Fall Prevention and Protection Programs Michael Ziskin, CHCM, CHMM, CBCP Field Safety Corporation

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1 Fall Prevention and Protection Programs Michael Ziskin, CHCM, CHMM, CBCP

2 OSHA Standards 1910 General Industry 1915 Shipyard Employment 1917 Marine Terminals 1918 Longshoring 1926 Construction

3 OSHA Letters of Interpretation Ladders Reinforcing steel, rebar caps Wet floors due to weather conditions

4 American National Standards Institute/American Society of Safety Engineers ANSI/ASSE Z Definitions and Nomenclature Used for Fall Protection and Fall Arrest ANSI/ASSE Z Safety Requirements for Personal Fall Arrest Systems, Subsystems and Components ANSI/ASSE Z Minimum Requirements for a Comprehensive Managed Fall Protection Program ANSI/ASSE Z Safety Requirements for Positioning and Travel Restraint Systems ANSI/ASSE Z Safety Requirements for Assisted-Rescue and Self-Rescue Systems, Subsystems and Components

5 American National Standards Institute/American Society of Safety Engineers ANSI/ASSE Z Specifications and Design Requirements for Active Fall Protection Systems ANSI/ASSE Z Qualification and Verification Testing of Fall Protection Products ANSI/ASSE Z Connecting Components for Personal Fall Arrest System ANSI/ASSE Z Personal Energy Absorbers and Energy Absorbing Lanyards ANSI/ASSE Z Safety Requirements for Self-Retracting Devices For Personal Fall Arrest and Rescue Systems

6 Recognizing fall hazards and how to control them Walking and Working Surfaces Routine Work Maintenance Construction Fall Rescue

7 Back injuries Strains and sprains Contusions Fractures 15% of all accidental deaths After the fall.

8 The consequences

9 Equipment Hazards Improper footwear Uneven surfaces Foreign substances on surface (oil, litter) Unguarded sides and edges of elevated platforms Risk Analysis

10 Human Carelessness Haste Human error Failure to follow instructions Fatigue Risk Analysis

11 Environmental Poor lighting Weather-related conditions Multiple factors Increases risk Example - Polished marble floor + wetness from mopping or snow being tracked in = higher risk and then we are in a rush! Even higher risk Risk Analysis

12 Slips from Floors or other working surfaces become slippery due to Wet or oily processes Floor cleaning Leaks Materials and debris left in walkways Risk Analysis

13 Trips occur from Uneven floor or working surfaces Protruding nails and boards Stretched carpet or bunched floor mats Holes or depressions in working surfaces Non-uniform step-risers on stairs Risk Analysis

14 Falls occur Ladders not maintained or used properly Stairways and elevated surfaces not designed, maintained or used properly Work at heights not properly planned or executed Risk Analysis

15 Holes and Skylignts Protect from: falling through, tripping or stepping into, and falling objects 15

16 Perception of Risk??????????

17 Wet or oily processes Maintain drainage Provide false floors / platforms Nonslip mats or floor surfaces Dry standing places Use non-skid waxes and anti-slip floor treatments Use slip-resistant footwear Clean up promptly and frequently Managing and Controling Hazards

18 Use effective housekeeping procedures Cleaning only one side of a passageway at a time Provide warning signs for wet floor areas Provide floor plugs for equipment Tape or anchor temporary cords to floor Design and maintain aisles and passageways to be wide enough for the intended pedestrian and vehicular traffic Managing and Controlling Hazards

19 Relay or stretch carpets that bulge or have become bunched Eliminate cluttered or obstructed work areas Keep file cabinet drawers closed Provide good lighting for all halls and stairwells (esp. night hours) Managing and Controlling Hazards

20 OSHA Construction Illumination Standard 1926 TABLE D-3 - MINIMUM ILLUMINATION INTENSITIES IN FOOT-CANDLES Foot-Candles Area of Operation 5 General construction area lighting. 3 General construction areas, 5 Indoors: warehouses, corridors, hallways, and exit ways. 5 Tunnels, shafts, and general underground work areas 10 General construction plant and shops 30 First aid stations, infirmaries, and offices Managing and Controlling Hazards

21 Examples of industrial and office tasks and recommended light levels are in the table below. Recommended Lighting Levels* Type of Activity Lighting** (Lux) Public spaces with dark surroundings 30 Simple orientation for short temporary visits 50 Working spaces where visual tasks are only occasionally performed 100 Performance of visual tasks of high contrast or large scale 300 Performance of visual tasks of medium contrast or small size 500 Performance of visual tasks of low contrast or very small size 1000 Performance of visual tasks near threshold of person's ability to recognize an image * Modified from: IESNA Lighting Handbook. 9th ed. Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, p /Adapted with permission from the Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (2011). ** The recommended range is +/- 10% of these values.

22 Stairs with proper handrails treads and risers maintained treads slip-resistant Use handrail on stairs avoid undue speed view stairs ahead of path team up to manage bulky loads Eliminate uneven floor surfaces Managing and Controlling Hazards

23 Elevated work areas Guardrails toe boards means of access that is permanent Floor drains, pits, other floor openings are covered or protected with guardrails Ladders Properly maintained Rungs uniformly spaced Non-slip safety feet Managing and Controlling Hazards

24 Do not use Stools Chairs boxes or other objects as substitutes for ladders Special planning and job safety analysis for non-routine work tasks Managing and Controlling Hazards

25 Follow manufacturer recommendations when using Scissor or aerial lifts Scaffold systems Personal fall arrest systems Rescue plans for working at heights Managing and Controlling Hazards

26 26

27 27

28 An unapproved modification!

29 Fixed Ladders Catwalks Platforms Mobile Ladders Case Study.Boiler Room

30 Design and use of Fixed Industrial Stairs, Portable Ladders, Fixed Ladders, Scaffolding, and the Guarding of Wall and Floor Openings. Fixed Ladders Guarding Floor and Wall Openings Walking-Working Surfaces General Requirements Manually Propelled Mobile Ladder Stands and Scaffolds OSHA SUBPART D WALKING AND WORKING SURFACES

31 General Duty Clause Access to the ladder Protection for floor openings Fixed Ladders Specific Features Minimum Ladder Clearances Clearance (Side-to-Side, Overhead, Obstructions) Work Practices Manually Propelled Mobile Ladder Stands OSHA SUBPART D WALKING AND WORKING SURFACES

32

33

34 Preparing For the Fall Starts on the ground!

35 Procedures for: Preventing prolonged suspension Performing rescue and treatment as quickly as possible Identifying orthostatic intolerance signs and symptoms Communication between suspended worker and rescuers Fall Rescue Plan

36 Procedures for: Crane Man Basket Mobile Elevating Work Platform Rope Access Rescue Third Party Rescue Systems Practicing the Procedure Fall Rescue Plan

37 Who is working at height and where? Communication between suspended worker and supervisor / rescue team Emergency contact for rescue and first aid assistance/emergency hospital Which floor / how high up is casualty Safety of rescuers Fall Rescue Plan

38 Access to casualty Equipment needs to minimize suspension trauma 5 min. window Casualty injured, 5 min. rescue? Protection of others traffic control Accident scene protection Fall Rescue Plan

39 Working alone provisions Unusual features of building Weather conditions Proximity to emergency services / hospital Language barriers Fall Rescue Plan

40 Professional Rescue Trained rescue personnel will: Safety you with a rated rescue rope Ask if you are injured, and if you are, treat as best as possible Remove you from your fall arrest system and attach you the rescue system Raise or lower you to safety

41 Factors that can Affect the Degree of Risk of Suspension Trauma Inability to move legs Pain Injuries during fall Fatigue Dehydration Hypothermia Shock Cardiovascular disease Respiratory disease Blood loss Suspension Trauma

42 Amount of time worker is suspended affects the manner in which he or she is rescued Moving a worker to a horizontal position after extended period of time in vertical position could lead to a large volume of deoxygenated blood to move to the heart Heart may be unable to cope with the increase in blood flow leading to cardiac arrest Rescue Considerations

43 OSHA Recommendations OSHA recommends the following general practices/considerations: Rescue as quickly as possible Be aware the worker is at risk of orthostatic intolerance and suspension trauma Signs and symptoms of orthostatic intolerance Factors that can increase the risk of suspension trauma

44 Thank you! Michael Ziskin, CHCM, CHMM, CBCP Office Cell

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