RPM Brotherhood: KVM VIRTUALIZATION TECHNOLOGY

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1 RPM Brotherhood: KVM VIRTUALIZATION TECHNOLOGY Syamsul Anuar Abd Nasir Fedora Ambassador Malaysia 1

2 ABOUT ME Technical Consultant for Warix Technologies - Warix is a Red Hat partner Offers the services and solutions on building private cloud / Virtualization based on Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization and KVM Fedora Ambassador Malaysia 2

3 INTRODUCTION Ability to run multiple Operating System (Windows, Linux, UNIX etc) on one single physical machine Decoupling software and applications from single hardware 3

4 VIRTUALIZATION VOCABULARIES VM: Virtual Machine Hypervisor / VMM : Virtual Machine Monitor or simple term, OS for the VM Guests Guest OS: The OS that is run within a virtual machine Host OS: The OS that runs on the computer system Paravirtualized Guest: The guest OS that is modified to have knowledge of a VMM. Mostly Xen Full Virtualization: The guest OS is run unmodified in this environment 4

5 TYPES OF HYPERVISOR TYPE 1 : Native or baremetal hypervisor that runs directly on host hardware. E.g. Xen and KVM TYPE 2 : Hypervisor software running on top OS. E.g. Virtualbox Containers: User Space server Virtualization method where kernel and OS allows multiple solated instances of them running. Eg. FreeBSD Jails, Solaris Zone, OpenVZ, FreeVPS, and Linux Vserver 5

6 HARDWARE ASSISTED VIRT CPU Vendors extending x86 architecture Adding CPU features to support virtualization Feature added ~2006 available in o Intel VT (Xeon, Core Duo and Core 2 Duo) o AMD AMD-V (Opteron, Athlon and Phenom) 1st Generation Offloads Ring compression to CPU Effectively provides new privilege level Hypervisor no longer scan and rewrite kernel code CPU provides 'hooks' or 'traps' for privileged instructions 6

7 HARDWARE ASSISTED VIRT 2nd Generation Memory Management o Offloads memory page table management to CPU & Chipset o Provides significant performance improvement Intel - Extended Page Tables (EPT) o Available in Nehalem class Xeon AMD : Rapid Virtualization Indexing (RVI) o was called NPT (Nested Page Tables) o Available in quad core Opterons 7

8 THE KVM VIRTUALIZATION KVM the Kernel-based Virtual Machine is a Linux kernel module that turns Linux into a hypervisor Tightly integrated into Linux and upstream since kernel (January 2007) Requires hardware virtualization extensions (Intel VMX and AMD SVM) Offload most work to CPU & chip and NO binary translation (So its faster) Leveraging all the capabilities of the Linux kernel without breaking any compatability issue Cool features - memory and storage overcommit (among others) 8

9 BENEFITS OF KVM MODEL Leverage is the name of the game o Linux no need to re-invent the wheel o Built on trusted, stable enterprise grade platform o Ease of management use same tools for managing physical servers and hypervisors Advanced features o Inherit scalability, NUMA support, power management, hot-plug etc o others have to develop from scratch o SELinux security, S-Virt, Advanced scheduler, RAS support (Intel Nehalem EX enablement) 9

10 KVM AS HYPERVISOR 10

11 11

12 KVM FEATURES MEMORY OVERCOMMIT Kernel Same-Page Merging (KSM) Memory Page Sharing Securely shares identical memory pages between virtual machine 12

13 KVM FEATURES STORAGE OVERCOMMIT Thin Provisioning Allocate storage only when needed Oversubscribe storage Transparent to virtual machine Improve Storage Utilization Reduced Storage Costs Works with NFS, iscsi and Fiber Channel Storage reporting and alerting 13

14 KVM FEATURES SECURITY Security Inherits security features of Linux Includes support for SELinux Provides protection & isolation for virtual machines processes & host Compromised virtual machine isolation svirt Project Sub-project of NSA's SELinux community Provides hardened hypervisors Contain any hypervisor breaches 14

15 KVM FEATURES VIRTIO Performance Open Source Paravirtualized accelerated drivers for Linux Kernel Virtualization Improve performance for Full Hardware Virtualization Virtualization disk, NIC etc Collaboration between Red Hat and IBM Not specific to KVM 15

16 SOME KVM BENCHMARK (Iperf in KVM) 16

17 SUMMARY OF RESULTS One should use Virtio in favor of VT-d pass-through, or emulated Network Driver Emulated NICs are much slower than Virtio or VT-d The MAX bandwidth of Virtio connecting to a remote is very close to VT-d or Native Using Virtio to connect to Dom0 is much faster than using VT-d (since in our setup VT-d is a second NIC) Source : 17

18 OTHER TECHNOLOGIES AROUND KVM Libguestfs - libguestfs is a set of tools which you can use to examine and modify virtual machine images from outside (ie. from the host) NetCF - a library for configuring network interfaces. Deltacloud An API that abstract the differences between clouds. QCOW2 - qcow2 is the native disk image file format of qemu. It supports copy-on-write feature. Cgroups - an upstream kernel feature that allows system resources to be partitioned/divided up amongst different processes, or a group of processes. Condor - develop, implement, deploy, and evaluate mechanisms and policies that support High Throughput Computing (HTC) on large collections of distributively owned computing resources. 18

19 THANK YOU ANY QUESTION? 19

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