Virtualization. Michael Tsai 2015/06/08

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1 Virtualization Michael Tsai 2015/06/08

2 What is virtualization? Let s first look at a video from VMware

3 Problems? Low utilization Different needs DNS DHCP Web mail 5% 5% 15% 8% Windows NFS LDAP Active Directory Server Database 12% 6% 15% 15%

4 Problem & Results Software vendors: please run our applications on a separate machine (incompatibility with other software) Utilization: between 5% to 15% and decreasing due to better hardware in the future Results: a large number of servers

5 Results A large number of servers ==? Huge energy consumption CPU, hard drive, Cooling to keep the servers running Maintenance associated with a large number of servers

6 Virtualization Basic idea: allow multiple OS es to run concurrently on the same physical hardware! Per server maintenance is reduced Isolation: each OS more or less thinks that they run on a physical machine Ability to dynamically assign resources to different OS es, e.g., memory, CPU time, storage, network bandwidth. Possibility of live migration

7 Types of Virtualization Full virtualization Paravirtualization Operating system virtualization Native cirtualization

8 ing architectures. As long as the virtualization software is present, the guest run on any processor architecture. (Translation of CPU instructions does, h ever, incur a modest performance penalty.) Full virtualization VMware ESX is an example of a popular full virtualization technology. The eral structure of these systems is depicted in Exhibit A. Exhibit A Full virtualization architecture Guest OS 0 Guest OS 1 Guest OS N Fully virtualized hypervisor (e.g., VMWare ESX) System Hardware Disk CPU Memory

9 Full virtualization a.k.a bare-metal virtualization Most secure: no access to hardware from guest OS No guest OS modification is needed Require translation of CPU instructions (performance penalty)

10 outside of Linux and other open source kernels. Exhibit B shows a paravirtualized environment. It looks similar to the fully virtualized system in Exhibit A, but the guest operating systems interface with the hypervisor through a defined interface, and the first guest is privileged. Paravirtualization Exhibit B Paravirtualization architecture Privileged guest (host) Guest OS 0 (modified) Guest OS 1 (modified) Guest Guest OS OS N (modified) Paravirtualized hypervisor (e.g., Xen, LDoms) System Hardware Disk CPU Memory Operating system virtualization OS-level virtualization systems are very different from the previous two models.

11 Paravirtualization Each guest OS kernel must be modified, so that sensitive CPU instructions can be translated using hypercalls Less overhead Due to the modification requirements, support for non-open-source kernels (e.g., Windows) is scant.

12 commonly known in this context). 1 AIX workload partitions and Solaris containers and zones are examples of OS-level virtualization. OS virtualization OS-level virtualization is illustrated in Exhibit C. Exhibit C OS-level virtualization architecture Disk Virtual machine 1 CPU Host Kernel Virtual machine 2 Virtual machine 3 OS Virtualization (e.g., Solaris containers, HP Integrity VM, IBM workload partitions) Memory Native virtualization In an attempt to distinguish their hardware offerings, the silicon heavyweights AMD and Intel are competing head to head to best support virtualization through

13 OS virtualization Multiple, isolated application environments that references the same kernel No translation or virtualization layer exists > very low overhead Cannot use multiple OS es - sharing of a single kernel

14 Native virtualization Intel & AMD offer CPUs that support virtualization with hardware-assisted (native) virtualization No need for translation layer in full/paravirtualization Most solution utilizes them today

15 Benefits Cost: New project: new VM instead of new hardware Cooling: major cost saving Lower data center cost: rack space, maintenance, etc. Better utilization of multi-core servers Business continuity: live migration for disaster recovery

16 Benefits Manageability Use script for boot, shutdown, migration (or even temporarily assign more memory / CPU to a VM) Software for legacy hardware can be run on new hardware Development, test, staging can be separated from production environments

17 When virtualization shouldn t be used Resource intensive backup servers or log hosts High-bandwidth applications (e.g., IDS) Busy I/O-bound database servers Proprietary applications with hardware-based copy protection Applications with specialized hardware needs

18 Good candidates for virtualization Internet-facing web servers that query middleware systems / databases Underused stand-alone application servers Developer systems, e.g., build / version control servers Quality assurance test hosts and staging environments Core infrastructure systems, e.g., LDAP, DHCP, DNS, time servers, SSH gateways

19 Today s in-class lab We will try a free and popular bare-metal hypervisor - VMWare ESXi Install ESXi on a desktop machine Install Windows XP as a guest OS Run lubuntu live cd as a guest OS Let s thank the TAs (Meng-Hung, Ming-Yuan, Wally) for setting up the environment

20 Steps 1. Install ESXi (remember to boot from CD) to the hard drive Remember the password you set 2. Install VMWare vsphere Client on your windows machine & login as root 3. Upload installation ISO files to datastore (I ll show you how)

21 Steps 4. Create a new virtual machine 1. Configure the CPU, memory, hard drive space properly 2. Install your OS (remember to mount the ISO) 3. Install VMWare Tools (drivers, better cursor control)

22 Resources URL: here you can find: VMWare vsphere client for you to manage the hypervisor ISOs for you to install Windows Serial numbers for Windows can be found on: ESXi slides from last year:

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