1 Slips, Trips and Falls
2 Introduction o Slips, trips and falls cause: The majority of general industry accidents 15 percent of all accidental deaths (~12,000/yr) More fatalities than all other causes but motor vehicles Over 17% of disabling injuries are caused from falls NSC estimates workers compensation and medical costs associated with slip and fall accidents at $70B per year
3 Region V Fatal Events
4 Region V Top Fall Events
5 Definitions o Slip Too little friction between feet (footwear) and working/ working surface, resulting in a loss of balance o Trip Foot or lower leg hits object and upper body continues moving resulting in loss of balance o Fall Body is too far off center of balance
7 Causes of Slips o Wet product or spills on smooth floors or walking surfaces o Dry product or spills making walking surfaces slippery o Highly polished floors o Freshly waxed surfaces o Transition from one surface to another o Mounting and dismounting vehicles/equipment
8 Causes of Slips o Sloped walking surfaces o Loose, unanchored rugs or mats o Loose floorboards or shifting tiles o Wet, muddy or greasy shoes o Ramps and gang planks without skid or slip resistant surfaces o Metals surfaces (dock plates) o Climbing ladders
9 Causes of Trips o Poor housekeeping o Open cabinets, doors, and drawers o Changes in elevation or levels o Carpets and mats with curling edges o Irregularities in walking surface/stairs o Missing or uneven floor tiles o Damaged steps
10 Causes of Falls o Improper use of ladders / no training o Using makeshift ladders out of boxes, chairs, racking systems o Materials stored on stairs o Exiting vehicles o No guarding / improper guarding o Inadequate fall protection or fall restraint
11 Environmental Conditions which Increase Risks o Poor lighting o Glare o Bulky PPE o Excess noise / temperature o Poor housekeeping o Inadequate or missing signage o Improper cleaning methods or products
12 Human Factors which Increase Risks (Physical) o Failing eyesight and / or visual perception o Age o Physical condition and fatigue o Stress or illness o Medications, alcohol and drug abuse
13 Human Factors which Increase Risks (Behavioral) o Carrying or moving large objects or too many objects o Not paying attention to surroundings or walking distracted o Taking unapproved shortcuts o Using inappropriate tools and equipment o Being in a hurry and rushing
16 Prevention o Workstation design o Good housekeeping o Safe walking practices o Proper footwear based on work conditions o Spill clean up and signage o Walk off mats o Snow and ice removal program
17 Prevention o Employee training o Encourage employees to report unsafe conditions o Self Inspection o Don t take shortcuts through work areas o Avoid wearing sunglasses inside o Keep aisles clear of material and debris
18 Prevention o Run hoses and cables overhead o Repair and mark floors that are uneven o Inspect all ladders prior to use o Use proper tool for the job o Use handrails when on stairs o Use vehicle grip bars when entering or exiting vehicles o Competent fall protection training
19 Let s Practice! o Keep limbs parallel to the ground o Slap ground with a hand and extend fingers to absorb part of the impact o Bend arms toward the body o Try to roll onto thigh or buttocks
20 Self Inspection
21 Self Inspection General o Are all work areas clean and orderly? o Are walking surfaces dry or slip resistant? o Are spilled materials or liquids cleaned up immediately? o Are materials available to clean up spills? o Are work areas adequately illuminated? o Are aisles and walkways appropriately marked? o Are wet surfaces covered with non-slip materials?
22 Self Inspection Walkways o Are opening or holes in the floors or other walking surfaces repairs or otherwise made safe? o Are materials stored outside the walkway? o Are standard guardrails provided wherever aisle or walkway surfaces are elevated more that 4 feet above floor or ground? o Are bridges provided over conveyors and similar hazards?
23 Self Inspection Stairs and Stairways o Are standard stair rails and handrails present on all stairways having 3 or more risers? o Are risers on stair steps uniform with no riser more than 9.5 inches? o Are steps provided with slip resistant surfaces? o Are stairway handrails inches above the leading edge of the stair treads? o Are handrails capable of withstanding a load of 200 pounds of force applied in any direction?
24 Self Inspection Portable Ladders o Are all ladders in good condition? Joints tight, hardware and fitting securely attached, movable parts move freely, rungs and side rails not broken or faulty. o Are there non-slip safety feet on your ladders? o Are ladder rungs and steps free of grease and oil?
25 Self Inspection Portable Ladders o Are employees prohibited from: Placing ladders in front of doors? Placing ladders on boxes or other unstable bases? Using ladders that are broken, missing parts? Using the top step of ordinary stepladders? o Are portable rung ladders extended 3 feet above the elevated surface when gaining access to roofs or other elevated platforms?
26 Self Inspection Portable Ladders o Are portable rung or cleat type ladders placed so that the base will not slip or are they lashed to hold the ladder in place? o Do portable metal ladders have labels that read Caution Do Not Use around Electrical Equipment? o What is the duty rating of the ladders?
28 Regulations o General Industry (1910) Subpart D Walking and Working Surfaces ( through ) Subpart R Special Industries (logging, grain elevators, power generation, etc.) Powered Platforms for Building Maintenance o Construction (1926) Subpart X Ladders Subpart M Fall Protection Subpart L Scaffold