents data damage, transmit data easily by digitizing. Virtual museums provide simulation of real museums. They represent the virtual environment that exhibits physical museum in a variety of ways over the internet and provide access to a wide range of users all over the world. Thus provides users to visit museums without any time, locality, safety and expense restrictions. It provides more information to users by allowing them to examine the artifacts. Museums contain recorded information like images, paintings, films, sound files, publications, text documents and other data of historical, scientific or cultural artifacts. To develop the virtual environment in a museum, the entire museum collection must be digitized right up front. Digital technologies encompass a wide range replacing the earlier alternatives like animation, audio, film, graphics, television, video etc. Some applications such as databases and search engines make more accessible. The World Wide Web and multimedia provides access to a range of digital resources and support a variety of learning styles through the internet. Many museums incorporate some type of intranet to provide a dedicated and limited resource that is functionally similar. The design and development of virtual heritage systems mainly divided into three stages namely input data collection, data processing and data visualization technologies which can be called as Content Production, Content Management and Content Visualization [11]. This paper aims at focus on the advent of latest technologies in digital reconstruction of cultural and historical artifacts to store, archive, retrieve and visualize in order. In the following sections a brief discussion about the architecture and different technologies how cultural artifacts are represented in virtual museums. PROPOSITION Figure 1 illustrates the overall architecture consisting of Content Production, Content Management and Content Visualization. Traditionally most virtual museum systems use digital technologies to data acquisition, 3D modeling and refinement to show virtual environment. With the 1 Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Sustainability of Cultural Artifacts 7

12 advent of digital photography and photogrammetry, museums can record 2D pictures of artifacts and complement with text descriptions. This whole process may be called as Content Production. Technologies advances towards 3D in culture heritage to record the artifacts with higher precision and in attractive looking, replacing the older saying do not touch with touch and feel. RELATED WORK The Ark of Refugee Heirlooms [12], a cultural database mainly focus on Greek Culture Heritage Figure 2: A web based database user interface [10] Figure 1: Over all Architecture [11] After successful digitization, now focus on importing these digitized artifacts on to a database. This is nothing but storage and management of digitized artifacts. To make the information available, there are so many problems that are to be addressed with data storage like Intelligent mechanisms to turn the raw data into useful information Uncertainty, Data Classification: It is important to know the relevant information of artifact when it is created and where it is created. Access to data storage Developing a user database query system: Several constraints lie in developing a query system to access uncertain information, dynamic querying to specific queries graphically i.e., using GUI widgets, visual querying based around a time line as artifacts are represented on timeline. And finally providing a user friendly environment. All the above framed questions are fulfilled by only internet databases providing a vast amount of information i.e. distributed all over the world. Visualization of cultural artifacts can be seen in next section. The Ark is a database containing more than 4000 artifacts to document the cultural identity of Greek population due to population exchange between Greek and Turkey. The 3D ArCAD System [13], multimedia database for archaeological ceramics and glass artifacts The visualization of digital artifacts of museums is performed by Virtual Reality interfaces [5]. Several virtual museums make use of existing Web3D technology to present their artifacts. Some virtual museums make use of 3D technologies like VRML, or QuickTime VR. Examples are the SCULPTEUR project, the World Heritage Tour and several virtual cities, like Saint Petersburg 300 or Virtual Rome. Recent trends in Internet towards increasing bandwidth and browser plug-ins using large datasets and hiquality rendering developed some more applications. Some examples are the 3D of Piazza dei Miracoli and the Pure Form Museum that make use of the XVR technology, Playing the Past, making use of the Quest3D technology, or Keops, based on the Virtools technology. Besides web applications, there are also interesting applications of realtime 3D graphics to Cultural Heritage which need dedicated clients, the most famous being Second Life-based virtual museums which are either replicas of real museums or fully virtual environments with no correspondence with real institutions. Increasing trend towards realistic environment like real museums came into the research replacing the existing ones; therefore 3D modeling environments are developed. Instead of accessing the 2D models, there is a better look and feel experience for the visitors with 3D environments as they are really visualizing the museum. The problem of capturing 3Dobjects and information had overcome with 2 Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Sustainability of Cultural Artifacts 8

13 the advent latest tools. Several commercial software interactive tools to develop accurate 3D environments are availabe. The ActiveWorlds system allows users to design their homes in a 3D environment. Outline3D allows drawing an interior. The Virtual Exhibitor, a commercial tool aims to construct and simulate the exhibition items in 3D. QTVR is a good example for 3D presentation of digital artifacts in 2D space. Now-a-days personal computers with graphics hardware are also capable of displaying 3D artifacts. Using these modeling tools the digital artifacts can be easily developed and placed online. Although the produced results are visually realistic they are always less detailed than the real artifacts. Figure 4: Web based visualization of cultural objects [11] PRESENTATION OF MULTIMEDIA DATABASE The three stage system for retrieving the information can be shown in following figure. In the first stage the user is prompted to access database search engine in order to locate an object matching desired search criteria. Figure 3: The user interface of the 3D-ArCAD database system [10] The end part in data visualization is placing these 3D modeled artifacts on web providing the visitors to view the cultural heritage content remotely (for use in Internet), locally (for use in museums e.g. touch screen display) or a suitable environment (Interfaces). The main idea here is how visitors will search for these 3D artifacts? To make the 3D artifacts accessible via World Wide Web with realistic and navigating performance 3D web modeling languages are available especially VRML [4]. Virtual Reality Modeling Language is a standard file format to represent 3D interactive worlds and objects. X3D is the next generation to VRML, an xml based file format used to represent 3D computer graphics. XSL (Extensible Style Sheet Language) style sheets can be used to present the content in different visualization modes in different styles for different visitors. The basic problems while presenting the artifacts to web are file size which leads to affects in loading time and navigation. In addition to this, the ease of navigation also depends on the complexity of 3D objects. Figure 5: Three stage interaction system procedure [10] The database generates a report of all matching artifacts and prompts the user to select from list. In the second stage the user gets specific artifact to inspect and a 3D modeled representation through VRML language. In the third stage the user is prompted to interact with the 3D object by panning, zooming, by clicking on the surface and by other measurements provided in database. Presentation and visualization of cultural artifacts on web provides [9] User friendly and Comprehensible Customization Flexible and efficient use There are several problematic issues that are to be identified in visualization of cultural artifacts on web that could enhance the virtual museum experience, mainly 3 Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Sustainability of Cultural Artifacts 9

14 Consistency Standards of GUI Interfaces Navigation Functionality and quality of graphic elements - Documentation virtual museums must provide the users with user friendly language and help the inexperience visitors how to visit museums by documenting in simple vocabulary. Access rights Virtual museum systems must provide the privileges and access rights to the users in a descriptive manner to access all the information and all the inventories provided in museums. Rights for administrators and users are different in accessing the artifacts. The virtual museums system must Visibility virtual museums must focus on how to communicate the information to the user. Searching helps the users to find the exactly what they are looking for. Search engine works on by providing key words or by providing index. Search engines also help users in mining data available in databases and news papers. Content accessibility virtual museums must provide the quick reliable and easy access to information about virtual museums digital artifacts. For example some users are interested in thumb nails representing the images of objects and some are interested in voice recognition for user posed queries for easy participation Aesthetic issues providing the effects to visitors like sound, vision and auditory etc, virtual museums may also enable the visitors to touch and feel the artifacts and also providing the multi sensory experience CONCLUSION This paper clearly stated how virtual museums manage in representing different cultural artifacts. Different digitalized technologies and overall architecture showing content management, visualization and production is presented. Here how cultural artifacts are presented and how the presented data is visualized based on the end user choices. In this a multimedia representation for digitized information is provided and different problematic issues that are to be focused in developing this are also mentioned. The uses of different technologies in presenting and modeling their artifacts in virtual museums are focused. At last a three stage interaction system representing how an end user can interact with virtual objects over the internet is shown. REFERENCES 1. ARCO (Augmented Representation of Cultural Objects). 2. ARCOLite: An XML Based System for Building and Presenting Virtual Museum Exhibitions Using Web3D and Augmented Reality. In Proceedings of the theory and Practice of Computer Graphics 2004 (Tpcg'04) - Volume 00 (June 08-10, 2004). TPCG. IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, Walczak, K. and Cellary, W. Building database applications of virtual reality with X-VRML. In Proceedings of the Seventh international Conference on 3D Web Technology (Tempe, Arizona, USA, February 24-28, 2002). Web3D '02. ACM, New York, NY, Walczak, K. and Cellary, W. X-VRML - XML Based Modeling of Virtual Reality. In Proceedings of the 2002 Symposium on Applications and the internet (January 28 - February 01, 2002). IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, Hemminger, B. M., Bolas, G., Carr, D., Jones, P., Schiff, D., and England, N. Capturing content for virtual museums: from pieces to exhibits. In Proceedings of the 4th ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Conference on Digital Libraries (Tuscon, AZ, USA, June 07-11, 2004). JCDL '04. ACM, New York, NY, Reitmayr, G. and Schmalstieg, D. Location based applications for mobile augmented reality. In Proceedings of the Fourth Australasian User interface Conference on User interfaces Volume 18 (Adelaide, Australia). R. Biddle and B. Thomas, Eds. ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, vol. 36. Australian Computer Society, Darlinghurst, Australia, Hansen, F. A. Ubiquitous annotation systems: technologies and challenges. In Proceedings of the Seventeenth Conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia (Odense, Denmark, August 22-25, 2006). HYPERTEXT '06. ACM, New York, NY, H. Chen, C. Chen, 'Metadata Development for Digital Libraries and Museums Taiwan s Experience', International Conference on Dublin Core and Metadata Applications Sylaiou, S., Economou, M., Karoulis, A., and White, M The evaluation of ARCO: a lesson in curatorial competence and intuition with new technology. Comput. Entertain. 6, 2 (Jul. 2008), Tsirliganis, N. Pavlidis, G. Koutsoudis, A. Politou, E. Tsompanopoulos, A. Stavroglou, K. Chamzas, C., NEW WAYS IN DIGITIZATION AND VISUALIZATION OF CULTURAL OBJECTS, 4 Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Sustainability of Cultural Artifacts 10

15 11. Wojciechowski, R., Walczak, K., White, M., and Cellary, W Building Virtual and Augmented Reality museum exhibitions. In Proceedings of the Ninth international Conference on 3D Web Technology (Monterey, California, April 05-08, 2004). Web3D '04. ACM, New York, NY, Politou E., Tsevremes I., Tsompanopoulos A., Pavlidis G., Kazakis A., Chamzas C., "Ark of Refugee Heirloom" - A Cultural Heritage Database, EVA 2002: Conference of Electronic Imaging and the Visual Arts, March 25-29, 2002, Florence, Italy. 13. Tsirliganis N., Pavlidis G., Koutsoudis A., Papadopoulou D., Tsompanopoulos A., Stavroglou K., Loukou Z., Chamzas C., "Archiving 3D Cultural Objects with Surface Point-Wise Database Information", First International Symposium on 3D Data Processing Visualization and Transmission, June 19-21, 2002, Padova, Italy. 5 Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Sustainability of Cultural Artifacts 11

16 Copyrights, Storage & Retrieval of Digital Cultural Artifacts Andreas Stiglitz Universität Klagenfurt ABSTRACT This paper describes how it is possible to provide access to a huge repository, which can be used by almost everybody, for viewing and managing digitalized cultural artifacts. It also explains how such a system can be implemented and how it deals with copyrights. Furthermore, the paper focuses on different retrieval aspects for such an artifactrepository. Thus, we try to answer the following questions: Which mechanisms can be used for entering data and browsing through such a huge database of artifacts? Are there any user-friendly ways to search and find artifacts in the repository? How can such a system be maintained and how successful is the handling of copyrights and licenses conforming to the law? Keywords Repository, digital cultural artifacts, retrieval, storage browsing mechanisms, maintenance, copyrights, licenses. INTRODUCTION Since the interests in the preservation of our cultural heritage increased during the last few years, electronic presentation and access to the huge volumes of relevant data became more and more important. Information technologies now make it possible for specialists and also for average citizens worldwide to access information and galleries of cultural artifacts. If we want to use a huge repository for viewing and working with data concerning digital cultural artifacts, we have to consider several important aspects: The implementation of such a database has to offer easy retrieval of information for the average users. The browsing mechanisms have to be intelligent to provide an easy usage. Also insertion of new data should be comfortable. Another requirement is the user-friendliness of the system and we have to solve the problems of practical maintenance and administration of such a repository. Finally, we have to deal with the aspects of management of copyrights and licenses. Everybody, who needs access to such a repository, wants that his/her requirements can be fulfilled. Users can be curators, exhibitors, critics, and viewers. To meet their claims a repository can be implemented as an open-source Web portal system, providing opportunities for customization and integration. Different systems are already in development or in use. But these systems can t be implemented without dealing with legal aspects like the copyright. Long term digital preservation of digital memory is an emerging technological and policy issue. To offer access to the cultural heritage to the whole world through the Internet the protection and management of copyrights for available digital artifacts have to be considered. This paper explains how the problems raised before can be solved by different methods, technologies and theoretical approaches. COPYRIGHT Before we can digitize cultural artifacts, there is one aspect to be considered, which is very important and essential, because it restricts the digitization itself and the further usage of the digital content through the Internet and different other Web applications: the issue of copyright protection and management [1]. Cultural organizations which want to use digital cultural artifacts have to be aware that there exist actual technological solutions for copyright protection and management such as watermarking, encryption, meta-data and digital rights management systems. There exist technical guidelines which describe systems, software and hardware solutions, commercial applications which are focusing on the copyright protection and management issue. They are giving an advice to the cultural organizations of how to choose a solution that fits their needs amongst the existing ones. The next sections describe the interplay between the components needed to implement such copyright solutions [1]. DRMS One of these solutions is the Digital Rights Management System, which protects the copyright of digital images through robust watermarking techniques. This happens by multi-bit watermarks, which are integrated into the digital images which are commercially exploited and delivered to the buyers [1]. 1 Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Sustainability of Cultural Artifacts 12

17 CPS The Copyright Protection Subsystem is an intermediate layer between an e-commerce application and a digital artifact library. It protects the copyright of the digital artifacts stored and is exploited by the DRMS. It s like a black box which creates a watermarked image from the original digital image. This process automatically produces watermarked versions of the images whenever a new original image is stored to the digital library. It includes a copyright owner id and other information for copy control, digital signature, unauthorized use-tracking and transaction management [1]. Watermarking Algorithm Watermarking normally is used always if copyright protection of digital contents is needed and these data is available to everyone who knows that there exists some specific hidden meta-data and wants to remove it for illegal purposes. To avoid this, watermarking can give you a proof of ownership of the digital data by embedding copyright statements, which can t be removed easily like meta-data [1]. Effective Licensing Mechanisms Also the difference between purchasing and licensing is very important for the purposes of the cultural organizations. Purchasing a copy of a work is the most common transaction model of the copyright legislative framework. The process transfers the ownership rights from the creator to the buyer. Thanks to the copyright directive it s possible to loan, rent or resell the purchased copy. Licensing is the restricted transfer of rights for the work for a limited use under defined and declared circumstances. To get a license, a contract has to be signed, which includes the terms and conditions for using the copy of work. Licenses are also used for storing information about the terms and conditions for purchasing and using cultural heritage artifacts. Licenses have specific advantages, like an easy implementation, but their use for repositories with digital content, which should be accessible by the public is limited, because it s not so easy to handle a huge amount of owners. Furthermore, creating a license can take a long time [1]. The DRMS provides [1]: - Services for creation, management and long term preservation of digital cultural artifacts - Digital management of rights and the copyright of the content - Copyright proof and protection of the digital content through technical means - Direct and effective mechanism for licensing digital content - Added value services for the end user The effective combination, customization and integration of these technologies into an information system enable an effective protection and management of the copyright of the digital cultural artifacts [1]. Archiving of digital cultural artifacts also needs to be permanent. But how can it be possible that the wide range of different formats can be stored long enough? Is it possible to migrate information across the formats? How can the growing impact of IT requirements and the complexity of copyright and other rights in digital artifacts be handled [2]? Owners of artifacts are far more aware of its potential value than a person that wants to see the artifact, and so the owners often don t want to hand over any rights of the artifacts. This makes the policing of access and copyright control an increasingly demanding part of providing public access to collections of cultural artifacts. If they can earn money by providing access or promoting a collection, then it is obvious that commercial providers want to get a piece of the cake [2]. Today more and more cultural artifacts are getting digitalized and the different mediums and technologies on which the output appears and is supported leads to the problem that we have to be more selective on what is to be represented in our cultural archives and we have to think about more factors than just the content, for example playback technologies, accessing software, availability of hardware, long term preservation issues, supporting documentation and difficult copyright and access issue. These points have to be considered for the final and complex decision, which artifacts should be selected for presentation [2]. The huge amount of materials available, the different formats used, the need for copying or migrating the data, the digitization of older artifacts, the need for special software and hardware to access and copy, the control over copyright and other ownership related rights and the increased demand from users for online access lead to high costs that cannot be paid by one cultural organization alone [2]. They need permissions for images to be digitized and placed in online repositories but how do they reassure copyright owners that their images will not be downloaded and used for purposes they may not agree with? And how can the organizations protect themselves if this happens [2]? So, what are the challenges they have to face in the near future? The digitization of existing cultural artifacts is a slow, on-going process that will concentrate on materials out of copyright control or small repositories for specialists. Digitizing the artifacts will be more difficult and cost more money because the digital repositories have to be maintained for many years [2]. Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Sustainability of Cultural Artifacts 13

18 Digital Repositories need to support [3]: - Metadata for the management of data about the digital artifacts description and copyright - Global standards for the unique identification of the digital images - Watermarking for the management and protection of copyrights, as discussed before An important metadata set is related with the intellectual property rights and includes information about the copyright, the creator and right holder, the restriction of use and contact information [3]. Intellectual Property and Ownership Issues of ownership are becoming also more important and complex because of the existing restrictions on appropriate usage of content in the repositories and because the cultural organizations need to develop protocols for the creative ownership of digitalized artifacts. Copyright laws are difficult to understand because multiple users can be owners. In the non-profit sector, it often leads to problems because museums often have different policies for the sale of artifacts and for the leasing to commercial entities [4]. Copyright encourages the creativity and innovation by the artists by ensuring that they get financial benefits for their ideas for a finite period of time before the utility of these ideas join the unprotected commons. But copyright protections can also limit the creativity by being too rigid because innovation is often inspired by existing creative work [4]. A possibility to avoid these restrictions but keeping the copyright is to use peer-to-peer networks as alternatives to unrestricted file-sharing. An institution becomes the role of a leader and encourages the others to connect to the community and create content while providing mutually beneficial conditions of fair use for content. This encourages innovation, gives access to a huge audience and cultural institutions can provide the infrastructure to develop communities [4]. A more generalized possibility to save intellectual property is the Creative Commons. It allows copyright holders to grant some of their rights to the public while retaining others through a variety of licensing and contracts including dedication to the public domain or open content licensing terms. For example the British Broadcasting Corporation's Creative Archive uses this approach. But there are also some problems concerning this approach including the raising of the opinion through the cultural debate that intellectual property decisions have a cultural dimension. There still must be solved the question of how to provide access to the content to ensure that users can use existing works and create new works fitting to the intellectual property issues in the sector of Creative Commons [4]. Anti-Copyright One of the constant concerns of cultural producers about the anti-copyright movement, which wants to realize the usage of creative work without using copyright and ownership, is how they are still getting benefits for their work [5]. The oldest belief why information should not be privatized is that experimentation and invention would be hindered by lack of access to the building blocks of culture. If cultural artifacts (images or language) are privatized, they would become cultural capital, which leads to different hierarchical social classes, like any other form of capital can do the same. Privatization of culture is a process that stabilizes opinions within ideological ideas to keep the actual situation, called status quo [5]. Privatizing cultural artifacts is part of the market, where the participation in privatization is a sellout to market demands. Individual cultural producers are worried about that they don t get any money for their work because of unauthorized duplication. But they don t need to fear this, only if an artist is transformed into an institution, which can only produce further works by earning enough money [5]. For example, Elvis was transformed from an individual into an institution. Elvis is now the merchandising of his videos, films, records and all kinds of stuff. Elvis as an individual is so irrelevant that even his death doesn t stop the existence of the product Elvis. Celebrities in whatever cultural field are not people as we see them, they are institutions that need copyright to protect their money. For those who are still individual producers copyright is not necessary, often it s even bad for them [5]. STORAGE & RETRIEVAL After discussing the problems and different aspects of the copyright issue, this paper now goes into the issue of the storage and retrieval of the copyright protected cultural artifacts in the repositories by showing different approaches as a solution [6]. DAM The first approach is a Digital Asset Management system which provides the means for storage, annotation, retrieval and reuse of any multimedia data such as 3D-objects, images, sound, video and text. The most important aspects of the system are the efficient combination of the semantic aspects with multimedia data and the retrieval engine of the system which combines the newest 3D-contentbased algorithms and semantic driven, relevance feedback methods [6]. Some organizations have already started adopting Digital Asset Management software solutions for secure and efficient storage, search and retrieval of digital artifacts / 3 Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Sustainability of Cultural Artifacts 14

19 assets. The main features of DAM systems are the efficient storage, a quick and accurate search and retrieval function and the reusability of digital artifacts. Metadata plays a very important role in the management of non-text-based assets [6]. One of the DAM approaches is dedicated to television production companies and focuses on the metadata annotation, the retrieval and the exchange of them. A research was done to test the effectiveness of media asset management and to show the possibilities and requirements for using a specific file format for media exchange [6]. The features of every commercial DAM system are the efficient storage capabilities, where every digital artifact is stored along with its metadata into an appropriate database, a search and retrieval module, and a security module, for protecting unauthorized access to the digital assets. The digital assets can also be converted to many formats [6]. The prototype of the DAM System uses a normal database concept with content-based retrieval (CBR) methods that are ontology compatible, which means it s possible to search for and to compare similar content, and supports relevance feedback (RF) algorithms. Furthermore, there is the option of exploiting an innovative content-free retrieval (CFR) algorithm. Content-free retrieval algorithms could be soon the state of the art information retrieval algorithms. By combining the three algorithms above (CBR, CFR and RF) the system makes it possible to retrieve geometrically similar 3D objects and also refine the results by different variations. Furthermore the system allows thesauri, text and Web search techniques to reduce irrelevant results in a query and to modify the results according to the needs of the users [6]. An advantage of the DAM system is that information retrieval can be accomplished by comparing multimedia data, by means of text/thesauri and documentation data query and even by a combination of them. The proposed system can handle every known type of multimedia, although content-based and context-free retrieval methods are only 3D-oriented, in order to store, annotate and retrieve the data relevant to them. The system is very customizable to fit the needs of diverse application fields. The system is highly generic and delivers a specialized expert support for 3D-data retrieval [6]. Multimedia storage, annotation, and retrieval are possible through classical text-based and thesaurus search and advanced, modern retrieval algorithms for 3D-object retrieval, such as content-based, semantic-based methods and relevance feedback algorithms are available. The working prototype uses a client-server model to enable Web and network support, which allows access to the database through a network [6]. The retrieval system offers a refinement through relevance feedback methods. By marking the relevant results of a query, the system delivers more relevant artifacts, which are similar to the marked artifacts and are not included in the first result [6]. The search is done through user-defined aspects of the semantic network, which means the users can give every artifact a specific meaning that can be compared to another, which leads to a good performance of the retrieval. Also a search through the Google search engine is possible, which enlarges the search capabilities [6]. The best improvement of the retrieval adequacy is reached by the use of the relevance feedback algorithms. The user becomes an active part of the retrieval system. The user enters a query and scores the relevant and non-relevant results. The system refines the search and delivers a result with artifacts that correspond more with what the user searched for. The Digital Asset Management system provides modularity, safety and customization ability. It offers a high retrieval accuracy and is able to store and retrieve any kind of multimedia data as 3D-objects, images, sound, video and text. Also a compatibility with many different database and ontology standards is given [6]. COLLATE The EU-funded project COLLATE - Collaboratory for Annotation, Indexing and Retrieval of Digitized Historical Archive Material started in fall 2000 and ran for three years. An international team worked together to develop a new type of collaboratory in the domain of cultural heritage. The system offers access to a digital repository of historic text archive material documenting film censorship practices for several thousands of European films from the twenties and thirties. For the most important films it provides enriched context documentation including selected press articles, film advertising material, digitized photos and film fragments. Major film archives from Germany, Austria, and the Czech Republic deliver the sources and work with the system as pilot users [7]. The system exploits the user-generated metadata and annotations by using advanced XML-based content management and retrieval methods. The final version of the online repository should offer the possibility to integrate cutting-edge document pre-processing and management facilities, XML-based document handling and semiautomatic segmentation, categorization and indexing of digitized text documents and pictorial material, which partially could be implemented. Combining results from the manual and automatic indexing procedures, elaborate content and context-based information retrieval mechanisms can be applied. An XML-based content manager is responsible for the integration of knowledge Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Sustainability of Cultural Artifacts 15

20 processing methodology and retrieval functionality in the system [7]. The following modules are part of the COLLATE system [7]: - Three document pre-processing modules for digital watermarking of the documents like copyright and integrity watermarks, intelligent, automatic document structure analysis and classification and automatic, concept-based picture indexing and retrieval. - A distributed multimedia data repository comprising digitised text material, pictorial material like photos and posters and digital video fragments. - Tools for the representation and management of the metadata, the XML-based content manager incorporating an ontology manager and a retrieval engine. - A collaborative task manager for complex individual and collaborative tasks, such as indexing, annotation, comparison, interlinking and information retrieval, including tools for online communication and collaborative discourse between the domain experts and other system users. - The Web-based user interface of COLLATE comprises several workspaces for different tasks performed by distributed user groups and user types allowing for different access rights and offered interface functions. The final system version should be generated semi-automatically by exploiting knowledge from the underlying task model and the user-specific dialogue history. Context-based Retrieval of Documents An appropriate search and retrieval function is an essential requirement for giving the user community the possibility to access a cultural digital repository in a reasonable way. The artifacts in the digital repository must be indexed by content and subject matter to enable an advanced contentand context-based search. In context-based retrieval, a document does not stand for its own. The actual context of this document is considered. So it s necessary to know the specific type of an annotation with respect to its context [7]. The COLLATE system represents a new type of repository that supports content and concept-based work with digital document sources. Innovative task-based interfaces support professional domain experts in their individual and collaborative scholarly work, like analyzing, interpreting, indexing and annotating the sources. The metadata is managed by the XML-based content manager and an intelligent content- and context-based retrieval system which finally also can be used for digital cultural artifacts [7]. Storage problem of cultural artifacts An uprising problem of storing cultural artifacts is the management of the amount of data of the artifacts. Actual or so called traditional archiving environments might not be able to manage, archive and view huge amounts of cultural artifacts in an appropriate way. New artifacts, called social media, like blogs or multiplayer online role-playing games will be in the near future as important for historians as the archiving of complete castles, statues or other historical artifacts are for us now. And maybe the distributed network systems that are used by these media can solve the storage problem [8]. The problem of enough space for the storage is very important. From a technological point of view it s possible to solve the problem, because the improvement of technologies leads to an increase of the capacity of storage media [8]. Signs of success New social artifacts are different than the usual cultural artifacts. They are connected with a community and are related to the interactions of the users. They also offer the feature to make a highly detailed documentation of our modern culture. The most difficult differences from traditional artifacts are that they are dynamic and always in progress, which means there can t be finitely said if a final state will be reached. Furthermore, these artifacts of social media are connected by one or more huge networks through the Web. Especially for these newer cultural artifacts it s difficult to find out the correct storage requirements. The best condition to store such amounts of media is that memory is getting cheaper and transmission speeds are getting faster every day. The technology of distributed networks and peer-to-peer applications is maybe the key to find a solution to the storage problem by building a huge repository for storing the artifacts and accessing them globally [8]. To imagine how the concept for the repository could work it can be compared with the application Napster for music file exchange. Like for the storage of cultural artifacts they managed it in a similar way to break the limits of physical capacities by digitizing an unbelievable great amount of music, storing it and distributing it with the help of the users. The network of users was used to distribute the tasks of digitization, storage and access, that the costs and the effort were minimal. This type of decentralized network is the concept for all social media and could be the solution to build a decentralized memory institute for digital cultural artifacts. It would include redundancies, checks, and quality controls like used in similar existing applications, which are already working examples of this concept [8]. Such an archive for cultural artifacts requires new policies. Digital networks and their communities offer new challenges to producers of cultural heritage and archives containing the artifacts. New producers and new users are also a result, like new content and new collaborators. But they also deliver solutions, like storage, distribution and dynamic capture, which could be used to improve the 5 Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Sustainability of Cultural Artifacts 16

21 capacities and logics of the archive. Combining these solutions with actual ones can improve the traditional repositories for digital cultural artifacts [8]. Costs An actual approach to select and preserve cultural heritage is to be responsible for every individual repository and to pay the money itself, including costs for acquiring the digital artifact, for conversion to a manageable standard format, and for the storage and maintenance of that artifact over enough time. The costs, furthermore, include the determination of technical requirements for the maintenance of the artifact and the strategies for representing, migrating and emulating the artifact [8]. Centrally managed network accessible storage costs less than locally managed institutional storage of cultural artifacts, it leads to a greater access of users and local institutions save their money, which allows them to preserve the infrastructure [8]. Today the technologies of digital scanning and the costs of storage are at the point that it s possible for every national library to afford the digital capture of all their print media [8]. The amount of photographs, films, and unpublished materials is a greater challenge for today s possibilities. We can t estimate the correct storage requirements and the actual digital formats are unsatisfying. In the near future this will change and capturing images and film through digital scanning will be the next step after capturing print and sound media successfully. However, every kind of artifact needs a storage database for extra metadata, which is necessary for building such a digital collection [8]. But not only the content in the digital form, also appropriate permissions for presenting it are necessary. In the best case no further costs arise than providing appropriate storage space and permissions [8]. Digital artifacts that are in the public domain or artifacts, whose owners want to make them available under certain conditions, are stored and maintained by the Internet Archive, which is a trustful institution that preserves and provides access to digital heritage. Libraries can contribute digitalized textual resources to build a huge collective repository, which couldn t be done by one single library. Publishers and authors can donate their works, if the copyright has not expired and if they are willing to allow copies to be made under certain circumstances. This results in a great access and the preservation of their work [8]. preserve digital cultural artifacts. The main functional categories are the selection and storage of data in repositories and archives, the maintenance like conversion, migration and emulation and service provision like indexing and access services [8]. The selection and storage of cultural heritage is the main responsibility of institutions that are supported by the government. Leaving the responsibility with the originators and copyright holders was also discussed. Many reasons are against this solution: if a copyright expires it s possible that a collection gets fragmented and the costs are maybe too high to guarantee a continued maintenance and access. This is why the data collection and maintenance should remain part of the responsibility of such government-funded institutions. But the responsibility for indexing and access could be moved to the private sector. As a result it s possible for the information industry to develop products and services based on repositories for cultural artifacts. The user would become responsible for indexing, access and other services because of paying for these specific products and services. It s also possible to implement a cultural heritage repository by shifting the responsibility from the government to a more market-driven model, where the users are responsible for funding all aspects of heritage preservation [8]. Preservation of cultural heritage is the storage and maintenance of digital artifacts and the capturing of dynamic processes and patterns of use. To preserve the digital cultural heritage, we need to distribute the responsibility to the public and the private sectors, involving the information industry. This can lead to the implementation of so called digital heritage repositories [8]. CONCLUSION Finally, repositories for digital cultural artifacts can be implemented with different methods to receive a userfriendly and powerful storage and retrieval of the data. The key aspect is to find or invent the appropriate approach to meet the right purposes of the usage of such repositories. If this is done well the issue of the copyright also has to be solved sufficient. This leads to a good preservation of the cultural heritage of past, our actual and also future societies. Key aspects of preservation Preserving the digital heritage is difficult. The current situation needs to define three important dimensions of preservation: functions, responsibilities, and funding. Functions are the different activities that are necessary to Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Sustainability of Cultural Artifacts 17

22 REFERENCES 1. Tsolis, D.K., Sioutas, S. and Papatheodorou, T. Copyright protection and management of digital cultural objects and data. The annual conference of the International Documentation Committee of the International Council of Museums 2008, CIDOC 2008 Athens (2008), Pymm, B., Dr. Keeping the culture: archiving and the 21 st century. VALA2000, VALA2000 (2000), Tsolis, D.K., Tsolis, G.K., Karatzas, E.G. and Papatheodorou, T. Copyright Protection and Management and A Web Based Library for Digital Images of the Hellenic Cultural Heritage. Association for Computing Machinery 2002, ACM (2002), Russo, A. and Watkins, J. Digital Cultural Communication: Enabling new media and co-creation in South-East Asia. International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology 2005, IJEDICT Vol. 1 (2005), Critical Art Ensemble. The Financial Advantages of Anti-copyright. Digital Resistance: Exploration in Tactical Media. Libres Enfants du Savior Numerique Anthologie du Libre, Autonomedia (2001), Onasoglou, E., Katsikas, D. Mademlis, A., Daras, P. and Strintzis, M.G. A novel prototype for documentation and retrieval of 3D objects. International Workshop on Visual and Multimedia Digital Libraries 2007, VMDL07 (2007), Thiel, U., Brocks, H., Dirsch-Weigand, A., Keiper, J. and Stein, A. A Collaborative Archive Supporting Research on European Historic Films - the COLLATE Project. Proceedings of the DLM-Forum 2002, DLM (2002), De Jong, A., Wintermans, V., Abid, A., Uricchio, W., Bearman, D. and Mackenzie, J.O. Preserving the digital heritage. Netherlands National Commission for UNESCO 2007, UNESCO (2007), Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Sustainability of Cultural Artifacts 18

23 Libraries in the digital age Carmen Volina Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt 9020 Klagenfurt am Wörthersee ABSTRACT This paper deals with the design of digital libraries in context of cultural heritage management. At first the term Digital Library, in the following shortened by DL, will be explained. Furthermore, the challenges which evolve when building a digital library will be explained. The other parts of the paper concentrate on state-of-the-art approaches to displaying digital library collections and making physical libraries more attractive. Eventually, an example will be presented how visitors can be edutained while being on an exhibition. The paper will demonstrate the challenges which arise when building DLs. Furthermore, presentation and browsing techniques of DLs (which already exist globally) are presented. In the end, an example is exposed, which can people edutain while they are visiting exhibitions. Visualization approaches will be shown on two specific existing projects (I have taken this two approaches because I thought they would be appropriate for our context of cultural heritage): The Perseus Digital Library and the InfoGallery which is a web-based infrastructure for enriching the physical library space with informative art exhibitions of digital library material and other relevant information, such as RSS news streams, event announcements etc. Author Keywords Cultural Heritage, Digital Library, Challenges, Edutainment, Perseus, InfoGallery, PDLib, Cohibit. INTRODUCTION New technology advances on computer, networking, and Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. To copy otherwise, or republish, to post on servers or to redistribute to lists, requires prior specific permission and/or a fee. Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme WS07/08, January, 2008, Klagenfurt, Austria Copyright 2008 Klagenfurt University... data processing lead the way into the digital era where all kinds of objects in various digital forms are adopted for creation, preservation, and application.[8] The movement toward digital heritage has been strongly supported by increasing interest and resources from government and academics. Many projects have contributed to the actual development of digital libraries and museums. Building digital heritage requires substantial resources in materials, expertise, tools, and cost. Definition The term Digital Library can be used in many different ways.[6] Nowadays a DL is known as a portal for digital objects, documents and data sources. DLs can consist of digital objects themselves, metadata of digital and conventional documents, access to external data resources (e.g. search machines, virtual specialized libraries), personalized components (e.g. customer information, stored searches), local offered services (e.g. online tutorials, chat services, services) as well as community components, which can be used for the communication within the users. CHALLENGES Information Seeking Needs Cultural heritage is a vast domain consisting of museums, archives, libraries and (non)government institutions.[3] Searching for information in this domain is often challenging because the sources are rich and heterogeneous, combining highly structured, semi-structured and unstructured information, combining authorized and unauthorized sources, and combining both text and other media. Digital archiving of cultural heritage involves multimedia documentation and dissemination on selected subjects. The integrated use of image, video, sound and text provides a rich context for preserving, learning, and appreciating the documented subjects.[9] Multimedia materials are powerful 1 Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Sustainability of Cultural Artifacts 19

24 in conveying information and experiences of intellectual and cultural heritage. However, the creation, manipulation, and presentation of multimedia materials require special skills and expertise. In addition, subject documentation involves selection, compilation, and interpretation of subject materials.[9] These activities require subject domain knowledge and access to material sources. After the subject materials are acquired, they need to be checked, categorized, annotated, and organized. In the end, a digital archive is to be built as an information database system. These tasks should be done by persons who have proper training in library science. Those specialists can be grouped in five types:[9] 1. Subject domain specialists: These persons have sufficient knowledge on a specific domain and have access to material sources. They make the decisions how the subject will be illustrated and interpret the content of the materials. 2. Digital media specialist: These persons are familiar with digital media equipment and tools. Their task is to digitize the physically subject materials with required quality and specifications. 3. Data management specialist: These persons have adequate librarian training. They overtake the tasks of collecting, categorizing and annotating the subject materials. Additionally they do the controlling of the information on the materials. 4. Graphic interface specialist: These persons are specialized in artistic graphic and web interfaces. They create multimedia content presentation format on subject materials. 5. Software engineering specialist: These persons do the programming of the software system. The system includes databases, web page interfaces and system management. To perform their daily work, domain experts need to access and exploit cultural heritage information in its full richness.[3] Their search tasks are dominated by a range of different (relatively complex and high level) information gathering tasks, while the tools tend to be geared towards support for (relatively simple and low level) fact finding tasks. Many search tasks require experts to use and combine results from multiple sources, while the tools typically provide access to a single source. The following figure shows a classification of information task behavior for cultural heritage expert users. It includes these task categories:[3] 1. Fact Finding: to ask goal oriented and focused questions. Fact Finding Questions vary from simple to very complex. An example for a simple question could be: To which tribe/culture does this object belong? Complex queries typically combine several constraints. 2. Information Gathering: to carry out different search tasks to fulfill a higher goal, e.g. collecting information to make a decision. The information gathering task is the main task of the specialists. It has many sub-tasks: a. Comparison of differences and similarities between objects or a set of objects. b. Relationship search between individual pieces of information. c. Topic search queries to learn more about an object. d. Exploration search is done when there is no identified source for the queried subject. Hence the experts look for related topics for suggestions. e. Combinations to find out matches among pieces of information from different sources. 3. Keeping Up-to-date: not goal-driven, just to find out what is new. The specialists can be up-to-date in two different ways:[3] a. Active: Going to the sources and scan them for changes from sources, e.g. browsing. b. Passive: Using technology to automatically deliver new information from sources, e.g. RSS feed or community mailing-lists. 4. Communication: an information exchange task, e.g Transaction: an information exchange task, e.g. online auction. 6. Maintenance: involves organizing information, e.g. updating bookmarks. Figure 1 [3]: Classification of information task behavior for expert users My opinion is that this presented classification covers the main tasks of cultural heritage expert users. I think that some more minor tasks are needed to done but all in all these categories are complete. You have to bear in mind 2 Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Sustainability of Cultural Artifacts 20

25 that cultural heritage is an active tradition. Therefore, the cultural heritage experts have actively take part in A study was carried out by Amin, A. et al. They wanted to find out what the information searching needs of cultural heritage experts are.[3] The evaluation of the study showed that experts need to compare, relate and combine pieces of information manually or ask their colleagues. To get answers to the simple and complex questions they have, their current used tools provide insufficient interface support for query formulation. Additionally, most experts search tasks require information from many different sources, while their tools tend to support search in only one source at a time. Universal Access After explaining what the difficulties for the specialists in information seeking are, I would like to point out what another challenge for the digital library itself is.[3] Due to the increasing importance of the wireless communication systems it is vital for digital libraries to grant universal access architecture for the users in order that they stay connected to the network and have access to the digital library at any time and everywhere (mobile environments). To provide universal access 1, a system must be designed for mobile environments. One system which has been designed for mobile computers is PDLib.[3] This prototype provides library services to several device types (e.g. desktop, laptop, PDA and mobile phone) with multiple operating systems (e.g. Windows, Linux, Mac OS, Palm Os). The system consists of three layers: 1. Client Tier: this layer includes a variety of devices with which a user can interact with PDLib. 2. Server Tier: this layer shows the server system infrastructures that provide services to clients: Data Server, Mobile Connection Middleware and Web Front-end. 3. Interoperability Tier: this layer includes other (PDLib) data servers. The devices of the client tier communicate with the server tier to access PDLib digital library services. The access type of the client tier with the server tier varies according to the client device s capabilities. PDLib is an ongoing research and development effort where interesting challenges related to digital libraries and mobile computing are being improved. 1 Universal access is known as facilitating access to complex multimedia digital library objects that suits the users' requirements.[1] Figure 2 [1]: PDLib Overview Another approach for providing universal access is made by Adam et al.[1] They propose an approach which include three components: 1. the Digital Library Object Model 2. the Object Manifestation Model 3. the Object Delivery Model The approach is based on the self-manifestation of digital library objects, accomplished by using a component, called oblet, which is a small piece of software that installs itself on the client and renders the digital library objects based on user and system profiles. A Petri net model is used to represent the objects that can model synchronization and fidelity constraints. I do not want to go into more detail in this approach. For further information please refer to the paper of Adam et al. Usability Another challenge I would like to discuss is the usability of digital libraries which already has to be considered when building the digital library.[4] In the beginning the builders of digital libraries have to bear in mind that the end users are individuals who have no particular skills in information retrieval, and are accessing library resources from their own desks, without support from a librarian. The typical thing users do in the digital libraries is to search for interesting articles. Searching is not just a case of entering a search term and viewing a list of results. It is more extended and iterative, i.e. the searching evolves over a period of time and relies on users being able to follow new paths as they appear. People do not just search for items, they also browse for them. Jones et al. characterize this distinction as follows:[8] 1. Browsing: users navigate information structures to identify required information. 2. Searching: users specify terms of interest, and information matching those terms is returned by an indexing and retrieval system. Users may, in turn, browse these results in an iterative manner. 3 Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Sustainability of Cultural Artifacts 21

26 3. Skimming: users get a quick impression of a text by searching for and alighting on key words or sentences.[12] If these passages fit into the context for what they are looking for they shift into deep reading. 2 To find out how users interact with digital libraries within a single session, but not necessarily using a single library, Blandford et al. carried out a study with five users.[3] The users were asked to find one paper on their own research topic using their choice of libraries from a given set (ACM Digital Library IDEAL NZDL EBSCO Emerald Ingenta The most important design issues which have been found out were:[4] 1. Familiarity: users need to be able to rapidly acquire understanding of core library features, content and structures, if they are to gain a sense of progress while working with the library. 2. Blind alleys: many interaction sequences did not achieve the user s objectives. This is most obvious when a search returns no matches, but occurs in some more extended interactions. 3. Discriminability: forming understandings of the content and possibilities in a collection relies on being able to discriminate between possibilities. 4. Serendipity: finding unexpected interesting results seems to give users a particular sense of making progress. Serendipity depends on users being easily able to identify interesting information, which is one aspect of discriminability. 5. Working across boundaries: transition events, where one agent changes context, can often be a source of interactional difficulties. Another classification of usability factors has been done by Thong et al.[15] They have developed a model of user acceptance of digital libraries. They talk about three categories of external factors which impact the user acceptance: 2 1. Interface Characteristics: the interface is the door through which users access a digital library a. Terminology: words, sentences and abbreviations used by a system Screen design: The way information is presented on the screen b. Navigation: The ease with which users can move around the system e.g. XLibris, an active reading machine, offers a skimming mode to support the user s activities [11] 2. Organizational Context: in which the digital library operate a. Relevance: The match between the system content and individual user s information needs b. System accessibility: The ease with which people can access specific systems c. System visibility: Observability or degree to which the result of an innovation are visible and communicable to others 3. Individual Differences: vary from user to user, e.g. domain knowledge or computer experience a. Computer self-efficacy: Individual judgment of one s capability to use a new system b. Computer experience: Exposure to different types of applications and familiarity with various software packages c. Domain knowledge: User s knowledge of the subject domain Figure 3 [14]: Model of user acceptance of a digital library The paper of Thong et al. suggest some recommendations how the user acceptance of digital libraries can be increased, e.g. to avoid jargon to make the context clear to general users etc. For further information please have a look at their paper. I assume that the combination of the classifications of Blandford et al. and Thong et al. regarding the design issues of digital libraries are complete. When all factors are noticed when designing a digital library the success of the user acceptance is granted. Additionally I would like to mention that the study of Blandford et al. came up with several cases where decisions taken by computer scientists and librarians have had unanticipated consequences.[4] Therefore, the specialists who are building a digital library should be aware that 4 Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Sustainability of Cultural Artifacts 22

27 every decision they make in the design process has consequences for the usability of the digital library. In my paper I have only mentioned some challenges which are faced with digital libraries. There are of course many more challenges which have to be taken when building digital libraries. One aspect is the copyright management which is dealt in the paper of Andreas Stiglitz.[14] To learn how this challenge can be treated please read his paper. The next section of the paper deals with the possibilities to visualize the collections of digital libraries. This will be shown on three specific examples. VISUALIZATION APPROACHES Perseus digital library The Perseus Project is a digital library that has been under continuous development since the 1987.[5] The aim of Perseus is to bring a wide range of source materials to as many people as possible.[11] In the beginning the team of the Perseus Project only concentrated on ancient Greek culture. Meanwhile they have begun to cover Arabic, German, Roman and Renaissance Materials. Furthermore, they established an Art & Archeology Artifact Browser where you can find coins, vases, sculptures, sites, gems and buildings. In the following I would like to focus on the 3D Vase Museum which distinguishes from the Perseus web site by one major point: if you request an object, the data (texts, graphics, etc.) of the object you have looked before disappear from the view. Within this project the project team wanted to achieve a view of the whole available data, while pursuing detailed analysis of a part of it. The project team of the Perseus Project used 2D interaction techniques in the Perseus digital library.[11] Starting with the 3D Vase Museum approach the team began with 3D interaction techniques, e.g. direct manipulation 3, zooming user interfaces 4 as well as techniques for information visualization. In the 3D Vase Museum the user can learn in virtual reality using non-wimp 5 and lightweight interactions. 3 describes interactive systems where the user physically interacts with their operating system; n.html 4 users can change the scale of the viewed area in order to see more detail or less; 5 WIMP stands for window, icon, menu, pointing device the style of interaction uses a physical input device to control the position of a cursor and presents information organized in windows and represented with icons; /dialog-wimp/ Figure 4 [11]: London Collection Vases in thumbnail view With a browser you can query the digital library of Perseus for a certain vase and receive a list of links or thumbnails for any selected subset of the vases.[13] Then you have the possibilities to follow the link or to view the photograph(s), including information, for the selected vase. The museum is a 3D virtual environment that presents each vase as a 3D object and places it in a 3D space, which looks like a room within a museum. The user can view the 3D world and navigate anywhere in it with a VRML 6 -enabled web browser or a head-mounted virtual reality display. Figure 5 [11]: The 3D Vase Museum in eye-level view Additionally to the viewing of the graphics and moving around in the room it is possible to get other textual information into the view without leaving the context of the 3D room. Secondary information about the vases appear on the virtual screen when the user navigates to an area of visual interest as it is shown on the following figure. 6 VRML is the virtual reality modelling language to display 3D scenes; 5 Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Sustainability of Cultural Artifacts 23

28 Figure 6 [11]: Secondary information about a vase The whole 3D Vase Museum approach was evaluated in a user study. [13] The project team wanted to find out if the aim of the project to increase the speed and accuracy in learning the general context of the London vase collection could be achieved. They wanted to know if it is possible to learn about a whole collection as much and as quickly as possible. Therefore they gave some tasks as homework to students of many different college courses in archeology and developed ten questions which covered all areas of the whole vase collection (color, themes, shapes, etc). The evaluation, which took place in a specific way (for further details please read through the referenced paper), resulted in a large and significant difference in speed as well as significant difference in accuracy between 3D Vase Museum and the Perseus interface.[13] The students which did the tasks with the Vase Museum performed 33 % better on the tasks and achieved this nearly three times faster than with the students who used the Perseus interface. Thus the 3D Vase Museum is an example of a solution to the problem of focus-plus-context in information display as the user can focus on an individual vase without losing overall context of the collection. After this successful project the project team would like to develop the 3D Vase Museum in a fully immersive virtual environment, in which a user can browse using innate skills such as turning the head and walking. InfoGallery InfoGallery is the second visualization example which I would like to introduce. It is about a web-based infrastructure for enriching the physical library space with informative art exhibitions of digital library material.[6] The aim of InfoGallery is to introduce informative art applications in the physical library space to support serendipity for digital library resources. This goal has been evolved because visitors of physical libraries never find out that the library possess a lot of digital resources unless they have a targeted need and ask a librarian or perform a targeted search. In the beginning the Hybrid Library project has been developed. An InfoColumn, which can be seen as a digital version of a poster column where librarians could post announcements via a web interface, has been built.[6] The announcements appear as animated objects. If the visitors are interested in a piece of digital material he or she could place a Bluetooth enabled mobile phone on specific locations on the shelf surrounding the column. Selected references to library materials were then pushed to the phone via an established Bluetooth connection. As many librarians requested for this kind of physical exhibition, a general infrastructure for web-based informative art, named InfoGallery, has been designed. Library visitors typically experience InfoGallery on large flat panels or projection surfaces on walls, floors, or ceilings.[6] A collection of animated InfoObjects is available on the screen. The visitors can click or tab on the touch-sensitive surface to explore a piece of displayed information in depth. Finally, references to the information may be dragged to a Bluetooth phone or sent to an address supplied by the visitor. Figure 7 [6]: InfoGallery in use on an InfoColumn The overall goal of informative art and the InfoGallery system is to make people discover useful information or inspirational material[6]. To make this discovery happen, an InfoGallery needs to draw and maintain the attention of potential users via its placement, shape and aesthetic expression. Hence the InfoGallery displays should be positioned in popular rooms like: Refreshment areas: coffee rooms and printer rooms, where people relax and have time to watch the InfoGallery information Queues and lines: e.g. when delivering back books at a counter Entrances and hallways: here many people pass by (the InfoGallery object should not block traffic) Section squares of a library: e.g. newspaper section, children s section The city: InfoGalleries can be integrated in city surfaces. The InfoGallery can be equipped with new issues of digital periodical subscriptions, e.g. RSS feeds from selected IT 6 Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Sustainability of Cultural Artifacts 24

29 news sites, published papers from local authors, events and other news from the library. Furthermore, an interaction technique called ifloor is available and can be used: ifloor provides an interaction technique based on camera tracking of its users shadows from the ceiling. passive RFID tags and are used as Tangible Interface to control the virtual character system. There are two front ends, one driver s cab, two middle parts and five rear ends (which allows the visitors to construct five different car models). These objects represent the car-model pieces on the scale 1:5. The car is assembled on a workbench with RFID readers. This workbench has five different areas where the car pieces can be placed. Each area is for exactly one object. The people can build the car beginning with the front on the left and the rear on the right or the other way around. Figure 8 [6]: ifloor in use These two instances show that learning about cultural artifacts can be fun and education at once. This leads me to my next topic: An already existing project in order to attract visitors on exhibitions before they fall asleep because of boredom. EDUTAINMENT Everybody knows that while visiting exhibitions people get bored and tired at some time even though the exhibition is very interesting. Hence there could be a motivation of the exhibitors to entertain the people in order to make them staying longer at their fair. The entertainment part could also be combined with educational aspects. Therefore I would like to present an example how edutainment in exhibits can be achieved. Cohibit COHIBIT is an acronym for COnversational Helpers in an Immersive exhibit with a Tangible interface.[10] COHIBIT is an ambient intelligence edutainment installation which is used in theme parks. These theme parks are visited by millions of people of different ages, different interests and different skills. As a result the edutainment installation has to be easy to use, simple to experience and robust to handle. How does COHIBIT look like?[10] The visitors of the theme parks find a set of 3D puzzle pieces which are easily identified as car parts. The motivation for the visitors is now to assemble a car with these puzzles. In the background of the puzzle, there are two life-like characters. While assembling the car, the visitor is tracked and the two characters comment on the visitor s activities. The Ambient Intelligence Environment consists of ten tangible 3D puzzle pieces. They implement invisible Figure 9 [10]: Overview of the interactive installation prototype Two virtual characters are projected in life-size on a screen.[10] There are three cameras installed to recognize the presence of visitors. The installation runs in two modes. The OFF mode is intended to attract visitors whereas the ON mode reacts on user inputs and supports the visitors. The mode is automatically switched to the ON mode when visitors enter the installation framework. The virtual characters welcome the guests, present the idea of the exhibit and encourage them to begin with the assembly task. The two virtual guides assist the visitors in the construction phase with giving comments on the visitor s actions. To act in a credible way the COHIBIT system identifies the current construction status and the visitor s actions which were done[10]. The two virtual characters should be noticed like alive. Furthermore the guests of the exhibit should also be entertained by these two characters. The installation s behavior is modeled as a finite state machine (94 nodes and 157 transitions).[10] The state machine determines the order of scenes at runtime. Each node and each transition can have a playable scene attached to it. There are 418 saved scenes. The order is calculated by logical or temporal conditions as well as randomization. There exist 802,370 different combinations derived from the ten instrumented pieces, the five positions on the workbench and the two different directions in which the objects can be placed.[10] These combinations are classified in five categories because not every configuration can be addressed when planning the character behavior. 1. Car completed: the construction of the car has been completed 7 Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Sustainability of Cultural Artifacts 25

30 2. Valid construction: the construction can be completed by adding elements. 3. Invalid configuration: an invalid combination of elements (e.g. driver s cab behind rear element) 4. Completion impossible: the construction can not be completed without backtracking. 5. Wrong direction: the last piece was placed in the opposite direction with respect to the remaining elements. For every configuration various text modules are saved separately.[10] Together with the texts the system calculates the simulation of the two virtual agents. The combination of the text and the simulation produce a scene. Figure 10 [10]: Visitor's actions and virtual guides Although COHIBIT is now used in theme parks it is also appropriate for other exhibitions (indoor and outdoor). To use it in the context of cultural heritage it would be possible to assemble various statues or other different objects of the cultural heritage sector according to the context of the exhibition. CONCLUSION In this paper I have discussed the challenges which are faced when building digital libraries. Many specialists have to work together in order to establish such libraries. Therefore, it is very important that there is a lot of communication between those experts. They have to consider that every decision they make has influences on the usability of the digital library in the future. The topic of mobile computing has gained a lot of importance recently. Hence, this topic should be in mind when designing a digital library. This will lead to customer satisfaction, considering that everybody would like to have access to the internet and network services 24/7 everywhere in the world. Afterwards, the projects 3D Vase Museum and InfoGallery were introduced as examples of visualization approaches for digital libraries. Finally, COHIBIT was presented in order to show that educational aspects of digital libraries could make fun. REFERENCES 1. Adam, N. R. et al.: A Dynamic Manifestation Approach for Providing Universal Access to Digital Library Objects. IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, Vol. 13, No. 4, July/August Alvarez-Cavazos, F. et al.: Universal Access Architecture for Digital Libraries. ITESM, Campus Monterrey, Amin, A. et al.: Understanding Cultural Heritage Experts Information Seeking Needs. Proceedings of the JCDL 08, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, June 16-20, 2008, Blandford, A., Stelmaszewska, H., Bryan-Kinns, N.: Use of Multiple Digital Libraries: A Case Study. Proceedings of the JCDL 01, Roanoke, Virginia, USA, June 24-28, 2001, Crane, G.: The Perseus Project and Beyond, D-Lib Magazine, Grønbæk, K., et al.: InfoGallery: informative art services for physical library spaces. Proceedings of the 6th ACM/IEEE-CS joint conference on Digital libraries, Chapel Hill, NC, USA, June 11-15, 2006, Hapke, T.: In-formation Informationskompetenz und Lernen im Zeitalter digitaler Bibliotheken. Preprint aus: Bibliothekswissenschaft quo vadis, hrsg. von Petra Hauke. München, 2005, Jones, S., McInnes, S., Staveley, M.: A Graphical User Interface For Boolean Query Specification. International Journal on Digital Libraries, Volume 2 Issue 2/3, 1999, Liu, J.-S., Tseng, M.-H., Huang, T.-K.: Mediating Team Work for Digital Heritage Archiving. Proceedings of the JCDL 04, Tucson, Arizona, USA, June 7-11, 2004, Ndiaye A. et al.: Intelligent technologies for interactive entertainment. First international conference, Madonna di Campiglio, November 30-December 2, 2005, Perseus Digital Library: and Tufts University, Medford, MA, Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Sustainability of Cultural Artifacts 26

31 12. Schilit, B. N., Price, M. N., Golovchinsky, G.: Digital Library Information Appliances. Digital Libraries, Pittsburgh, USA, 1998, Shiaw, H., Jacob, R., Crane G. The 3D-Vase Museum: A new approach to context in a digital library. Proceedings of the 5th ACM/IEEE-CS joint conference on Digital libraries 2005, Denver, CO, USA, June 07-11, 2005, Stiglitz, A.: Copyrights, storage & retrieval of digital cultural artifacts. Klagenfurt, Thong, J. Y. L., Hong, W., Tam K. Y.: What leads to user acceptance of digital libraries? Communication of the ACM, Volume 47, Issue 11, November 2004, Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Sustainability of Cultural Artifacts 27

32 Using Narrative Augmented Reality Outdoor Games in Order to Attract Cultural Heritage Sites Bonifaz Kaufmann Institute of Informatics Systems University of Klagenfurt ABSTRACT To many people whether they are young or old, history as well as archaeological and cultural heritage sites seem to be dead matter, since it needs a lot of background knowledge and the capability of imagination to let history become alive. Upcoming technology provides new possibilities to send people back in time or even into the future in order to gain an immersive experience of history. Advanced mixed and augmented reality applications could support visitors to experience historical events by their own as they are themselves part of it. Instead of being a silent observer, the user might act as an important figure of a game story based on scientific data about the historical context of an ancient site. This paper wants to encourage the use of narrative augmented reality games based on historical information arranged around the environment of a cultural heritage site to help interested visitors to understand and feel history. Therefore a game concept will be outlined providing an impression of how an augmented reality outdoor application would look like using the example of the long term project Burgbau zu Friesach in Carinthia, where a castle will be built during the next thirty years by making use of medieval tools and processes. Author Keywords Augmented Reality, Cultural Heritage, Ancient Sites, Mixed Reality, Games, Edutainment INTRODUCTION Not only in Europe but all over the world, there are many cultural heritage sites telling a thrilling story about our past. However, these stories are not always tangible for visitors. Many archaeological sites are mainly ruins, where visitors can only see the basic layout of a settlement or building. Furthermore, ancient items like tools or domestic hardware are often preserved only as fragments. That is the reason why history as well as archaeological and cultural heritage sites seem to be dead matter to many people. It needs a lot of background knowledge and the capability of imagination to let history become alive. Moreover, while in the past tourists were satisfied just by being at such sites, it can be observed that nowadays tourists not only want to get information but also want to be entertained while visiting cultural heritage places according to [18] cited by [17]. In order to attract a broader range of people for historical events or history at all it needs some entertainment aspects as well as possibilities to revive history. On the one hand, having information incorporated into entertainment, which is well known as edutainment, will be a proper approach to increase the interest in history and in fact, most museums have already installed a lot of educational multimedia experiences. On the other hand, augmented reality (AR) equipment would give live to calm scenarios around ancient places. Using such equipment, a visitor can travel back in time or even into the future in order to gain an immersive experience of history or historical events. Moreover, a visitor can be part of a narrative taking place at a cultural heritage site which is driven by a story enriched by scientific data about the historical context of an ancient place. While location-aware mobile games at cultural heritage sites are already installed at some places, a more advanced technology game should be the next step. The adoption of augmented reality would provide much more experience and presence supporting the imagination of players and would become an adventure to visitors. Combining these two aspects desirable for historical sightseeing tours namely edutainment and augmented reality results in narrative augmented reality outdoor games. This article wants to discuss why games at all should assist the learning of the history of ancient sites. It highlights how augmented reality outdoor games must be designed to meet the requirements of game based learning at cultural heritage sites. Furthermore, this paper will also provide a draft how an augmented reality outdoor game would look like using the example of the long term project Burgbau zu Friesach in Carinthia, Austria. This project is about building a castle over a time period of thirty years only by making use of medieval tools and processes. It is difficult for visitors to comprehend the entire process of constructing a castle just by visiting the site at a certain point of time. Since the production lasts over decades, a visitor would only observe the actual stage of the construction site instead of getting an impression of the whole process or the different steps of the construction. Actually using 1 Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Augmentation of Cultural Objects 28

33 augmented reality it does not really matter if the user is watching into the future or into the past. Whether there is a ruin which will be augmented to see the former complete building, or there are foundation walls of a castle which will be augmented to view the whole castle, either way uses the same method augmentation of missing parts. prototype consisted of a Head Mounted Display (HMD) attached to the top of the post, a camera on it and a laptop computer. Figure 1: Matching events when timelines are folded For that reason, taking the project Burgbau zu Friesach, even though it is not a cultural heritage site but rather an ongoing construction site, is a useful sample to show how an augmented reality outdoor game would fit into real ancient sites. This paper is organised in the following way: In the next section researches will be presented which is connected to this approach. Section 3 highlights the complementary partnership of history and edutainment, while section 4 focuses on equipment and implementation hints for augmented reality outdoor games. Section 5 outlines a basic game concept for the project Burgbau zu Friesach, before finally in the last section the conclusion will be drawn. RELATED WORK This section aims at providing an overview about projects and research work related to elaborated systems installed at cultural heritage sites as well as augmented reality outdoor environment settings at such places. Several solutions exist where mobile devices and technological services are in use at cultural heritage sites to support visitors in learning about the place and its history. The first subsection will briefly review some projects heading that way. In addition, augmented reality equipment is widely used in various cultural heritage outdoor scenarios. The second part of this section will describe some AR outdoor implementations relevant to the proposed design approach within this paper. Advanced Cultural Heritage Experience The idea of exploiting technical devices to enrich the visit of cultural heritage sites is not really new. Doyun Park et al. [17] were seeking for new immersive tour experiences to meet upcoming needs of tourists for more elaborated tour guides. Because of their main objective they chose augmented reality technology to gain as much immersiveness as possible. Using a post which is fixed at an interesting position at the historical place, they were able to provide an augmented vision and audio of that location to a user. Their Figure 2: Concept augmented reality post and prototype [17] ARToolkit 1 was used to register the actual viewport to the scene, while animated 3D VRML (Virtual Reality Modelling Language) models had been used to overlay the real time video capture. A user study was conducted to evaluate four characteristics of the system, namely immersiveness, interest level, understandability and intention of use. In all four categories they observed positive outcome. However, the evaluation revealed also negative aspects like a lack of reality of the 3D models and users said the usability of the hardware should be improved. Instead of having fixed installed binoculars, Ardito et al. [2] used the visitor s mobile phones to run their application. They developed Explore!; a game aiming at supporting middle school students in learning about history of cultural heritage sites at South Italy. The game which has already been present as a paper based version is played in groups of 4 or 5 students whereas each group has one mobile phone. The group plays a Roman family just arrived at the ancient settlement. The mission of the game is to collect information about the site as well as to identify places which have to be marked in a map. If a group has difficulties to find a requested place, they could inquiry the virtual game master on their mobile. Some tasks require to find invisible monuments like a civil basilica not existing any more, in such cases the mobile game aids by showing a virtual 3D representation of the building on its screen. For educational reasons the game depends on three stages, the introduction, the game phase and the debriefing part. The latter is held by a game master i.e. a teacher and utilities a master application installed on a notebook computer. All log files from the mobile devices are transferred to the master application to interpret the results and to denote the winning team. The educational aspects are well described in [1] while the master application is presented in [3]. An extensive evaluation of the concept as well as a comparison between the paper based version of the game and the mobile game version can be found in [9]. 1 Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Augmentation of Cultural Objects 29

34 A complete different approach has been done for an ancient site in Norway. A Norwegian team developed a 3D collaborative virtual environment (CVE) creating an interactive educational game based on the Battle of Stiklestad occurred in 1030 [19]. The landscape, the battlefield, soldiers, farmers as well as farmer houses and buildings are designed as virtual 3D content of the game using Active Worlds 2 with respect to historical authenticity. The players of that game could act as soldiers to perform certain quests while concurrently learn about the battle. This was the original idea of the project; however they extended the system by connecting offsite but online players sitting in front of the CVE with onsite players equipped with PDAs. This combination adds a new facet of reality to the immersive experience. Onsite players can play together in teams with online players, while meeting in the virtual world. An onsite player is represented as an avatar inside the CVE, mapping its position using real world GPS coordinates. All players can communicate using public chat or private messages supported by a server infrastructure delivering these messages. These projects demonstrated quite diverse methodologies to supplement historical places by edutainment features. Whether a collaborative virtual environment connected to PDAs, mobile phones or a fixed post was used, they all have in common an educational point of view rather than just fun. The next subsection concentrates more on augmented reality aspects. Mobile Augmented Reality Environment Augmented Reality (AR) does seem to fit quite well into cultural heritage sites, since there are normally only fragments of buildings remaining. The strength of AR, completing parts to an ensemble or add something to a scene, does support visitors of such sites to imagine the former appearance of their interest. Indeed, many projects can be found transferring this idea to real world applications. One of these projects is ARCHEOGUIDE [26], which allows tourists to visit Olympia in Greece in an augmented reality manner watching reconstructed ruined buildings and view some Olympic Games sport disciplines at its original ancient stadium while wearing video see-through AR binoculars. Although ARCHEOGUIDE employs mobile devices, the AR experience is restricted to predefined viewpoints. However, besides differential GPS and a digital compass, the scientists involved an optical tracking algorithm based on predefined calibrated images to calculate the position and orientation of the viewer more precisely for better registration of the 3D models to the real time video stream [23]. A more advanced AR system called LIFEPLUS was tested at Pompeii in 2004 [24]. This system is able to guide visitors continuously, other than limited to predefined viewports mentioned before. Furthermore, personal user profiles had been used to customize the multimedia content provided to the user. Additionally, in order to reduce necessary user interaction, the content was presented to the user according to her position and orientation, even so multi-modal user interfaces were also implemented to let the user interfere if she wants to change the course. LIFEPLUS does not only present buildings and other artefacts indoor as well as outdoor, but also ancient life using high-quality 3D animated avatars with ancientlike clothes and natural hair. Nevertheless, the authors of [24] stated that they had difficulties to cope with changing light conditions when moving from indoor to outdoor and the other way around. HMDs capable of high level contrast would be required. In addition, the very high processing power needed for 3D modelling, tracking and rendering, forced them to use two notebook computers instead of one light weighted device. Moreover, battery life time was also a big issue therefore in future work they aim to improve it to achieve at least one hour of nonstop operation. A strongly narrative driven AR environment is GEIST [15]. In GEIST players can meet ghosts living at cultural heritage places like castles or small alleys. The player s mission is to release a ghost by visiting former times, exploring the ghost s concern to help him to finish his suffering. The researches built a thrilling interactive drama using AR equipment, hybrid tracking to estimate the line of sight of a player, several content databases accessed by a query engine and a story engine. Tracking is similar to the approaches before supported by making use of natural feature extraction to increase accuracy, however adapting different algorithmic. For visualisation, semi-permeable glasses are used. The story engine s job is to tell the story which was indeed fictional but coherent to historical facts. The story engine relies on plot elements like facts and events, but does not determine the player s freedom of acting and moving. A more recently published project is TimeWarp [13]. TimeWarp is a mobile outdoor mixed reality edutainment game. The game takes place in Cologne where the player has to free little creatures occurring in the history of Cologne called Heinzelmännchens who felt into time holes and therefore are captured in different time periods. For playing the game, each player is equipped with a PDA acting as an information device and a mobile AR system to superimpose the environment accordingly. The AR system consists of a light weight monocular SVGA head-worn optical see-through display, an ultra mobile personal computer and GPS as well as an inertial sensor for tracking the position and orientation. Furthermore, the developers used multimodal interaction like focus and click interaction, location awareness and action for placing virtual items using a gyroscopic mouse. The authors developed a Mixed Reality Interface Modelling Language (MRIML), which eases location aware event handling and the positioning of multimedia content Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Augmentation of Cultural Objects 30

35 Figure 3: Augmented views with Heinzelmännchen [14] A user study with 24 participants uncovered some hints for further improvements. Different to the projects before, TimeWarp did not use enhanced natural feature tracking methods in its first version. For that reason users felt not really immersed, because of misaligned and low quality virtual objects. Additionally, they had to pay so much attention to the system that players were often unaware of safety issues. On the other hand, wearing a vest which is carrying the equipment was never mentioned negatively. Albeit TimeWarp is an outdoor only application, it has also to deal with changing light conditions. Problems with high level of sunshine were reported, which made the superimposed content sometimes impossible to recognise on the see-through device. It could be seen that there are different proposals trying to combine historical knowledge with entertainment facets. The next section discusses the correlation between historical facts and edutainment and answers the question why it is a gainful symbiosis. HISTORY AND EDUTAINMENT While many visitors of museums or cultural heritage sites do not have interest or time in reading tremendous lines of information about each ancient piece, they want to get a quick overview about the most interesting parts of it. Often there is just a plate in front of an old artefact with some background information written on it. Mostly, visitors are not allowed to touch such invaluable antique artefacts; even if in some cases this gives an extra portion of interest, it can become boring rather quickly, in particular for younger people. Museums and other cultural heritage institutions are looking for new alternatives to attract visitors. A lot of museums have already supplemented their human museum guides by digital audio or multimedia guides. Mobile multimedia devices allow personalised content delivery depending on the age of the visitor, her personal preferences or learning capabilities while providing the information in an audiovisual manner [16]. Nonetheless, these technologies are still supplying information in a rather passive way. A user is still just reading, watching or listening but yet to a multimedia-based prepared content. A higher learning outcome is guaranteed if visitors are involved more actively. This is the reason why one can find highly interactive applications with multi touch panels and other attracting interaction paradigms at several current exhibitions. Many institutions like museums, explorations or exhibitions have already enriched their installations by interactive audiovisual multimedia equipment providing an easy access to complex information. Such installations are often crowd pullers exciting young and old people equally. Those interactions are normally not really challenging, which is indeed not its purpose, but if historical content is provided that way it degenerates often to try it out and leave. Figure 4: Interactive table "floating.numbers" for exhibition at the Jewish Museum in Berlin (image by myhd.org) However, history could be perfectly integrated into narratives and storylines. An adventure based on scientific findings may be a welcome alternation for people with an inquisitive mind, which links the knowledge to self made experience and thus it will be part of their long-term memory. If a visitor would be part of a narrative based on historical data and he can change the flow of the story interactively, he would be much more involved as in one of the settings mentioned before. This is where history can deploy its strength - as a fundament for narratives. Games on the other hand can be designed to tell interactive stories. This combination, narratives and games, lets a visitor become an actor who might solve challenging tasks while learning parenthetically. Consulting Stapleton s mixed reality continuum [22], in passive settings like in old fashioned museums imagination relies heavily on the audience, whereas in interactive games the player s imagination is mediated by an interactive story. This will support visitors to revive historical events. An interactive multimedia exhibition installation is in general not convenient for outdoor areas, hence cultural heritage sites still have this little plates placed in front of point of interests to describe artefacts a visitor is looking at. Nevertheless, narrative role-play games are rather suitable for outdoor scenarios where people can move somewhat freely, run around and explore different places. A game design which incorporates the historical context and the location specific setting of a cultural heritage site satisfies upcoming demands of tourists and other visitors. Augmented reality technology enables the implementation of narrative games at cultural heritage sites allowing visitors to gain an immersive experience while being part of a lively history. Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Augmentation of Cultural Objects 31

36 AUGMENTED REALITY OUTDOOR GAMES While the section before discussed edutainment more in general as a driver for historical facts, this chapter will look in detail how AR technology could do it even better. In essence, this section will accentuate the most important objectives for designing an immersive augmented reality outdoor game. Many approaches are conceivable to introduce visitors in historical knowledge using mobile phone games. However, a mobile phone game offers less permanent impression and is not really spectacular. According to Stapleton et al. [22] one scheme to achieve a full immersive game experience is to combine reality and virtuality in a way that allows people s imagination to bridge the gap to full immersiveness. For that reason, augmented reality games tend to be a welcome alternative to provide a unique experience to a person. Examples of AR outdoor games can be found in [8] and [4]. In [25] an overview is given about which components are required to implement an AR system. The following listing is based on [25] but enhanced by four additional components (communication infrastructure, game story engine, multimedia content database and game orchestration tool) to meet the gaming aspect. Therefore, an AR outdoor game will consist of eight components: at least one visualisation and audio device an accurate tracking system a high performance processing unit a high speed communication infrastructure a multimodal interaction module a sophisticated game story engine a multimedia content database and a game orchestration tool The visualisation device is normally the most obvious component from the user s point of view. Whether it is an optical see-trough device or a video display, it is used to superimpose virtual items over the user s real view or it shows a real time video stream which is augmented by virtual content. It could be head-worn, a fixed installation or a hand-held device i.e. a PDA or a mobile phone. Whatever device it is it should be equipped with earphones or speakers to deliver audio content. It is also required that a camera is attached to the visualisation device in order to capture the user s viewport accordingly. Because of the reason that a user has to wear it all the time during his tour or gaming experience it should be not cumbersome but easy to use and light weighted. Since the visualisation device will be passed-through by many users, hygiene as well as robustness should also be taken into account. Due to the reason that an AR application has to overlay virtual content exactly over real world scenes the tracking system can be seen as a crucial component. It is responsible for accurate position and orientation detection of the user s viewport and consists of several cooperating modules. Normally a GPS is in place to get rough position data. However, differential GPS should be preferred to reduce the positioning bias by a factor of ten to an accuracy of 0.5 meters [12]. The orientation could be determined by a digital compass or an inertial sensor. Both, position and orientation data, will need further refinement by utilise optical tracking algorithms which can be subdivided in marker-less and marker-based tracking methods [6]. For the latter markers have to be attached to objects or buildings. They must be visible for the cameras field-of-view and can be used to calculate the proper viewpoint of the camera in real time. In contrast, a marker-less method does not need any preinstalled marker, thus it observes the video stream for features such as edges, colours, textures and key points to obtain orientation information. It is expected to have robust real time marker-less tracking algorithms in near future since this is an up-to-date research topic with recent remarkable results which can be explored in detail referring to [20] and [7]. Tracking as well as rendering and animation of 3D models either needs a lot of processing power, hence a fast 3D graphics card and a state-of-the-art processing unit is required. Moreover, it should be light weighted and compact in size, since the user has to carry it during the game. There are different architectural setups possible. If the entire application is not installed at the wearable computer, but a distributed architecture has been chosen, a powerful communication infrastructure has to be available to transfer vast amount of data, because multimedia content is known as high volume data. Without any interaction a game would be rather boring, thus multimodal interaction is essential. Especially in AR applications different approaches of interaction paradigms are helpful. One which uses location awareness is obtained nearly for free, because of continuous position tracking. On the other hand, classical desktop user interfaces are mostly not applicable for AR settings, why other interaction methodologies should be considered. They are strongly discussed within the 3D user interface community whereas many solutions are addressed in [10]. The interaction techniques should be selected carefully, since interaction is directly related to the usability of such a system and hence important for acceptance. Similar to the approach in [15] and [5] a story engine is necessary to control the game flow. This engine is a core component in a game based application. The game story engine will communicate with the interaction module and the tracking system to figure out which task to activate next. It consults the content database to load 3D models, audio files and additional information related to the context the player is working on and delivers it to the visualisation device. By the way, game story engines for AR games are quite similar to those of ordinary computer game engines. 5 Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Augmentation of Cultural Objects 32

37 The game engine does not necessarily have to distinguish between real and virtual content, everything might be modelled as virtual for the game engine s point of view. This means that additional to virtual objects, the real world objects and their states must occur within the game engine s world representation. The game engine does not need to differentiate between simulated or real sensor events which are normally triggered by collisions, time-based actions and closeness or by user intention. Such mapping achieves a great benefit during testing, where real world events can also be easily simulated [6]. Designing an AR outdoor game which should be independent of a certain site requires an appropriate tool for supporting game orchestration to customise the game engine for individual locations. For games at cultural heritage sites, historical facts, characters, artefacts, buildings as well as the location itself has to relate to the game story. Broll et al. [6] highlights the basic steps for pre-game orchestration as following: 1. appropriate registration of the game area into real world coordinates 2. virtual representations of real world objects 3. initialisation and positioning of the game items 4. initialisation of the players including the setup of the individual equipment 5. initialisation of the game state Therefore the game orchestration software should feature import and registration of maps and images to real world coordinates as well as importing and positioning of 2D and 3D models of real world items to build the overall game area. It should also provide facilities to alter the game settings and the game state [6]. Considering lessons learnt from [13], [11] and [16] there are some traps which should be avoided whenever it is possible. There are many possible visualisation devices on the market, but most still with inefficiencies such as devices with low resolution, weak contrast levels and a narrow field-of-view. Especially in outdoor scenarios these properties are important for a satisfying experience and should be investigated religiously, mainly because this is what the user sees. Furthermore, realism was mentioned several times as a decreasing factor for immersiveness. Thus realistic augmentation is very important to AR outdoor games. High fidelity 3D models and precise positioning of the models with respect to lighting, shading and shadows, like models proposed in [24], should be taken into account. If the processing power is not sufficient for real time rendering of such high quality models, it might be considered to have a special game challenge where a player has to match a high quality virtual 3D model with its real world placeholder to solve a certain task. Many evaluations revealed that there was not much virtual content provided, responsible for distracting the immersive feeling, therefore it is better not to be too stingy when including virtual artefacts. In addition, atmospheric effects and transparency for text or icons can enhance realism. Not to forget about spatial sound, this can increase the atmosphere dramatically while expanding immersive experience even further. Lastly the game story has to be thrilling, concise and informative in order to target a wide range of persons. This section gave an overview about technical and environmental issues as well as implementation hints for AR outdoor games. The following chapter focuses on game storytelling and proposes a drafted concept of an AR outdoor game for a location in Carinthia where a medieval castle will be constructed during the next three decades. ADVENTURE BURGBAU ZU FRISACH Burgbau zu Friesach is a long term running historical project in Carinthia located in South Austria recently started. A castle will be created over a time period of thirty years only by making use of medieval tools and processes similar to a project in Guédelon in France. Craftsmen will wear ancient clothes when building the castle. They will forge and carve the tools needed themselves and wood and stones are carried by horses and oxen to the construction site. The scientific mentoring of the projects is held by the Institute of History of the University of Klagenfurt which controls the authenticity of the used tools and processes. Figure 5: Similar project to Burgbau zu Friesach started at Guédelon, France in 1997 (image by guedelon.fr) Tourists can visit the site and watch the ongoing work of stonemasons, blacksmiths and rope makers and other parties thereto. Beside the touristic benefit, the aim of the project itself is to get more insight into medieval processes and medieval life. However, for tourists it is difficult to comprehend the entire process of constructing a castle just by visiting the site at a certain point of time. Since the progress of the castle construction happens to be extremely slow. A visitor would only observe the actual stage of the construction site, instead of getting an impression of the whole process or the different steps of the construction. As already stated in the introduction, taking the project Burgbau zu Friesach, which is actually not a proper cultural heritage site but rather an ongoing construction site, this example can show how an augmented reality outdoor game would fit into real ancient sites as argued by Figure 1. Based on the assumption that an equipment as described in Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Augmentation of Cultural Objects 33

38 the section before is used, a brief outline of a game concept using the coulisse of the castle construction should offer an insight how a concrete augmented reality outdoor game story could look like, where a player is part of a historic event. The actual story is based around the castle construction site and the user will have to fulfil different tasks to drive the story. A visitor plays the role of a consultant of the lord of the castle. The lord tells him that he assumes that a conspiracy against the completion of the castle is going on. He further assumes that some craftsmen might be bribed and forced to build entrapments into the castle i.e. build secret passages, doors or weak walls or something else. The player is asked to blast the conspiracy in order to save the correct completion of the castle. The lord s magician delivers a special magic AR tool enabling the player to travel forward or backward in time, to see the construction site s progress in different time periods by his own eyes like a time traveller. As magic AR visualisation device, a handheld portable computer (Figure 6) should be preferred against an HMD, since a handheld device would meet hygienic and robustness requirements necessary for AR outdoor games. Figure 6: Ergonomic handheld Augmented Reality device designed around an ultra-mobile PC [21] During the game the player will have to collect information about technical details and methods of creating a castle. He can ask real craftsmen how they do their job or query a database for additional information. With this information the player might travel into the future to compare the collected knowledge against the future construction to prove if someone is doing false. Using the magic tool, the player will see how the castle would look like in future if the failures would be built in. Maybe he finds a secret door or sees that the wall is not thick enough compared to the craftsmen s explanations. The task is to find inconsistencies between the gathered knowledge and the castle that he sees through his magic time traveller tool. When solving important tasks the user will change the future. Feedback is given by providing the corrected future castle state to the user again through the magic tool. Another challenge would be to find little hidden messages carved into the castle s walls 10 years forward in time to get some additional hints about the conspirator. If a player is not able to solve a certain task, he could ask the magician for help. The magician is a virtual avatar appearing in front of the user if he has been consulted by the player. The powerful magician can give hints or even solve the task by using a magic formula. A player could also talk to virtual characters living in the future, to get some information. At the end of the game, when the player has completed all tasks successfully by uncovering the conspirator, he is able to watch a great celebration at the castle in the future. Otherwise the castle would be empty, since the conspiracy would have won and the inhabitants were banished. This brief outline of a game story should certainly by no means replace a full game concept. It might simply show that a game at a historical site could be thrilling and informative in an inspiring way. It should be said, that the history of the surroundings as well as storytelling knowhow as proposed by [5] should be included, when designing a full concept of such a game. The aim should be not only to design any story but a historical reasonable story. CONCLUSION This paper has shown that new ways of providing historical content can be realised using narrative augmented reality outdoor games, in particular for cultural heritage sites. Arguments were given why visitors of cultural heritage places should be involved more actively in learning about historical facts. Thus history has been proposed to be used as basic building blocks for interactive narrative game design. Some approaches have been highlighted which are making use of modern technology to foster the learning of ancient sites. Furthermore, augmented reality equipment has been demonstrated to collaborate quite well at cultural heritage sites. An overview of necessary components for augmented reality outdoor games has been given with regard to design narrative augmented reality games. Finally, a short idea of a game concept for a castle construction site was outlined. REFERENCES 1. Ardito, C., Buono, P., Costabile, M. 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41 Personalized Touring with Augmented Reality BS Reddy Jaggavarapu Institut für Informatik-Systeme Universität Klagenfurt ABSTRACT To provide personalized touring with Augmented Reality (AR) systems have been developed (mentioned in the later related work section). Those systems are using the context of the user and the information about the environment to conduct the tour. There are many problems involved in this area. Researchers are working to develop efficient and adoptable systems to provide the effective personalization tours. This paper is going to discuss the how the data is presented to the user with the use of context, how the contexts influence the dynamic presentations, how the user emotions are estimated and the role of emotions in presenting the content to the user, and the interactivity support provided to the user to change his profiles at any time and synchronizing this data with the system. This paper also presents the problems involved in analyzing the user context and extracting the context. Author Keywords Context, User Emotions, Personalized Touring,. ACM Classification Keywords H5.m. Information interfaces and presentation (e.g., HCI): INTRODUCTION Personalized touring means providing or guiding an user with the information that he/she is expecting from a point of interest. For example if a user is visiting a historical place, the user expects different type of information, for example history, culture, habits, etc. So we need systems to provide data to the users. Nowadays users are provided with different devices to visualize the environments. Those devices are for example PC, laptop, PDA, mobile phone, sea through, and etc. To visualize the environment there are many constraints to be considered, for example information about the environment, Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. To copy otherwise, or republish, to post on servers or to redistribute to lists, requires prior specific permission and/or a fee. Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme WS07/08, January, 2008, Klagenfurt, Austria Copyright 2008 Klagenfurt University...$5.00. position of the user, angular movements of the user, and etc. Whenever the user wants to know information about the environments, the pre-stored information is provided to the user at that time. To provide that information the system needs to know about the user location, point of interest and the information user wants to know about. To know the users position we have GPS (Global Positioning System), DGPS (Differential GPS), algorithms to calculate angular changes (change in view), ultrasonic signal and vision algorithms etc. After knowing users position the data is transmitted by using WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network), ad-hoc (network without base station, each node in the network passes the data to the other nodes), streaming and different types of transmission techniques. Until now the systems are providing information to the user by the context of their position and the interest of their view, language, and the digital information (images/narration/video) of a particular object. The users are provided with the general information, some users may feel bore or unnecessary. To solve this problem systems have been developed. Those systems get the profile (interests or preferences) of a user and according to the user s profile the information is produced. The user profile varies depending on the user hobbies, knowledge of the environment, age, gender, area of interest, the place user is coming from, and etc. Whenever the user enters into the system, the user is allowed to choose his/her preferences. Depending on the users preferences the tour is conducted. Augmented reality is used to provide data to the user in effective manner. AR is embedded on the users display devices, so that users can view the overlaid images, videos of the particular environment or object. With use of augmented reality users are navigated from one place to another place, and the content is also presented to the users. Combing the AR with personalized touring is advantageous. Systems have been developed to produce personalized touring for indoor and outdoor. Varieties (hands free, portable, handheld, etc.) of devices are also introduced. RELATED WORK There has been great research work is going in the area of context aware and personalized touring. To provide user with the personalized tour, different types of systems have been developed. Those systems, based on the user location 1 Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Augmentation of Cultural Objects 37

42 provide the content in different ways. To provide the content and present the content there have been many techniques introduced. system supports three different types of devices and provides information to the users. Some research works also concentrated on the service context [2]. User location context is used in discovering the variety of available services and providing them to the user. The aim is to provide Dynamic Tour Guide (DTG). This system uses user s interests as the basic ontology, and semantic matching algorithms to provide the data. After discovering the services the navigation and tour are updated. So based on the user s context, location context (information about the environment), and service context the DTG is performed. This system provides the audio for guiding the user. Figure 2: Virtual assistant [9] Figure 1: Overview of the context interpretation [2] The above figure 1 shows how the contexts are interpreted to provide the information to the user. Researchers also developed systems with the Augmented Reality (AR). The environment, monuments, ruins, and artifacts are presented to the user by augmenting the images, videos, etc. The different ways in presenting data are, Using virtual assistants, audio Images and corresponding text documents Streaming videos To provide personalized touring user preferences or interests are key to present corresponding information to the user. ARCHEOGUIDE [1] has been developed to provide the personalized touring. This system considers user s location, orientation, and preferences. With this context as information to the system, the system provides user with the suitable content. In this system users are equipped with laptop and see through device, pen-pc, and palm top. Users can access information with heterogeneous devices. Depending on the user preferences the visuals are generated. Figure 3 shows the system architecture of the ARCHEOGUIDE. From the figure 3 it is observed that this Figure 3: ARCHEOGUIDE architecture [1] MARA [9] has been developed, where the researchers developed a virtual assistant to guide the user. In this system user location and orientation are considered as the context. The figure 2 shows the virtual assistant. In this system they used see-through devices to view the virtual assistant. The researchers have focused on different type of areas. Those are analyzing the context, context awareness, environmental issues, content presentation to the user, visualization of the content, and many more areas. 2 Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Augmentation of Cultural Objects 38

43 To provide personalization tour, research is going on recommendation models [10]. This type of systems uses the user s interests or preferences to recommend suitable services. The history of the user is also stored and used for the future use. How the User Profile Play Role in Personalized Tour In the above mentioned systems (ARCHEOGUIDE and MARA) we have seen user profile/preferences/interests. Some systems get the user profiles before starting the tour and those systems present the tour according to the user profiles. Some other systems for example recommender systems analyze the user profile while presenting the data. User profile plays the major role in personalized tours. Examples for the use profiles are mentioned in the above section. Now the question is how really the user preferences influence the tours. For example, a family is visiting a museum. Assume that family has kids, teenagers, middle aged people and old people. All those family members are equipped with PDAs. If a kid and old man are interested in watching the same monument, they get different type of information. Before starting the tour profiles/preferences of the users are taken. Kid and the old man enter or choose the preferences. Kids generally entertained when they have a funny cartoon as tour guide on their display device. So a funny cartoon entertains the kid with a different voice (which suits for kids), and provides the images (those images are capable to reach the kids level of understanding). In this way tour is conducted to the kid. The old man gets a formal tour guide and the tour is conducted to the old man. Old people generally want to know much more information about particular point of interests. The formal tour guide presents the information according to the old man preferences. TECHNOLOGY The systems developed are using different types of technologies to provide the data to the users. For every system which is supporting personalized tour with augmented reality need database. The data about the environment, museums, artifacts, ruins are stored at databases. Research work has done on storing the data at the data storages. The data repositories are used to store not only the data about the environments and they also store the historical image collections, videos, and also the external information. The systems support different kind of devices to present the data to the users. As mentioned earlier in this paper, nowadays users are provided with different types of devices. Systems should be able to support all those PDAs, mobile phones, laptops, palm tops, etc. Systems should also support indoor, outdoor, and also the users who are sitting at home or office through web. Adaptability is needed to support whenever a user is in an environment and accessing the system. To provide data to the user the context has to be analyzed, to analyze the context we have GPS systems which provides the location information of the user. Location of the user is most important in our systems. For every system location of the user is the major context and also the accurate values are provided by using the GPS and DGPS (Differential GPS). After finding the location of the user systems generally provides the data to the users. Due to the over flooding of the data to the every user, researchers have introduced user preferences or interest. Where the systems take information from the user and analyze that information, and finally present the filtered information to the user. Then later on the context are analyzed by using the objects in the environment. That means by considering the users point of interest views, the content is provided to the user. To get the users point of interest cameras are introduced. Cameras capture the images from the objects in the environments and transmit those captured images to the system. Then the systems filter the data by considering the users views as context and the filtered data is provided to the users. For transmissions systems are using WLAN, internet, etc. Systems interpret the data and transmit that data to the users. After transmitting the users get the data, user is able to select the data and the data is visualized on the user s device. To visualize data there are many rendering techniques have been developed. They are 2D, 3D rendering techniques. The fallowing sections explains how the contexts are analyzed, how the data is retrieved and presented, the influence of the context on the personalized touring, the role user emotions in presenting tours, discussions and conclusions on the presented topics. HOW to RETREIVE and PRESENT DATA The user selects preferences, depending on the user selections systems should retrieve and present the data. With the user preferences, context of the user is determined. The information about the objects, where the user is concentrating on, is also part of the context. These are named as context representation [5]. This context representations, represents the context of the user and the information of objects, provides the contextual information. To retrieve data context representation itself is not sufficient. Because in context representation, representations are unified and are complex to compare. So we need context transformation. It transfers context into Boolean or probability to make the comparisons easier. With the use of context transformation, the objects which are relevant to the user s context are selected by using personalized object filter. Personalized object filter, filters the objects by probabilistic selection. Now the object is selected, but systems have to present only the preferred data. Presenting the preferred data involves personalized 3 Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Augmentation of Cultural Objects 39

44 information filter and personalized information presentation. and also the related paintings that helps user in watching the painting in the exhibition. Those types of systems [12] have been developed and also they consider the user interests and present the information about the paintings. This type of systems also guides the users for the next interesting places by guiding with location information. Figure 4: Personalized Information Retrieval [5] The figure4 shows how the information is presented to the users. Who, when, where, what, how, and why are used to represent the context of the user. Depending on the user context the objects from the environment are selected, filtered and presented to the user. To demonstrate the above figure here is one example. Two users A and B are at the same location and viewing the same object, but they get different types of information. Because user A s context is different from user B s context. The problems involved in this system are, To compare the contexts they used Boolean and probability functions. Still the research is going on in searching the techniques how to transform this user and object contextual information into numerical values for better and effective comparisons Effective delivery and presentation of the data The user interests varies depending on the location and time, how to support the user with the change in time Even some systems support the user by providing a writing text on the system type of service. This type of service helps users to know more about the missing data from the presentations, and also user can extend his/her knowledge after the presentation by knowing more about those written data on the interesting objects. The problem involved in this type is how to provide the information to the user about those dynamic written questions. Not only basing on the users context and information of the objects, techniques have developed to present interesting data to the users. For example if a user is in an exhibition and watching interesting paintings, if we have a system which provides the user with different formats of information (text, image, audio, etc.) about those paintings Figure 5: Visual cue matching process [12] To develop such kind of systems involve visual cue matching technique. The user is equipped with a camera, inertia tracker (tracks objects within a short distance), and UMPC (Ultra-Mobile PC). When the user is watching at paintings the system matches the current view with the stored image and determines the position of the user. After measuring the position of the user the system presents the directions for the next interesting point. The above figure 5 shows the matching process (this process keeps user in the reachable region to meet the next painting), after this process the user is provided with the relevant information, i. e the directions to reach the next painting. The problems involved in this type of systems are Light illumination conditions, because here the main technique deals with the visual cue matching. Effective way of presenting information to a particular user based on his/her preferences. That means one user shows more interest in knowing about a particular object and the other user shows less interest in knowing information about the paintings. So system should be dynamic in nature to provide different types of information to any kind of user. And also user interest changes from painting to painting. Till now we have seen the use of images in analyzing the position and providing the content to the user in high level. The fallowing section presents how the images play role in low level in generating the context. INFLUENCE of CONTEXT on PERSONALIZED TOURING Before going into detail we should know how to exploit the context. To exploit the context, [4] have proposed architecture. Figure 6 shows the architecture of the system. From the figure it is observed that there are two types of processes, first one is high-level processing and second one 4 Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Augmentation of Cultural Objects 40

45 is low-level processing, and also there are two types of context, preliminary and final. In the low-level processing, context awareness framework gathers data from sensor which captures video data. That video data is preliminary context to the context aware framework, which then produces final context. The captured data at the sensor is passed to the marker detection. In the marker detection stage, the incoming image frames are detected for the markers. Incoming image frames are transformed into Binary images. Markers are detected in those transformed Binary images. These detected markers are recognized at the marker recognition stage. By depending on the change in the intensity of the light the threshold value of the binary generated image is calculated. Changing the threshold value is needed, because in the system pre-stored marker illuminations are static. When light illusion changes threshold value is changed, so that the reliability is guaranteed at the marker detection and recognition stages. The detected markers are recognized at the markers recognition stage and also the pose of the marker is calculated. Pose determines the specific view of the image. The recognized markers are assigned with unique ID s. These ID s are passed to the high-level processing. at the low-level processing generates contents from the database. The system presents only selected contents by depending on the user interactions. Those selected contents are presented with augmented scene with 3D rendering process at particular pose of the camera. This system supports the user in presenting the dynamic content effectively. The advantage with this system is, it addresses the light illumination problem that encountered in the previous works. The problems involved are The major problem is time consumption at the lowlevel processing. If it takes much time to complete the marker detection and recognition process, the preliminary context is directly sent to the contextaware framework. The development is needed in increasing the performance of the low level processing. How far the generated context is helpful for the user. This section discussed how the context influences in personalization tours. In the next section we see how the user face emotions play major role to support the personalized tour. ESTIMATING the USERS FACE EMOTIONS Apart from the user preferences, there are other mechanisms available to present the dynamic data to the user. Those mechanisms are face recognition, estimating expressions and emotions, and eye tracking. The main idea behind introducing face emotions into the personalized touring is to provide the much more effective presentations of the data. To increase the entertainment face emotions are considered. Figure 6: Context-aware system architecture [4] In the high-level processing content selection is made by the user with the interactions. The marker ID s recognized Figure 7: Process of Image Processing [7] Algorithms have been developed to recognize the emotions of the face. In [7] using Genetic Algorithms the classification of the human face emotion is done. They used lip and eye features for the classification. Figure 7 shows the process of the image processing. 5 Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Augmentation of Cultural Objects 41

46 The research questions in this area are How to integrate this type of algorithms into a system that provides the personalized tours? Adaptability with the current systems, with this nature the implementation is made easier. How the adaptability is achieved? How to transform these emotion features into context of the user? User emotions are not constant with time they change very rapidly. Problems in generating and managing the data. How to support dynamic tour. How to increase the performance? With all the above mentioned constraints it is not easy to produce data very rapidly. Visualization techniques are needed to support different types of emotions and also the context for example when the user emotion changes the current visualizing image or video clip should show the effect from the context. Narrations to support different emotions. Depending the object information and user s context narrations are generated. The question is how to support dynamic narrations when the user emotions are considered. How far the generated content is useful to the user The facial expressions are recognized from real time video. The system continuously tracks the face and detects the facial expressions by using facial feature detection techniques. In [8] used Support Vector Machines (SVM) for the classification of the emotions. Figure 8: Facial expression recognition [8] From the above figure8 it is observed that facial expressions recognized and displayed with an image. In general and the 6 above mentioned systems used the context of the user and information of the object in optimizing the content that to be provided to the user. If the system also considers the user emotions as the contexts, depending upon the context corresponding content is returned to the user. Then the user will be provided with the dynamic content. This content may of different types Depending upon the emotion context, the system may simply visualize an image which represents the user emotion. Audio presentations, which are pre-stored and related to the emotion contexts. Videos clips and narrations, all these are may not be computed dynamically. The pre-stored, which is related to the user emotions, that data is presented to the users. Developing this type of system with the pre-stored data is not so complex, but developing a system which provides the dynamic data by considering the user s emotions is much complex. DISCUSSION and CONCLUSIONS In this paper we have seen different types of systems that are providing personalized tours. The context is playing the major role in providing the personalized tours. Some systems showed how the context influences in retrieving and presenting retrieved information to the users. We also have seen different types of problems involved in transforming context in the low-level processing of the system. There is a need to increase the performance of the system. We also have seen how the human face emotions are detected and how those emotions influence the presentations or tour of the user. REFERENCES 1. Dähne, P. and Karigiannis, J. N Archeoguide: System Architecture of a Mobile Outdoor Augmented Reality System. In Proceedings of the 1st international Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (September 30 - October 01, 2002). Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality. IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, Klaus ten Hagen, Marko Modsching, Ronny Kramer, "A Location Aware Mobile Tourist Guide Selecting and Interpreting Sights and Services by Context Matching," mobiquitous,pp , The Second Annual International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Networking and Services, Pietro Mazzoleni, Elisa Bertino, Elena Ferrari, Stefano Valtolina, CiVeDi: A Customized Virtual Environment for DatabaseInteraction,. 4. Wonwoo Lee, Woontack Woo, "Exploiting Context- Awareness in Augmented Reality Applications," isuvr,pp.51-54, 2008 International Symposium on Ubiquitous Virtual Reality, Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Augmentation of Cultural Objects 42

47 5. Dongpyo Hong, Yun-Kyung Park, Jeongwon Lee, Vladimir Shin, and Woontack Woo, Personalized Information Retrieval Framework, pages 81-90, ubipcmm Marian Stewart Bartlett, Gwen Littlewort, Ian Fasel, Javier R. Movellan, "Real Time Face Detection and Facial Expression Recognition: Development and Applications to Human Computer Interaction.," cvprw,pp.53, 2003 Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Workshop - Volume 5, M. Karthigayan, R. Nagarajan, M. Rizon, Sazali Yaacob, "Personalized Face Emotion Classification Using Optimized Data of Three Features," iihmsp,pp.57-60, Third International Conference on International Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing (IIH-MSP 2007), Byungsung Lee, Junchul Chun, Peom Park, "Classification of Facial Expression Using SVM for Emotion Care Service System," snpd,pp.8-12, 2008 Ninth ACIS International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking, and Parallel/Distributed Computing, Schmeil, A. and Broll, W MARA: an augmented personal assistant and companion. In ACM SIGGRAPH 2006 Sketches (Boston, Massachusetts, July 30 - August 03, 2006). SIGGRAPH '06. ACM, New York, NY, Xueping Peng, Zhendong Niu, "The Research of the Personalization," wi-iatw,pp , 2007 IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conferences on Web Intelligence and Intelligent Agent Technology - Workshops, Hong, J., et al. Context-aware system for proactivepersonalized service based on context history. Expert Systems with Applications (2008), doi: /j.eswa Dong-Hyun Lee, Jun Park, "Augmented Reality Based Museum Guidance System for Selective Viewings," dmamh,pp , Second Workshop on Digital Media and its Application in Museum & Heritage (DMAMH 2007), Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Augmentation of Cultural Objects 43

48 Augmented reality telescopes Claus Liebenberger Student University of Klagenfurt ABSTRACT This paper investigates 5 projects which deal with presentation interfaces, which augment a real life scene with additional information like images, video, audio and even 3-dimensional virtual objects. Within those projects either a telescope or binocular like device has been developed and used in different environments to deliver a spectator an enriched viewing experience of an actual point of interest. While not all of the devices are real telescopes, the utilized concepts are based on a telescope metaphor. The investigated display devices mainly have been developed by scientific institutes, but some of them are already available on the market. In this case the construction has been done in cooperation with commercial institutions. Utilized technologies are explained with respect to tracking and visualization. Further, projects are mentioned, in which the devices have been set up and used. Apart from the primary design principles of the different devices, a key point of investigation is the implication for possible user interaction, restricted by the design of the different devices, with respect to its relevance for the use at the project Burgenbau in Friesach. Keywords: Augmented reality, telescopes, survey INTRODUCTION Augmented reality (AR) systems are defined by Azuma in [3]. They have the following three characteristics: They combine real and virtual They are interactive in real time The virtual information is 3-dimensionally linked to a real environment [6] Taking this definition, AR devices enrich real 3- dimensional environments with virtual content in real time. The investigated display devices which provide this functionality either are real telescopes or are similar to telescopes in terms of functionality and hardware or user interface design. With one exception, all investigated solutions have in common that additional information like images, videos, or Figure 1: Augmented reality visualization system [26], [11] even 3D objects are superimposed on real world images (Figure 1, center image) to finally achieve an enriched or augmented view of the scene (Figure 1, right image). In one project however, the real scene is completely replaced with an image from the past. Although this device (TimeScope) might not provide augmented reality as defined by Azuma, it is a mature existing solution which would be good candidate for the monitoring of a castle building process. At least the basic idea of enabling the spectator to view past sceneries is applicable to our possible field of use for such a device. Therefore I found it worth including this project in the paper. The devices and projects, which will be discussed in more detail are: The Meade LX200 GPS 10 Augmented Astronomical Telescope has been developed by Andre Lintu at the MPI Informatik in Saarbrücken, Germany. Its primary purpose is to support the use of telescopes in educational environments by adding relevant information to viewed astronomical objects. [14, 16] GeoScope has been developed by C. Brenner et al. at the University of Hannover, Germany. While also stationary - like the other telescopes the main difference is that GeoScope uses a macro display instead of a micro display, which softens the restriction of single user operation compared to other solutions. [6] Reeves et al. from the University of Nottingham in England placed a telescope at the One Rock exhibition in the Morecambe Bay. They specifically investigated the user interaction of the visitors of the exhibition with the AR device. [20] TimeTraveller and its successor TimeScope are devices with which the spectator can go back in time and view the visible area in front of the telescope like it has been in 1 Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Augmentation of Cultural Objects 44

49 the past. The TimeScope has been set up in Berlin and Munich and was jointly constructed by büro+staubach, WALL AG and ART+COM in Berlin. [1] AR telescope (XC-01), developed at the Fraunhofer Institute in Darmstadt, Germany. The device has been in use at the projects "Grube Messel" an archeological site nearby Darmstadt and for monitoring the construction of the "INI-GraphicsNet building". [21, 26] DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR AUGMENTED REALITY DISPLAYS Before taking a closer look at different devices, a few design considerations are discussed to provide means of demarcation of the investigated projects. The name of projects and devices indicate towards telescopes (AR Telescope, GeoScope, TimeScope), but some of them have little in common with real telescopes as for instance defined in Wikipedia, or on Dictionary.com. Nevertheless, they take advantage of the telescope metaphor with respect to user interaction. Therefore, I clarify what I mean by telescope by classifying the devices using the dimensions of a taxonomy of AR displays, which has originally been proposed in [19]. Also certain features, which the investigated devices have in common, are stated. Within this paper, I specifically talk about optical telescopes in contrast to Radio and X-Ray or gamma-ray telescopes. Another very important restriction is that this paper focuses on stationary devices. In literature, a certain type of device namely the head mounted device (HMD) is clearly accepted as being an AR display. HMDs are not stationary and they for sure meet the requirement of linking virtual information to a 3D-environment. Although telescopes do have some concepts in common with HMDs, the question is, when and if we can call a telescope, which mixes real with virtual, an augmented reality display. In [19], Milgram et al. describe a number of dimensions which can help to classify and compare different AR displays or to describe the used approaches. Optical-See-Through vs. Video-See-Through The first dimension categorizes AR displays into Optical See-Through and Monitor based displays. The latter class is also called Video-See-Through [13]. With Optical-See-Through (Figure 2) systems, the spectator can view the real world through a semi-transparent (or halfsilvered) mirror, onto which computer generated images or objects are projected. The investigated astronomical telescope utilizes this technology. With Video-See-Through systems (Figure 3), the real world is synthesized (recorded using a video camera), before it is Figure 2: Optical-See-Through [13] Figure 3: Video-See-Through [13] combined with computer generated images or objects and presented to the spectator on a monitor. Most of the binoculars and telescopes, which have been developed in the environment of tourism, apply this technology. Brenner states in [6] that, The main benefits of this approach are the ease of practical implementation, the relatively low cost using commodity hardware components, the possible use in mobile settings and the reduced registration requirements compared to optical-see-through solutions. Key limitations of video-see-through solutions are the reduced optical resolution of the "real" environment (limited to the video resolution) and the restricted field of view. A more detailed discussion about the benefits and drawbacks of each method can be found in [3] and [19]. The Reality-Virtuality Continuum Another (continuous) dimension is called the Reality- Virtuality Continuum (Figure 4). It deals with the comparison of Virtual Reality, Mixed Reality and Augmented Reality systems. Milgram et al. do not see the two concepts of augmented reality and virtual reality as antitheses. In [3], they describe the inherent attributes of a real and a virtual environment, whereby the real environment in contrast to the virtual one is strictly constrained by laws of physics. On the other side, the virtual environment is strictly synthetic, which may or may not mimic a real scenery. These two systems are placed at the opposite ends of a continuum with all possible deviations in between. 2 Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Augmentation of Cultural Objects 45

50 Figure 4: Reality-Virtuality Continuum [19] In the project descriptions, we will see that most devices can be placed easily placed into the augmented reality section of this continuum by placing virtual objects into a real world picture. However, some devices (like TimeScope) come close to the right side of this continuum, by completely replacing the real world with pictures or videos. Nonetheless, they place this information into a real world 3-dimensional context and can therefore be called augmented reality systems according to Azuma s definition. Further dimensions Further classification dimensions for AR (or MR) displays stated in [19] are: Exocentric or egocentric reference: Like HMDs, stationary telescopes also display a scene from an egocentric point of view, especially when the scene is watched through eye-pieces (micro-displays, or directly through lenses). Extend of world knowledge: This dimension describes to which extend the viewed scene is placed inside a 3- dimensional model. Naturally, the scene, viewed by a spectator through a telescope is not modeled at all. However, to correctly deal with occlusion, this will be partly necessary. Extend of presence metaphor: The extend of presence denotes how much a spectator has the feeling of being inside a viewed scene. Because of its stationary design and the concept of viewing something far away, telescopes can hardly provide this impression by nature. However this does not prevent the feeling that the viewed scene actually happens at the time of viewing. TRACKING Every augmented reality system faces the challenge to correctly measure or calculate the current location of the spectator (or the AR device), as well as its pointing direction and angle of the view, in order to accurately overlay a virtual object over the real world image. While devices, which are worn by the user (like HMDs) operate in a 3d environment with 7 external degrees of freedom (position + pointing direction of the device each with 3 dimensions, plus tilt), the use of stationary telescopes can help to reduce complexity concerning this task. Because the location of the telescope is fixed, only 3 external degrees of freedom remain (as long as zooming is not taken into account). One of the investigated devices (TimeScope) even reduces this to 1 degree it can only rotate around one axis. The calculation of the correct position and view point can either be achieved through positioning information, gathered by hardware-sensors, like GPS or inertial sensors as well as rotation encoders, or through image recognition techniques (also called vision based tracking). The latter can either be performed using special markers or by identifying other recognizable objects in the target scene (markerless tracking). Nearly all investigated systems use hardware tracking techniques, but as vision based tracking gains better results, these methods are also included into the tracking process. OCCLUSION One major challenge in the field of augmented reality is to overcome the problem of occlusion. Real objects (cars) or subjects (people) might move into the scene in front of a virtual object. As the exact position of this object cannot be measured (at least not in the investigated systems) it may happen, that the objects disappear behind the projected 3d model, although in real they should be in front of the model. This is especially true when displaying sceneries at crowded cultural heritage sites, where a lot of people may walk around. As can be seen in Figure 5 from one of the investigated projects (the AR telescope), the problem of occlusion already can be solved for static and solid objects in the scene. The new augmented Building is nicely rendered behind the wall which is visible in the picture. However moveable objects or even trees cause problems. Note that the leaves of the red tree are cut at the edge of the new building. Zöllner et al. follow in [25] a new approach of Reality filtering to partly overcome this problem. They try to filter out moveable objects or persons, which could interfere with the scene. Using object recognition techniques, unwanted objects are erased from the scene by replacing the affected areas with previous versions of the scene. However this approach has not yet been implemented in any of the investigated projects. PROJECTS AND PRODUCTS I found projects in two areas in which telescopes with augmented reality features have been applied in the past: Astronomy and tourism. The visualization technique used in astronomical AR telescopes is based on Optical-See- Through techniques [4]. Figure 5: Occlusion, INI-GraphicsNET building [21] 3 Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Augmentation of Cultural Objects 46

51 The preferred method used in touristic AR telescopes is the video see-through technique. In this section, the projects, in which telescopes either have been developed or used, are described in more detail. Augmented Astronomical Telescope Among all investigated projects, only two devices utilize a real telescope in its original definition of a light gathering and magnifying device. This is the first example. The Meade LX200 GPS 10 Augmented Astronomical Telescope has been developed by Andre Lintu et al. at the MPI Informatik in Saarbrücken, Germany (Figure 6). Its primary purpose is to support the use of telescopes in educational environments by adding relevant information to viewed astronomical objects. [14][16] It is also the only project which uses an Optical-See-Through approach. Figure 7 shows a schematic description of the components which forms the complete system. The system is based on the commercially available telescope MEADE LX200 GPS 10 (Manufacturer: Schmid Cassegrain, which costs about [18]. The telescope is motorized and includes a GPS system. The original eye-piece of the telescope has been replaced by a projection unit, which overlays computer generated images onto the original image gathered from the telescope (Figure 6). The team developed the unit in-house. It uses a DMD (Digital Mirror Device) of 0.7 diagonal with XGA resolution (1024 x 768 pixels). The DMD was developed by OpSys Project Consulting. It features a custom projection lens and a special color LED projection head (see Figure 8). The reason why this system has been chosen is because it provides a very low black luminance. LCD displays also emit light for dark areas. Especially when watching the sky, where the target objects are difficult to spot, a permanently overlaid grey area could dramatically disturb the spectator. A beam splitter is used to combine both images [16]. The computer generated (CG) image is obtained from a standard laptop computer running a modified version of the open source planetarium software Stellarium [10]. One noteworthy issue arises from the fact that the geometric shapes of the display (which is rectangular 4:3) does not meet the shape of the image from the telescope itself (which is circular). The issue was solved by matching the horizontal extends of the two displays. With that, the CG image cannot reach the very upper and lower part of the image obtained from the telescope, but only very small areas in the edges of the CG image cannot be displayed in the final picture. A remote controller is used to position the telescope. The positioning information of the remote controller is both used for the telescope and the tracking coordinates for the software. Figure 6: Augmented Astronomical Telescope [4] Figure 7: Augmented Astronomical Telescope Schema [15] Figure 8: Projection schema [4] During fast motion of the telescope, tracking is not relevant. As soon as the telescope reaches its final position, a feature called high precision provided by the telescope itself is used to exactly determine the current pointing position. With high precision, the telescope calibrates itself by first slewing to a bright known star and then slewing back to the original position. However, it is important to take the sidereal tracking (the earth moves around its own axis) into account and to reach a high accuracy with this respect. 4 Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Augmentation of Cultural Objects 47

52 The blended additional textual information for sure can be very useful for the spectator. However, as soon as textures of the target objects are being blended into the scene, one can hardly tell, if the original image has been completely replaced by the virtual image, or if the real image is really only augmented and still visible. Figure 9: Original and augmented view of the sky [4] Figure 10: GeoScope in operation [6] The necessary precision could be achieved by performing periodic error correction. Finally the exact position of the telescope can be derived from the device itself (approx. every second). [14] The telescopes location and pointing position is then mapped to the coordinate system of the Stellarium software, which also knows the date, time and location from which the object stored in the database originally has been observed. The MEADE telescope can use different focal points, which makes it necessary to calculate a correct scaling factor of the objects in the Stellarium database. A simple approach has been chosen to calculate this scaling factor: Pictures of the moon has been taken using the different eyepieces directly from the telescope and from the overlaid texture from the database. The size of the two objects (original moon and moon object from Stellarium) have been compared to calculate the scaling factor. Figure 9 shows the original (not augmented) image from the telescope on the left, and the augmented counterpart on the right. Some additional information about the target object can be seen in the left upper area. Also the original object has been overlaid by a texture from the Stellarium software. Animations of observed objects can also be blended into the view. These objects can be rotated and their projected evolution over time can be displayed. [14] Further, the user has the possibility to switch the augmented textures on and off to compare the real image with the CG image. GeoScope The GeoScope has been developed by C. Brenner et al. at the University of Hannover, Germany. At a first glance, the device does not look like a telescope. While also stationary, like the other telescopes, the main difference is that GeoScope uses a macro display instead of a micro display, which softens the restriction of single user operation compared to other solutions. The original intended areas of application have been city planning and public participation here within. Brenner explains in [6]: The GeoScope is mounted at a fixed position and consists of a display, oriented towards the user, and a camera, which points at the surroundings. Just as a telescope, the GeoScope can be turned around two axes, the two angles being captured by measuring devices. Together with the known position, a fast and highly precise tracking of the current view direction is possible, allowing the superposition of the real scene, as delivered by the camera, and virtually generated information. A 10,4 -TFT touch screen touch screen display with a 1024x768 pixel resolution used for user interaction and the CG image computing device is directly attached at the back of the screen. The used devices do have a temperature range from -20 to +50 C, which makes them appropriate for outdoor usage. Initially they used a webcam as the image gathering device. Because this camera does not have zooming functionality, the intention was to replace the camera. Tracking is based solely on hardware sensors. Due to the nature of telescope type devices, with which distant target objects are viewed, the tracking mechanism must be precise. Absolute shaft encoders could have been used for this purpose. They have the advantage, that those devices do not need to be calibrated using and endpoint and they are durable. On the other side, encoders, which meet the necessary precision requirements (14-17 Bit) are expensive ( ). Therefore, cheaper analog industry-sensorpotentiometers have been used. They have a resolution of about 20 Bit and are also durable enough. The analog position information is converted using an A/D converter and directly fed into the computer s USB interface. While the resolution did not make any problems, the team expected issues concerning the linearity and temperaturedrift. Concerning user interaction, well known interaction concepts can be applied by using a macro display with touch screen functionality. Apart from selecting the 5 Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Augmentation of Cultural Objects 48

53 desired window of the world by rotating the GeoScope in 2 dimensions, the device provides point and click functionality. Menus or buttons can be displayed with which additional information about a viewed object can be gathered by the user. Other concepts like scrollbars, sliders, control boxes etc., which exist on standard PCs, can be utilized and the user does not have to learn new interfaces to use the device. [7] Another important aspect is the fact, that while only one person at a time can use telescopes through an eye-piece, many persons can collaborate using the GeoScope. Therefore transition issues (handing the device over to another person), like described by Reeves in [20], can also be avoided. One might argue that the implementation of head tracking would enhance the experience for a single observer. This would result in a more see through device. However, the original intention of device usage has been for collaboration. As soon as 2 or more observers use the device at the same time, head tracking does not make sense, because different images had to be projected for every single observer. On a single standard LCD display, this is not feasible. For the purpose of planning, two main aspects are important: A solid geometric base: This is gathered from GIS databases. A 3D-model of the surroundings of the target object: This model is achieved using outdoor scanning techniques. The target object itself is also modeled in 3D. The used software is called ArcObjects from ESRI Inc. ArcObjects can be used with licenses for ArcGIS Desktop or ArcGIS Server, which are large and expensive GIS software products. However, for a custom application as needed for the GeoScope a cost-effective deployment is offered with the ArcEngine Developer Kit and the ArcEngine Runtime [20]. Figure 11 shows a resulting scene as displayed on the GeoScope. The left image displays the original scene. In the center image, some buildings have been masked out. The right image shows the scene augmented with the 3d model of a new building. Although one of the objectives of this project has been to build a robust (in terms of vandalism proof) system, the mounting and construction seems to be bit fragile, especially when compared to the AR telescope XC-01 and XC-02 (see chapters AR Telescope ). Figure 11: Augmentation - real image (left) - masked (center) - virtual object (right) [7] Figure 12: Setup at the One Rock exhibition The ONE ROCK project Reeves et al. from the University of Nottingham, England, placed a telescope at the One Rock exhibition in the Morecambe Bay. Within this project, an indoor installation has been set up and the telescope acts more like a microscope by displaying small organisms inside an incubator. (see Figure 12) In [20], the Telescope construction is described as shown in Figure 13. Looking into the viewing tube (1) reveals the contents of the screen (2), which displays a processed video feed from a webcam located at the front of the body (3). The Telescope can be moved using the handles (4) which rotate the entire body section about the pivot of the tripod (5). The light switch on the right handle triggers a halogen lamp attached next to the webcam. The device allows zooming. For tracking, a digital compass (6) is attached to the underside of the viewing tube, and detects changes in the heading and pitch of the Telescope s upper section. Rotation of the tube is calculated from the roll of the compass as it is rotated by the viewing tube. The compass heading readings allowed a 360-degree range, whereas both pitch and roll were limited to ±40 degrees. Due to difficult lighting in the set up (the incubator was not illuminated all the time), the digital compass was the only mean for tracking (in opposite to marker, or vision based approaches). 6 Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Augmentation of Cultural Objects 49

54 Figure 13: Telescope at the One Rock exhibition Figure 14: Resulting image of the One Rock telescope These raised issues, because magnetic disturbances appeared and also the reading of the current compass position was rather slow, so it took some time, until augmented areas could be spotted by the spectator. The software, which has been developed, uses the Java Communications API to gain compass position information. It also provides the video handling and display service using the Java Media Framework API and OpenPTC graphics library. Augmented areas initially are surrounded by green rectangles to ease the spotting. When such a region comes into view, a video or image is rendered into the scene. Figure 14 shows the resulting image, when a user looks through the telescope. During the exhibition, the usage of the telescope has been monitored by external cameras and by simultaneously tracking the current position of the telescope to have a synchronized view of the image, which the user currently sees. A number of different aspects like Sharing and Stability, Viewing and vicinity, levels of engagement and transitions have been investigated. [20] The most interesting findings are listed in the following. Although initially it might look like a drawback, that only one person at a time can watch the scene through the telescope, the transition (hand over) of the device to somebody else, is relatively painless. With HMDs, the viewpoint cannot be maintained during the transition phase, which means that the next spectator will always view the scene from a different perspective. Moreover, if a target augmented region is not focused anymore, the new spectator might not even see the same information. Due to the separation of target and device there is space between the telescope and the viewed incubator the possibility of interference exists. People might walk into view for instance. The telescope system is not aware of this, and the augmented object still would be visible. This distracted visitors for a short moment, but the problem was quickly recognized by the spectators by looking up for a second. Afterwards they continued to watch the scene. 5 different levels of engagement have been identified in the setup: (a) Augmented user, (b) Disaugmented user: the user controlling/holding the device, but not looking through it, (c) Co-Visitor: standing nearby and related to the currently augmented user, (d) Observer: Other visitors grouped around the telescope, watching the augmented user, (e) Bystander: Those not currently engaged with the device or target. Collaboration among the different groups has been noticed to be an important part of the experience, and the roles have been exchanged repeatedly. This might be problematic with more permanently worn devices like HMDs. [20] TimeTraveller and TimeScope TimeTraveller and its successor TimeScope are commercial solutions with which the spectator can go back in time and view the visible area in front of the telescope like it has been in the past. (Figure 15) Little information about the used technologies has been published. What can be seen from the product descriptions of the different web pages of the developing companies WALL AG, ART+COM and büro+staudach [1][8][2], is the exterior design and the general functionality. (Figure 15) A 6.4 flat panel display is used, which is connected to an embedded PC with a VIA C3 processor. Instead of hard drives, flash memory acts as the mass data storage. Below the computer, a high precision rotary encoder measures the current pointing direction of the telescope with can be rotated by 120. In addition a cooling/heating unit is included in the housing. On the outside, a life cam (1) is used to gather the real image. Therefore, also a video see through approach is used. To the left and right of the binoculars (3), buttons are placed, with which the user can step back and forth in time (2). The housing is made of brushed stainless steel. 7 Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Augmentation of Cultural Objects 50

55 The TimeScope has been set up in Berlin and Munich. Sample pictures on the project web page indicate, that the device has also been used in indoor exhibitions, fairs or museums. In a special business model, WALL AG offers the telescope for free, when an advertising medium can be placed together with the telescope. Apart from that, the telescope can be purchased normally. Figure 15: TimeScope internals and design Figure 16: TimeScope view [2] Figure 17: AR telescope schema [22] As depicted in Figure 15, the telescope can only be rotated along its vertical axis no up and down movement is possible. By pressing the time-zoom buttons (Figure 15 2) images from different times in the past are displayed. These pictures completely replace the real image, but are placed at the exact same position. Additional interaction elements (Figure 15 6) may be used for further unspecified functionalities. Figure 16 shows the image as a spectator can view it through TimeScope. AR Telescope (XC-01) The AR telescope has been developed by D. Stricker et al. at the Fraunhofer IGD institute in Darmstadt, Germany. It also takes a video-see-through approach and is able to overlay the real world with geo-tags or 3d modeled objects. Figure 18 shows the device installed at one project at Grube Messel. A vandalism proof metal case contains a high resolution camera and an LCD display, a precise hardware tracking system, air conditioning and a coin-acceptor-unit. On the front, a camera records the real scene. Augmented with digital overlays, this scene is displayed on the LCD panel at the back of the telescope. Visualization is performed by a standard PC, which is mounted inside the basement plate of the device. The only thing needed for operation, is external power. Optionally, the XC-01 can be equipped with a coinaccept-unit, which starts the application as soon as the user places a coin inside. [21] For outdoor usage the device can also be equipped with an air-condition-unit. The XC-01 also solely relies on hardware sensors which gather information about the pointing direction of the device. [17] A standard software package has been adopted by IGD to create applications for the XC-01. This software package had to be purchased separately but will be shipped directly with the new version XC-02 (see following chapter). Using this software, simple objects like images, text and videos can be placed into the scene by using a drag and drop editor. A function which shall be performed for a certain tag, can be selected from a predefined pool of functions. [24] Such functions can be: Tracking configuration of the camera Animated or interactive scenarios Video and 2D animations Light simulation Occlusion objects 3D models can be provided in VRML format or in its successor, the X3D standard. The XC-01 has first been set up at in summer 2005 at the Grube Messel, an UNESCO Natural World Heritage Area near Darmstadt. They have developed an application to let 8 Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Augmentation of Cultural Objects 51

56 the visitor explore the site s fossils, geology and industrial history in an attractive and entertaining way. Figure 18 shows an example view of this application. [21, 12] Another installation has been located directly nearby the IGD institute, where the new building of the INI- GraphicsNet Foundation has been constructed. The telescope was used. Through the xc-01 visitors could see the final building in its real environment before it actually has been built. Behind the semi-transparent 3D model the progress of the construction can be seen live. When the construction has finished, the real building and the virtual one will have grown into each other. An example picture is provided in section OCCLUSION in Figure 5. [21] AR Telescope (XC-02) The XC-02 is a new version of the XC-01, which will be released in the beginning of Most of the information about this new version has been gathered through a phone conversation with Dr. Zöllner on Dec. 1 st, During the previous installations of the XC-01 the following findings could be made: 1) The tracking, which has solely been based on hardware tracking runs into problems, when the mounting of the telescope gets loose, for instance due to loosened screws. 2) Although built for robustness, and vandalism proof, the two movable elements (pivots) to rotate the telescope in horizontal and vertical direction are prone to heavy usage of the device. 3) Initial calibration and modeling must be done on-site, which raises project costs. IGD tried to tackle these shortcomings in the new version XC-02. The design of the telescope has been modified towards a periscope to reduce the number of externally accessible movable elements (Figure 19). A new vision based tracking mechanism, as described in [25] is now used in combination with the hardware sensors. This improves both shortcomings (tracking, calibration) mentioned above: Now, the modeling can be done off-site using panoramic images of the scene on which the tracker routine can be trained. Also, the device does not solely rely on the hardware sensor information and therefore the precision of these sensors is not that important anymore. The final position and pointing direction is gathered primarily by the vision based system, yet by means of sensor fusion, also the hardware sensors are still taken into account. Therefore, when the system is set up on its final location, it can nearly run out of the box with only minimal calibration efforts. The price for the XC-02 is not yet defined, but will be in the same range as the XC-01 (approx ), except the software shall now be included already in this price. According to Dr. Zöllner, a project timeframe of about 4 to 6 months is calculated by the IGD institute. The time primarily depends on the type of CG information, which shall be overlaid, While geo-tagging 1 is implemented rather easily (when the base material is provided by the customer), 3D models need more attention by nature. IGD has staff available to fine tune 3D-models provided by customers, in order to reduce complexity and optimize them for projection. If very detailed and textured 3D models shall be displayed, a special computer hardware might be necessary, to be able to cope with the computational requirements to correctly display the model in real time without (or with acceptable) latency. Taking the TimeScope at the side as one might argue, if it really is an augmented reality solution the AR telescope XC-02 seems to be the most mature device available. Figure 18: AR Telescope at Grube Messel [21] Figure 19: XC-02 Augmented reality telescope [24] 1 Geo-tagging: placing icons at certain positions within the scene, which can provide further information after activation. 9 Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Augmentation of Cultural Objects 52

57 FURTHER PROJECTS I have found some other projects related to mixed reality and the telescope metaphor. They have not been covered in more detail in this work. Either, because the projects do not have a scientific or commercial background, or the basic concept does not adhere to the stationary requirement. This moves the used concept of the developed devices more to the area of head mounted devices. Nevertheless, the projects, which have been found, are briefly listed in this chapter. Drift (artistic project) In [9], the artist Alex Davis presents an installation of a telescope on a ferry boat, with which the visitor can view the real-time 180 panorama. When the user examines different aspects of the environment, they are not only changing the spatial view, but also the temporal one. The project does not raise the claim to be scientific. Because of that fact, the aspects of augmented reality, tracking issues or the design of the telescope itself is not explained, if even tackled. Therefore, this project is only mentioned in short in this work. However one aspect of the installation is interesting in terms on user interaction: The user can control the time by rotating the telescope towards the back end of the ferry boat. The more the telescope is rotated in this direction, the more blurry becomes the view, and videos of the scene from the past are displayed in the telescope. Moving back towards the front of the craft, the time moves forward again and the real environment is shown. AugureScope Schnädelbach et al. developed the AugureScope, which is an augmented reality telescope, mounted on a movable platform. Therefore the same implications like on worn devices like HMDs apply. Similar to the GeoScope, the system also uses a macro display. Therefore, multiple visitors can use the AugureScope simultaneously in contrast to HMDs. They created real augmented reality applictions using avatars. [23] CONCLUSIONS We have seen some examples of AR devices which either use telescopes or at least take advantage of the telescope metaphor. In the following, the benefits of using the concept of telescopes are listed: As one can easily observe by the examples of TimeScope and AR telescope, the technology is mature enough, to be already available on the market and has some advantages compared to alternative augmented reality hardware, like head mounted devices. Especially, telescopes are stationary. This eases tracking issues, which are encountered in general, when dealing with freely movable devices. The user does not have to carry any equipment him/her. [5] The devices can be operated unattended from site staff. The metaphor of a telescope is well understood, so no detailed explanation is necessary on how to operate the device. Although a few drawbacks can also be identified: None of the investigated solutions provide a stereoscopic view of the scenery. This might be all right, because nobody would expect a stereo image when peeking through a telescope. In general (especially for outdoor usage) the target objects have a big distance to the spectator. The target object can only be viewed from one side it is not possible to move around the object to view it from a different perspective. This shortcoming can be reduced by placing multiple devices at different locations. Initially this might seem costly, but to be able to equip visitors of a cultural site with HMDs, for instance, this also requires a number of devices to be acquired. The majority of the investigated projects utilize hardware sensor tracking, which can be sufficient due to the fact that the investigated telescopes all have had a fixed position (at least during one session). However, with the recent progress in image based tracking, these technologies could be used together with the hardware based tracking to improve the robustness of The projects, in which the devices have been tested by the originators, are (partly) comparable to the project Burgenbau in Friesach. In particular - placing augmented reality telescopes at the surrounding of the castle, which will be built, seems to be feasible and therefore interesting. REFERENCES 1. ART+COM AG and WALL AG. Timescope, last accessed on ART+COM AG. TimeScope brochure, Berlin, 2005, available from 2_pro_timescope/timescope_e.pdf, last accessed on Azuma R. A Survey of Augmented Reality. In Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, volume 6, , August 1997, also available from https://eprints.kfupm.edu.sa/21390/, last accessed on Bimber, O. and Raskar, R Modern approaches to augmented reality. In ACM SIGGRAPH 2006 Courses (Boston, Massachusetts, July 30 - August 03, 2006). SIGGRAPH '06. ACM, New York, NY 10 Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Augmentation of Cultural Objects 53

58 5. Bleser G., Becker, M. and Stricker, D. Real-time visionbased tracking and reconstruction, In Journal of realtime image processing 2 (2007), Nr.2-3, S , Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany. 6. Brenner C., Paelke V., Haunert J. and Ripperda N. The GeoScope - A Mixed-Reality System for Planning and Public Participation. In UDMS'06, Proc. of the 25th Urban Data Management Symposium, Aalborg, Brenner C. and Paelke, V. Das GeoScope - Ein Mixed- Reality-Ein-Ausgabegerät für die Geovisualisierung. In Aktuelle Entwicklungen in Geoinformation und Visualisierung, GEOVIS 2006, Kartographische Schriften Band 10, Kirschbaum Verlag. Potsdam, April 2006, 8. büro+staubach. TimeTraveller and TimeScope, last accessed on Davis A. Drift (Project Website). available from last accessed on Fabien Chéreau. Stellarium. available from Fritz F., Susperregui A. and Linaza M.T. Enhancing Cultural Tourism experiences with Augmented Reality Technologies, In The 6th International Symposium on Virtual Reality, Archaeology and Cultural Heritage VAST (2005), M. Mudge, N. Ryan, R. Scopigno (Editors), Pisa, Italy, 2005, also available from VAST2005/shortpapers/short2005.pdf 12. Grube Messel project web page. last accessed on Kiyokawa K., Kurata Y. and Ohno H. An Optical Seethrough Display for Enhanced Augmented Reality, u.ac.jp/~kiyo/cr/kiyokawa gi2000/kiyokawa GI2000.pdf, last accessed on Lintu A. and Magnor M. An Augmented Reality System for Astronomical Observations. IN IEEE Virtual Reality 2006, pp , IEEE, Piscataway, USA, March Lintu A. and Magnor M. Augmented Astronomical Telescope - project web page, last accessed on Lintu A. and Magnor M. Augmented Astronomical Telescope. In Virtuelle und erweiterte Realität: 2. Workshop der GI-Fachgruppe VR/AR, Aachen, Germany, 2005, also available from last accessed on Lutz B., Roth D., Weidenhausen J., Mueller P., Gora S., Vereenooghe T., Stricker D. and Van Gool, L. EPOCH Showcase: On Site Experience. In 5th International Symposium on Virtual Reality, Archaeology and Intelligent Cultural Heritage - VAST2004, Brussels, Belgium, December 2004, also available from D2.4.1-Showcases.pdf, last accessed on MEADE LX200 Product Description. Available from /pdf_datasheet.php?products_id=2002&oscsid= bb1020b1d276cb09051b04d17, last accessed on Milgram P., Takemura H., Utsumi A. and Kishino F. Augmented Reality: A class of displays on the realityvirtuality continuum, In SPIE Vol. 2351, Telemanipulator and Telepresence Technologies, pp , Reeves S., Fraser M., Schnädelbach H., O Malley C. and Steve Benford. Engaging augmented reality in public places. In Adjunct proceedings of SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems CHI 2005, ACM Press, April Stricker, D. Virtualität und Realität. In Games and Edutainment Nr , INI-GraphicsNet, Darmstadt, 2005, available from h/games/games_2005.pdf, last accessed on Stricker, D. Virtual and Augmented Reality Lecture Notes, Fraunhofer IGD, 2008, available from semester_2008.pdf, last accessed on Schnädelbach H., Koleva B., Flintham M., Fraser M. and Chandler P. The Augurscope: A Mixed Reality Interface for Outdoors, In Proc. CHI 2002, pp. 1-8, ACM Press, April Tourismus Medien Produktion. Product web page of the XC-01 and XC-02 AR Telescope, 2007, last accessed on Zoellner M., Pagani A., Pastarmov Y., Wuest H. and Stricker D. Reality Filtering: A Visual Time Machine in Augmented Reality. In The 9th International Symposium on Virtual Reality, Archaeology and Cultural Heritage VAST (2008) 26. Zoellner M., Stricker D. and Bockholt U. AR Telelescope - Taking Augmented Reality to a large Audience. COMPUTER GRAPHIK topics, 17(1):19 20, 2005, also available from last accessed on Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Augmentation of Cultural Objects 54

59 Interactive museum guides: Identification and recognition techniques of objects and images Guntram Kircher Waldhorngasse 17, A-9020 Klagenfurt ABSTRACT In this paper I outline the questions: Why do we need image and object recognition regarding cultural artifacts? What is required for image/object recognition and identification respectively what techniques make sense? What possibilities are there to enhance the interaction between the user and the images and objects in the case of identification? First of all there will be described the different fields of application of such interactive museum guides and image recognition in general, confirmed with a state of the art example. Afterwards the paper will give an overview of different image/object recognition techniques for instance the SURF or SIFT algorithm. Then also some identification techniques like RFID will be discussed. Furthermore the advantages and disadvantages of the techniques will be identified. The third part of the paper will discuss different possibilities to enhance the interaction between the visitor and the objects of interest. There will be presented also a study of the institute FIT, which analyzes a museum guide on the user s point of view. Author Keywords Image recognition, object recognition, object identification, SURF, SIFT, RFID, barcodes, visual code INTRODUCTION These days it is necessary for museums to look at new technologies and possibilities to enhance the attractiveness of their cultural artifacts. [4] This is important, because many museums present their exhibits in a rather passive and non-engaging way. Often it is very difficult for the museum visitor to get the information of interest. Moreover, the information found does not always meet the specific interest of the visitor. [1] One of these new technologies is the task of finding correspondences between two images of the same scene or object. In this context the paper describe the SURF and the SIFT algorithm to demonstrate such a technology. [5] The possibility to identify objects of interest is an important requirement for any tour guides. The idea is to reproduce the act of pointing to an object like a building, statue or image and not to ask a human tour guide: what is that? [3] Such a technology is the field of object identification. Therefore this paper discusses some techniques like barcodes, optical card readers and RFID. THE NEEDS OF IMAGE/OBJECT RECOGNITION AND IDENTIFICATION The needs can be divided in many different domains like the industrial, military, medicine and the every day life domain. In the industrial sector it is useful to be able to automatically inspect manufactured components such as machine parts, food products etc. The military sector wants to have a possibility to automatically recognize weapons systems such as planes, ships, tanks, missiles etc. and be able to differ between friend and opponent. In the medicine sector it would be very useful to be able to automatically diagnose diseases and also automatically interpret medical images like X-ray, CAT scan etc. The last domain is the every day life domain, which is discussed in this paper. In this sector it would be nice to have a system where you can interact with images and objects regarding cultural artifacts such as buildings, statue and pictures. [4] To demonstrate this domain, I would like to present the Phone Guide, which was developed by the Bauhaus-University Weimar in Germany. This guide uses camera equipped mobile phones with an on device object recognition. The main technical achievement of this guide is a simple object recognition approach. They carry out all computations directly on the phone. Thereby the costs for online times will be decreased and there is no network traffic. As you can see it is very important for museums to communicate the information of cultural artifacts to the visitor. Mostly you can find audio guides as a mobile device for museum visitors. These devices have some disadvantages like it can presented only auditory information or the user has to look up and type in the identification number of the object. [2] 1 Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Augmentation of Cultural Objects 55

60 REQUIREMENTS OF IMAGE AND OBJECT RECOGNITION To extract information there is often used the tool of digital imaging. There are three areas of digital imaging: Image Processing Computer Graphics Machine Vision Image processing is concerned with improving the appearance of an image. Some examples in this context are filtering out noise, correcting for distortion, improving contrast etc. so that the image can be better understood. [4] It helps us to understand the vast amount of data acquired everyday in real life scenarios. Image processing can be used to highlight the differences and make it easier for a human being to detect the cancer from the image. Another application might be to restore an old film that has been damaged by dust and decay. [11] The second area is concerned with creating an image of a scene, object or phenomena and it is given a description of the scene, object or phenomena. [4] This field deals with the problem of image synthesis. The process of producing the image data from the scene model is called rendering. Image synthesis includes the physics of light, properties of material etc. Then there are also animated imagery, which includes simulation theory, finite element analysis, kinematics, sampling theory and other mathematically based fields. Computer graphics is very closely connected to the area of mathematics. [7] The third area is the machine vision which tries to create a description of a scene, object or phenomena and gives an image of the scene, object or phenomena. [4] It aims to duplicate human vision by electronically perceiving and understanding an image. Furthermore machine vision is the construction of explicit, meaningful descriptions of physical objects from images. Moreover it consists of techniques for estimating features in images, relating feature measurements to the geometry of objects in space and interpreting this geometric information. [10] images or objects. This is done, in order to recognize images or objects of interest very fast. These interst points are selected at distinctive locations in the image, such as corners, blobs, and T-junctions. It approaches or even outperformes previously proposed shemes with respect to repeatability, distinctiveness and robustness. The algorithm achieves this goals through using integral images for image convolutions. Furthermore it builds on the strenghts of the leading existing descriptors. Moreover the SURF algorithm simplifies these methods to the most important points. Figure 1: Gaussian derivatives with box filters First of all the algorithm constructs a circular region around the detected points of interest for the purpose of assigning a unique orientation to the gain invariance to image rotations. In figure 2 in the middle is the Haar wavelet filters shown. Figure 2: Left: detected points of interest; Middle Haar wavelet filter; Right: size of the descriptor window at different scales. On the left side, there is a homogeneous region, all values are relatively low. [1] TECHNIQUES OF IMAGEA AND OBJECT RECOGNITION The search for discrete image correspondences can be grouped into three steps. In the first step points of interest are selected at distinctive location in the image like corners, blobs and T-junctions. In the second step the neighbor of every point of interest is presented by a feature vector. In the third step the descriptors vectors are matched between different images. This matching is often the distance between two vectors. SURF (SPEEDED-UP ROBUST FEATURE) The first technique, which will be presented in the paper, is the SURF (Speeded-Up Robust Feature) algorithm. This algorithm is a performant scale- and rotation invariant interest point detector and descriptor. With this algorithm it will be tried to find the most important interest points of There are also some different versions of SURF available. These versions are SURF-64 and some other alternatives like SURF-36 and SURF-128 and the upright counterparts like U-SURF-64, U-SURF-36 and U-SURF-128. The difference between SURF and its variants exists in the dimension of the descriptor. SURF-36 has only 3x3 subregions. SURF-128 is an extended version of SURF for example. The very fast matching speed of the algorithm is achieved by a single step added to the indexing based on the sign of the Laplacian of the interest point. This minimal information approves to almost double the matching speed, as it has already been computed in the interest point detection step. The main advantage of the algorithm is the speed and the rate of recognition.[1] Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Augmentation of Cultural Objects 56

61 SIFT (SCALE INVARIANT FEATURE TRANSFORM) The algorithm was developed by the canadian academic David G. Lowe. This method is as far as possible invariant relative to the variations of the of the image or the object. The algorithm originates from the computer vision. The field of application is the photogrammetry for assignments of images. The algorithm consists of four major stages: scale-space peak selection, key point localization, orientation assignment and key point descriptor. In the first stage potential interest points are identified by scanning the image over location and scale. Then key points are identified to sub-pixel accuracy and eliminated if found to be unstable.[8] are robust against scaling, rotation and partially robust against a change of the lightning conditions. A disadvantage of the algorithm is definitely the speed. [8] Some experimental results have shown that the newer SURF-algorithm was faster and better at the rate of recognition the objects of interest. [1] TECHNIQUES OF AUTOMATIC OBJECT IDENTIFICATION In the next few years the usage of computers will further expand. In this connection everybody should think about the chance, that several techniques based on multimedia, internet and other communication instrument. The techniques, which can be summarized with the name autoid, as techniques for automatically identification of objects. In our context I will present the RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) technique, the barcode technique and the visual code technique. Some other techniques, like techniques of the biometry and card reader techniques are not presented in this context, because for the theme of cultural heritage it is not so interesting. Figure 3: This figure shows the stages of key point selection. (a) The 233x189 pixel original image. (b) The initial 832 key point s locations at maxima and minima of the difference-of- Gaussian function. Key points are displayed as vectors indicating scale, orientation, and location. (c) After applying a threshold on minimum contrast, 729 key points remain. (d) The final 536 key points that remain following an additional threshold on ratio of principal curvatures. [9] In the third stage the dominant orientations for each key point based on its local image patch are identified. [8] The final stage constructs a local image descriptor for each key point. The patch has been centered about the key point s location, rotated on the basis of its dominant orientation and scaled to the appropriate size. The goal is a compact, highly distinctive and yet robust to changes in illumination and camera viewpoint descriptor. The standard SIFT key point descriptor is important in several respects, namely the representation is carefully designed to avoid problems due to the boundary effects, it is compact, expressing the patch of pixels using a 128 element vector, and the representation is resilient to deformations such as those caused by perspective effects. On the other hand this descriptor is complicated and the choices behind its specific design are not clear. Another maybe better approach to reduce the complexity of the standard SIFT descriptor is the PCA- SIFT descriptor. The descriptor has the same input as the standard SIFT descriptor. The main advantage of the SIFTalgorithm is the robustness. That means that the key points RFID (RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION) RFID is a technique of object identification, which transmits identity of an object wirelessly, using radio waves. In our case the objects are the cultural artifacts. The identity is given in a unique serial number. Moreover it is a subset of Auto-ID technologies, such as barcodes, optical card readers and some biometric technologies. The basic concept of the technology has a reader and a RFID tag. The reader is a device that emits radio waves and receives signals back from the tag. The tag is a microchip attached to a radio antenna and is mounted on an underlying layer. Some advantages of RFID are: Non-line-of-sight(possibly built into or placed inside containers) Long range Many tags read out at once Robust (not as fragile as a printed bar code) Gives a path from simple identification of objects to locating objects Almost cheap as a printed barcode There are two main categories of RFID systems, namely the active RFID system and the passive RFID system. The active RFID tags have their own transmitter and power source and are write-once or rewriteable. The system broadcasts a signal to transmit the data stored on the microchip using a power source. The passive system do not have an own transmitter and a power source. It is also write-once or rewriteable. The system reflects back radio waves coming from the reader antenna. One interesting task regarding our context of cultural heritage is the Mobile RFID. Here a mobile phone is used as RFID reader. The figure 4 shows an example of an application of this task. 3 Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Augmentation of Cultural Objects 57

62 books, and even luggage is tagged at the airport. The technique was invented in 1949 by Bernard Silver and Norman Woodland. Barcodes were not used in retail business until 1967 when the first barcode scanner was installed by RCA in a Kroger store in Cincinnati. The principle technique of barcodes is to encode alphanumeric characters in bars of varying widths. It is used a one dimensional coding scheme. The height of the barcode provides added redundancy to the system, when parts of the system are damaged. For example the UPC code contains a code indicating the manufacturer of the product and a number that identifies the product family and product. There is no price information included, but product information is passed after scanning to the in-store product database and the appropriate price is retrieved. The code includes twelve numbers from 0-9. Here the first eleven digits are data and the last one is a check digit to ensure that the scanning was correct. Smaller products can only have eight digits. Each digit of the code is encoded using two bars and two spaces. Figure 5 shows an example of an UPC barcode. Figure 4: an example of ticket purchasing service using mobile RFID When you assign this example to our domain, it should be possible to purchase tickets for several museums and instead of the poster you can think of a cultural artifact with an RFID tag. So the user gets information about the object of interest directly on his or her private mobile phone. There exists also several RFID standards like the ISO (for contact-less systems), ISO (for vicinity systems, such as ID badges), and ISO (to specify the air interface for a variety of RFID applications. Another one is the EPC standard, which was developed by EBCglobal. This standard is used for product identification. [12] The main advantage of RFID systems is that no intervisibility is required. It is also a very robust system, which means that the transponders can be read although there are interferences like snow, fog, dirtiness or other structural difficult conditions. Another advantage is the speed of a RFID system. There can be achieved a speed of less than 100 millisecond. [14] Certainly there are also disadvantages of RFID systems. The main disadvantage is that the purchasing of such a system is expensive. Furthermore it is time-consuming, when the system is introduced. [15] Especially data protection specialists are very careful, because when RFID chips will be produced in a bulky way, the people can be controlled, since it is possible to localize the individual person. [16] Figure 5: UPC barcode VISUAL CODES Visual codes are one- or two-dimensional symbols, which will be added on the interesting objects as visual tags. The information will be stored visual and through taking a picture this information can be interpreted. BARCODES In the world around us barcodes have become very omnipresent. The most common barcodes are the Universal Product Codes (UPC). This is used to tag merchandise in the local grocery stores. Other examples are seen on library Figure 6: process of visual code In the first step on the left side of the picture the code will be converted into a binary code. The next step is to find the datum line. Afterwards the edges to balance the noise will be identified. Finally the information will be read out. Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Augmentation of Cultural Objects 58

63 There are two possible variations of visual codes, namely the active code, which is shown on the display and the passive code, which is imprinted. The advantages of this technique are that it is cheap, everywhere applicable and there is no extra technique necessary. The disadvantages of the technique are that there is less memory available and environmental conditions can be problematic. [13] POSSIBILITIES TO ENHANCE THE INTERACTION BETWEEN THE USER AND THE OBJECT OF INTEREST To introduce this chapter I want to give a state of the art example of an application, which enhances the interaction between the user and the objects of interest. This application is called the interactive museum guide and this guide was developed by the Computer Vision Laboratory in Zürich. The object recognition system was implemented on a Tablet PC using a simple USB webcam for image acquisition, which can be seen in Figure 7. With this device the visitor can simple take a picture of an object of interest from any position and then it is a description of the object presented on the screen. Figure 7: Tablet PC with USB webcam An early prototype of this museum guide was shown to the public during the 150 anniversary celebration of the Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zürich, Switzerland. There is also installed a synthetic computer voice on the tablet PC, which reads out the information on the screen. So the user can focus on the object and has not to read the information on the screen. For demonstration they choose 20 objects of the Landesmuseum in Zürich. The object recognition system, which is used by this device, is based on the SURF algorithm, which was presented before. The visitor of the museum takes a picture of the object and so the object of interest is identified. [1] Until now the interaction happens between the user and for example the mobile end-device. Because of the further development of technologies some new interaction possibilities occur, which allows the interaction with the real environment. The real environment can be devided in physical objects like images or statues, room and location and creatures. The goal of the interaction is to find out more about these real objects of interest. There are some different possibilities to interact with the object of interest. The first possibility is the direct entry. During this alternative proceeds no direct interaction between the user and the object. The objects are assigned to a unique identification like an id-number. The user type the identification of the object manual in the device. Another possibility is the acoustical interaction with the object. In this case an acoustical signal is sent. The object can interpret the received signal. The next alternative is the camera based interaction with the object. There are two possibilities, how to use the camera. The first one is the continuous video recording and the second one is to photograph the interesting object. Furthermore there exist two different technologies. At first there is the pure image recognition. Therefore it can be used a PDA with a wlan card and an integrated webcam. Often some problems occur like that the photograph will not be identified, because of the location and the lightning conditions. The second one is the camera based interaction with visual codes. In the year 2005 Elliot Malkin started the digital Graffitiprojekt. In this project every station of the closed Third Avenue tramway had a visual code. The visitors could take a picture of the visual code and heard true stories about the location. Moreover the user had also the possibility to consign experiences. A further alternative is the display interaction with active visual codes. An example is a soda machine and therefore I think it is not so important in our context. The next alternative is much more interesting in our context of cultural artifacts, namely the scanning of the environment. An example in this context is a PDA using a RFID reader. More real objects can be collected in one environment and it is also possible to localize this objects. Furthermore tags can be used, which permits the interaction from afar. The next application is to point to a far object of interest. There is a prototype known, called ScanMe, which has integrated a laser pointer. The objects of interest can be equipped with a sensory chip, which reacts to the laser pointer. The problem of this method is the aiming accuracy. The last method is the nearly contact with the interesting object. Again technologies such as RFID can be used. A possible application is the known handy ticketing for bus or tramway. In our context I think it is very difficult, because you have nearly contact to the objects and many cultural artifacts are very sensitive like the image of the Mona Lisa. [13] The next section deals with two studies of a museum guide, which will be tested for usefulness and usability. The first study was focused on the comparison of a sub-notebookversion with conventional media. The second alternative tested a PDA for the visit of the museum. The prototype, which was used for this study, was the system called Hippie. This system was developed of the institute FIT and some other project partner. In the first study they used the mobile device Toshiba Libretto 100. The handling of this device was very difficult, but at this time ( ) it was the smallest device on the market. The second study 5 Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Augmentation of Cultural Objects 59

64 used a PDA device. For the first study 60 people, who were invited in a museum in Bonn, made the tests. Twothirds of the invited people were between the age of 20 to 39 and one-thirds was between 60 and 69. The other conventional media were an audio guide and a booklet. First of all the results of the study with the sub-notebook will be presented. On a scale (1=never, 5=always) was tested, how well the information could be found and how long they needed for the job processing. It was shown that in this case the sub-notebook was inferior. The table 1 illustrates the results again. characteristic notebook Audioguide booklet Information 3,55 4,70 4,50 found at first go Processing time (min) Table 1: effort of the different media Than it was tested how effective the information was communicated. This test was relatively balanced between the media. The table 2 illustrates the results: characteristic notebook Audioguide booklet Achieved points 22,9 22,6 22,8 Points relative to the time 1,19 1,65 1,58 Table 2: effectively of information brokerage in points Another interesting test was the question of the applicability of the media. The notebook was evaluated worst. The results are illustrated in the next table. characteristic notebook Audioguide booklet Applicability 3,53 2,35 1,93 for art exhibition Preference for use 12% 43% 30% Table 3: effectively of information brokerage in points The test of the handling was also very negative for the notebook. The two other conservative media differed not really. The booklet was the winner at this test. The main result of this first study was that the average visitor with the electronically system was less satisfied than with the audio guide and the booklet. This was explained with the bad handling of the notebook. The handling of the functionality was not easy enough for using it at a museum visit. At the further development of the system the hardware was changed. In place of the sub-notebook, they used a PDA for the museum guide and made further tests with the new input device. Also new test people were invited. This time were only 7 people between the ages of 20 to 30 invited. The attention of the users was focused predominant on the exhibit and only 41% of the attention was focused on the PDA. Here the fast understanding of the device played an n important role. Furthermore the use of the PDA during the visit was easy, the handling with the device had not stressed, and only the manual input was felt as disturbance. The comparison between the four media, namely the PDA, audio-guide, booklet and guidance, provided other results than the results with the sub-notebook. The PDA alternative was in all categories the winner unless the simplicity of use. The table 4 illustrates the results of this test. characteristic PDA Audio - booklet Guidance guide Support of 2,0 2,4 3,6 3,3 enjoyment Handling 2,4 2,8 2,6 1,6 Examination deepen Spark interest in cultural artifacts Applicability for cultural exhibit 2,0 3,0 3,3 2,4 2,6 2,8 3,4 3,0 1,9 2,4 3,4 2,9 Table 4: Evaluation of the PDA alternative Concluding it is evident that the use of input devices with easy handling and object identification can be a very good possibility for museums to make the visit of the museum more attractive and interesting.[17] CONCLUSION AND OUTLOOK In this paper, I described the requirements, functionalities, possibilities and technologies of several interactive museum guides. There have also presented a fast and performant point detection scheme. [5] Furthermore some alternatives for improving the interaction of the user to the object in case of identification of the object of interest were given. At the end of the paper a study was presented, where some input devices were compared. The study was not the newest one, but I think it showed the trend of using interactive museum guides in the future. The most important points for such guides are the simpleness in handling, the usability, the quickness and the grade of automation of the system. Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Augmentation of Cultural Objects 60

65 Finally the recognition rate decrease with an increasing number of objects. In future it is possible to investigate the combination of on-mobile devices object recognition with a grid of local emitters, like infra-red, Bluetooth or RFID. Another possibility is to investigate the capabilities of the high recognition performance. [2] Future tour guides, I think mostly they will be on a mobile device, should support both exploratory and browsing modes of information discovery. The systems should answer two main questions, namely What is that? and What is here? [3] Oppermann R.: Ein nomadischer Museumsführer aus Sicht der Benutzer. (2003) REFERENCES 1. Bay H., Fasel B., Van Gool L.: Interactive Museum Guide: Fast and Robust Recognition of Museum Objects. (2006) 2. Föckler P., Zeidler T., Brombach B., Bruns E., Bimber O.: PhoneGuide: Museum Guidance Supported by On- Device Object Recognition on Mobile Phones. (2005) 3. Davis N., Cheverest K., Dix A., Hesse A.: Understanding the Role of Image Recognition in Mobile Tour Guides. (2005) 4. Rome J.: Introduction to Image Recognition. (2002) 5. Bay, H., Tuytelaars, T., Van Gool, L.: SURF: Speeded up robust features. In: ECCV. (2006) 6. Sali S.: Image Recognition on Mobile Phones. (2007) 7. Howland J. E.: Computer Graphics; Department of computer science; Trinity University (2005). 8. Ke Y., Suktthankar R., : PCA-SIFT: A more distinctive representation for local image descriptors. (2004). 9. Lowe D. G. : Distinctive Image Features from Scale- Invariant Keypoints. (2004). 10. COMP3411/9414: Computer Vision; School of Computer Science and Engineering. 11. Bollinger B. J.: Digital Image Processing Image Processing and Restoration; Departement of Electrical and Computer Engineering; University of Tennessee; (2007). 12. Stevanovic S.: Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) (2007). 13. Aust J.: Mobile Interaktionen und Mobile Medien Mobile Interaktion mit der realen Umwelt (2005). 14. Brooks automation GMBH: 15. Ludwig Maximilian Universität München: ys/sebastian-loehmann.xhtml 7 Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Augmentation of Cultural Objects 61

66 Photorealistic vs. non-photorealistic rendering in AR applications Manfred A. Heimgartner, Bakk. Student Laudonstraße 35a, 9020 Klagenfurt ABSTRACT In this paper two general approaches to rendering AR applications are shown and examined: a photorealistic and a non-photorealistic approach. The photorealistic approach tries to create virtual objects which are similar to real world objects by applying plastic shading, very realistic shadowing and textures including bump mapping for the simulation of surface roughness. The non-photorealistic approach on the other hand focuses on decreasing the detail level of the real world image so that virtual objects don t have to be extremely detailed. Usually shadows and lighting are as important and detailed as in a photorealistic approach but details like textures and bump mapping are reduced in detail. AR images are then often stylized cartoony or like paintings. Last some implications for the project "Burgbau zu Friesach" are given. Author Keywords AR, photorealistic, non-photorealistic, rendering, shading, shadowing, lighting, bump mapping, cartoon style, watercolor style, painted style. model realistically and fitting to the surrounding, or reducing the details and realistic look of the model as well as the environment [7]. A common method to reduce detail in non-photorealistic rendering (NPR) is to create a hand drawn or comic-like look which is called cel-shading or toon shading (see figure 1) [5]. Although when creating an NPR look of an object, details like lighting, texturing and shadowing are still very important but can be done less detailed and/or without special techniques like bumpmapping. The basis of an appropriate virtual object is of course the accurate measurement and construction of a 3D model, for example with 3D scanners, time-of-flight scanning or triangulation [4]. Once the model is available, the work on the details of an either realistic or non-realistic look can begin. INTRODUCTION The digitalization of objects or buildings is a quite complex task. But once a 3D model is available, it is also very important that virtual object fits into the real environment including (partial) buildings/objects. Generally, this can be either done by creating a very realistic look of the virtual object alone i.e. by shading/lighting, shadows, texturing and bump-mapping the Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. To copy otherwise, or republish, to post on servers or to redistribute to lists, requires prior specific permission and/or a fee. Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme WS07/08, January, 2008, Klagenfurt, Austria Copyright 2008 Klagenfurt University...$5.00. Figure 1. Comparison of realistic plastic shader and cartoony cel-shading.[13] 1 Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Digitalization Techniques 62

67 PHOTOREALISTIC RENDERING (PR) To recreate an object realistically, there are many different aspects that have to be concerned. The shading creates a three-dimensional look to the object [7]. Next a correct shadow that may overlap with other virtual and non virtual objects has to be created. These two techniques are of course even more challenging in outdoor scenarios, where the light comes from a different angle, depending on the current daytime. Another important aspect are the right textures for the model and maybe even add so-called bump mapping which simulates realistic surfaces like walls with roughness and dents. Shading When the 3D-Model of an object is available, one of the first steps to create a realistic look is to add shading to the model (see figure 2). Plastic shading ultimately creates a quite realistic threedimensional look of a model by adding lighting information from a specific source direction to it and thus also creating a kind of self-shadow. Real World Virtual World Real Object R R Shadow R V Shadow Virtual Object V R Shadow V V Shadow Table 1 Types of Virtual Shadows[9] The classification also implies that there can be two different light sources a real and a virtual one. Haller [7] extended this classification by merging the real and virtual light source to one single light source and thus also merging the RV and VR Shadow into one type. Also he added a new type, which is cast in Augmented Reality applications where one light source causes real and virtual shadows which are cast on real and virtual objects likewise. He developed a real-time shadow volume algorithm that can be used in Augmented and Mixed Reality applications with already good results. Shadows are rendered quite realistically, whether they are cast by virtual or on virtual and real objects (see figure 3). The first image shows a relatively simple VR Shadow the shadow is cast by the virtual object on a real object at the same angle the real shadow is cast by the real object. The other three images show the combination of virtual and real shadows, having one common light source and quite realistically overlapping with each other. Figure 2. Object in different stages of shading.[1] Shadowing Creating a realistic shadow can be quite challenging, especially in outdoor scenarios with large virtual objects that may cast a shadow on other virtual and real objects as well as vice versa. Naemura et al. [9] considered four types of Virtual Shadows, as seen in table 1. Figure 3. Examples of different Virtual Shadows, created with the real-time shadow volume algorithm. [7] 2 Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Digitalization Techniques 63

68 The shadows are not 100 % accurate - mixed shadows are still tricky, for example the virtual shadow is completely cast although the virtual object is partially covered by a real object. But the algorithm is already more than sufficient to create a good illusion of realistic shadowing in AR applications. To further create a realistic shadow in outdoor AR applications the solar altitude needs to be known. A common approach to do this is the method of Image Based Lighting (IBL) [11]. Bump Mapping Furthermore to reduce the need hardware power, not every little detail should be taken into account for the virtual model. For example carved surfaces don t have to be realized by really modeling them but can be shown by creating a proper texture [8]. A very effective way to have textures look like they are having a structure, bumps and scratches is bump mapping [7]. This technique really adds a lot of realism to images without really adding much geometry (see figure 5). An omni-directional photograph of the real scene (environmental map, see figure 4) is taken and each pixel is then associated a directional value, which is interpreted as the amount of light that is coming from that direction. Figure 4 Environmental mapping formats[11] There are different ways to acquire such images, common methods are using a fish-eye lens, using spherical cameras or taking a number of pictures and then sticking them together. Texturing Another important aspect of a realistic look is the use of adequate textures. Often a texture consists of a rather small graphic "tile" which is then tiled on the surface of the model. With modern graphics hardware, the maximum texture size is between 2048x2048px and 8192x8192px, depending on the video card of course. For relatively simple AR-objects current mid-end hardware equipment should be more than sufficient as simple surfaces like bricks or stonewalls should already look very good with smaller tile sizes like 256x256px or 512x512px. To realistically illuminate and texture large objects in outdoor scenarios two promising methods have been proposed by Trocolli and Allen [12]. As the two approaches a very formal and mathematical I refrain from explaining them in this paper and refer to their paper. Figure 5. Example of Bump Mapping notice that the wall model itself has a flat surface, only the bump-mapped texture creates the look of stones with deep splices[2] NON-PHOTOREALISTIC RENDERING (NPR) NPR basically shares the same graphic techniques with PR. Objects are shaded and often also correctly shadowed, textured and maybe even bump-mapped. The big distinction however is the type of shading. Whereas PR relies on plastic shading with realistic and detailed three-dimensional appearance, NPR tries to reduce the details and also even reduces the degree of detail in the real environment (for example see figure 6). Nowadays more and more algorithms which create a NPR look (like filters for simulating pen & ink, water color or impressionistic images) can be processed in real-time [7]. NPR is often used in AR when abstract information that is not representable or a special detail needs to be described. For example the presentation of a complex machine, where some special parts should be highlighted, benefits from the abstraction of unneeded details and different visualisation of the important details. On the other hand this technique is of course less useful in applications where the detail of the image is important like medical or security-crucial scenarios [5]. 3 Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Digitalization Techniques 64

69 Figure 7. Overview of the painterly filter.[6] Figure 6. NPR-Filter used in the movie "A Scanner Darkly"[10] Common styles in NPR for AR applications are cartoonlike, sketched-like [6] and painted- [7] or watercolored-like [3]. To render the virtual objects again two steps are needed. Silhouette Rendering creates a Silhouette Model of the object (again with distinct edges) and Non-linear Shading applies the right three-dimensional look between the too simple no Shading and too realistic Plastic Shading. Cartoon-/sketched-like stylization Basically the method by Fischer et al. [6] consists of the application of a painterly filter for the camera image and NPR of the virtual object. The painterly filter performs two separate steps (see figure 7), resulting in two different images. In one step the degree of detail of the real world image is dramatically reduced by generating large, uniformly colored regions through basic color segmentation. The other step again consists of two steps, first high-contrast edges are detected and then a postprocessing filter is applied to generate thick lines for the stylized look. After these steps the two images are merged and the painterly filter completed. If the sketched-like stylization is needed, the step of color segmentation will be skipped, resulting in an image with white background and black silhouettes. Figure 8. Comparison of conventional AR, cartoon-like stylization and sketch-like stylization.[6] Painted-like stylization The basis for the method of Haller [7] is the rendering technique Painterly Rendering for Animation by B. J. Meier which has been modified by them to support real-time environments by using modern 3D hardware and can be divided into at least three steps. Before the rendering can start there is a pre-processing step in which the polygon meshes are converted into 3D particles. Next the rendering starts with at least two passes. 4 Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Digitalization Techniques 65

70 In the first pass, two reference images with color and depth information are rendered and stored into textures by an arbitrary rendering algorithm. In the third step, and second pass, an optimal amount of brushstrokes is rendered by using billboards. Reference pictures from the first pass are then used to define color and visibility and the surface normal determines the orientation of each stroke. As generating a new pattern for each frame was too hardware-expensive at that time (the test system was a 2.2 GHz CPU with an nvidia G7950 GPU) the re-tiling was only done every 10 frames. Figure 9. Comparison of Van Gogh s Bedroom original painting and painterly-rendered simulation. [7] Watercolored-like stylization Chen et al. [3] propose in their paper of rendering AR scenes by using Voronoi diagrams (see figure 10) to simulate watercolor effects, adjusting the cells along strong silhouette edges to maintain visual coherence at a relatively low temporal cost. Figure 11. Example of a watercolor-stylized image. [3] CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THE PROJECT "BURGBAU ZU FRIESACH" The possibilities in rendering AR applications are quite manifold. At first the main question is of course if a more realistic and detailed or less realistic and even cartoony rendering approach is appropriate (and technically possible with the hardware available). Generally with today s hardware the possibilities are vast and (maybe with some cutbacks in the display of fine details) the augmentation of even very detailed structures should be no problem. Figure 10. Simple Voronoi diagram with easy-to-distinguish colored regions. [3] The method can be divided into three steps. First the image is tiled with a Voronoi diagram and colored based on the original image. Next the dark strokes that highlight object silhouettes in watercolor paintings simulated by detecting and drawing strong edges in the image. Then to maintain the visual coherence in the images the Voronoi cells are retiled along the strong edges in the scene and thus a new Voronoi diagram is created otherwise the output video would have an undesired "shower door" look. This also simulates color bleeding between the regions because the cells will overlap two regions that are separated by an edge. Project "Burgbau zu Friesach" aims at augmenting a castle ruin, especially showing how castles were build in former times and how the complete buildings would look like. As the project seems to have an emphasis on historical correctness the approach of photorealistic rendering may be more adequate. With a NPR approach many details would get lost like decorative wall structures, tapestry or maybe special patterns in a wall. On the other hand, by using NPR such details might be especially pointed out and also the seamless integration of augmented structures onto ruins should be easier. Also, if an AR game is to be included at the ruins a comical look might fit better to the gaming environment and make important objects or structures easier to distinguish. So it s really hard to give a general recommendation, the question is, what the primary intention of the stakeholders is. 5 Seminar aus Interaktive Systeme, WS 08/09 Digitalization Techniques 66

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