1 Slips, Trips and Falls (STF) Workplace Safety as aligned to OHSA
2 WHAT THIS PRESENTATION COVERS The costs of slips, trips, and falls Definitions Causes of slips and trips Factors increasing the risk of slips and trips: Work environment Human factors Note: These Slips, Trips, and Falls modules mainly cover injuries caused by slips and trips leading to falls at the same level.
3 Issue S T F STF s represents #1 cause of injury STF s occur in any part of the workplace whether inside or outside. STF s may result in serious outcomes STF s cost to both worker and employer can be great STF s is like stepping on money To Worker: pain lost wages temporary or permanent disability reduced quality of life depression To Employer: loss in productivity and business increased industrial insurance premiums costs associated with training replacement worker cost of medical treatment
4 Slip, Trip and Fall Claims Breakdown Different Level 3172 (32%) Same Level 2278 (23%) Liquid & Spills 1359 (14%) Ice / Snow 1192 (12%) Stairs 698 (7%) Misc 647 (7%) Slip / No Fall 263 (3%) Ladder / Scaffold 145 (1%) Floor Openings 122 (1%) 9,876
5 SLIPS, TRIPS, AND FALLS ARE COSTLY Slips and trips can happen in any part of the workplace, inside or outdoors. Slips and trips often result in falls and more serious outcomes, including disabling injuries and even death. The costs to both worker and employer can be great: To Worker: pain lost wages temporary or permanent disability reduced quality of life depression To Employer: loss in productivity and business increased industrial insurance premiums costs associated with training replacement worker
6 SLIP, TRIP, AND FALL INCIDENTS OCCUR FREQUENTLY According to the U. S. Department of Labor, slips, trips, and falls make up the majority of general industry accidents. 15 percent of all accidental deaths ( 12,000/year), second leading cause behind motor vehicles One of the most frequent types of reported injuries about 25% of reported claims per fiscal year Over 17% of all disabling work injuries are the result of falls
7 INJURIES FROM SLIPS, TRIPS, AND FALLS Common types of injuries: Sprains, strains Bruises, contusions Fractures Abrasions, cuts Commonly affected body parts: Knee, Ankle, Foot Wrist, Elbow Back Shoulder Hip Head
8 SLIPS AND TRIPS CAN INITIATE A CASCADE OF EVENTS RESULTING IN MORE SERIOUS INJURIES OR DEATH The following is a fatality case study from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) Program. Apprentice Lineman Electrocuted While Setting Utility Pole A 34-year-old male apprentice lineman (the victim) was electrocuted while assisting a co-worker in setting a wooden utility pole. The pole had been raised between two phases of a 34,500-volt overhead power-line and the victim was helping set the pole by steadying the butt over the hole. The victim slipped on the wet ground and his unprotected upper body fell against the pole while the top of the pole contacted Confusing one phase the of the powerline (19,900- volt phase to ground). The victim was bottom wearing step rubber with lineman's gloves as required by company policy. The wet the connections floor is a allowed the current to travel common down the pole, entering the victim's chest and exiting to ground through the occurrence when victim's right elbow. Cardiopulmonary it s not resuscitation marked. No was initiated immediately by the co-worker and a passing emergency missing the medical last technician; however, efforts to revive the victim were unsuccessful. step here.
9 Definition of STF When there is too little friction or traction between your feet (footwear) and the walking or working surface, and you lose your balance. Slip Fall Occurs when you are too far off your center of balance. When your foot (or lower leg) hits an object and your upper body continues moving, throwing you off balance. Trip Trip When you step down unexpectedly to a lower surface (Misstep) and lose your balance, e.g., stepping off a curb. Definition of STF Friction: The resistance encountered when an object (foot) is moved in contact with another (ground). Friction is necessary in order to walk without slipping.
10 DEFINITIONS Slip When there is too little friction or traction between your feet (footwear) and the walking or working surface, and you lose your balance.. Trip When your foot (or lower leg) hits an object and your upper body continues moving, throwing you off balance. Can lead to: Friction: The resistance encountered when an object (foot) is moved in contact with another (ground). Friction is necessary in order to walk without slipping. Fall Occurs when you are too far off your center of balance. When you step down unexpectedly to a lower surface (Misstep) and lose your balance, e.g., stepping off a curb.
11 DEFINITIONS Two types of falls: Fall-at-the-same-level When you fall to the surface you are walking or standing on, or fall into or against objects at or above the surface. Slip-resistant strips on steps Fall-to-lower-level When you fall to a level below the one on which you are walking, working, or standing. For example: Step or stairs Ladder Skid-resistant coating Platformon ramp. Note highlighted Loading edges for dock better visibility to prevent walking off ramp and Truck falling. bed
12 CAUSES OF SLIPS Some common causes of slips include the following: wet contamination/spills on smooth floors or surfaces: water, fluids, mud, grease, oil, food dry contamination making surfaces slippery: dusts, powders, granules, wood, lint, plastic wrapping
13 CAUSES OF SLIPS highly polished floors, such as marble, terrazzo, or ceramic tile (can be extremely slippery even when dry) freshly waxed surfaces transitioning from one floor type to another (carpet to smooth surface flooring) Transitioning from one type of flooring to another with less traction may cause a slip if one does not adjust for the change.
14 sloped walking surfaces CAUSES OF SLIPS loose, unanchored rugs or mats loose floorboards or tiles that can shift shoes with wet, muddy, greasy, or oily soles Sloping driveway which has no safe pedestrian walkways
15 CAUSES OF SLIPS Ramps, sidewalks, floors and gang ways without skid/slipresistant surfaces Metal surfaces, such as running boards, dock plates, platforms, or covers on sidewalks and roads Metal has a lower force of friction/traction and can be more slippery than many other materials. Metal surfaces can become smooth and slippery with wear, and are extremely slick when wet, muddy, or greasy.
16 CAUSES OF SLIPS mounting and dismounting trucks, tractors, heavy equipment, machinery, fire apparatus getting on and off truck trailers & truck beds climbing up and down ladders Metal rungs, steps, footholds, treads, running boards, platforms, on equipment and ladders become even slicker when worn smooth and contaminated with water, mud, oil, grease, dirt, and debris.
17 CAUSES OF SLIPS loose irregular surfaces, such as gravel sloped or uneven terrain, sidewalks muddy terrain weather hazards: rain, sleet, ice, snow, hail, frost leaves, pine needles, plant debris (especially if wet)
18 CAUSES OF TRIPS AND MISSTEPS Some common causes of trips include: uncovered cables, wires, or extension cords across aisles or pathways clutter, obstacles in aisles, walkways, and work areas open cabinet, file, or desk In an emergency, you don t want any obstructions blocking your exit route or causing you to fall while attempting to escape. Blocked exit route
19 CAUSES OF TRIPS AND MISSTEPS changes in elevation or levels (unmarked steps, ramps) rumpled or rolled up carpets/ mats, carpets with curled edges irregularities in walking surface ( thresholds, gaps) missing or uneven floor tiles and bricks
20 CAUSES OF TRIPS AND MISSTEPS damaged steps taller or shorter (varying rise) shallower tread depth otherwise irregular Steep stairs (52-degree slope) with tall steps. Note that it is also missing a handrail on the left and a mid-rail on the existing one. Over 2.5 million falls on stairways result in about 2 million disabling injuries yearly.
21 CAUSES OF TRIPS AND MISSTEPS debris, accumulated waste materials trailing cables, pallets, tools, in gangways objects protruding from walking surface uneven surfaces sidewalk/curb drops Building materials, hoses, debris clutter the pathway. A trip here will likely result in falling on something that will cause further injury. Slightly sloping, uneven sidewalk and adjoining parking lot entrance with deep cracks, gaps
22 TRIPS IN PARKING LOTS AND GARAGES Unmarked elevation changes: speed bumps curbs Speed bumps Curbs wheelchair accessible ramps driveways Wheelchair accessible ramp
23 Other Conditions Increasing the Risk of Slips And Trips Conditions and situations that make it difficult to see potential hazards or that distract your attention can contribute toward a slip or trip. Can you see the worker on the stairs? poor lighting glare shadows bulky or awkward personal protective equipment (PPE) excessive noise, temperature
24 HUMAN FACTORS INCREASING THE RISK OF SLIPS AND TRIPS Physical Condition Health and physical condition can impair a person s vision, judgment, and balance. Eyesight, visual perception Age Physical state, fatigue Stress, illness Medications, alcohol, drugs
25 Human Factors Increasing the Risk of Slips, Trips and Falls Factors of STF Health and physical condition can impair a person s s vision, judgment, and balance. - Eyesight, visual perception - Age - Physical state, fatigue - Stress, illness -Medications, alcohol, drug Behaviours actions you choose and control can contribute to a slip, trip, and fall injury if you set yourself up for one. Carrying or moving cumbersome objects, or too many objects, that obstruct your view impair your balance and prevent you from holding onto handrails Poor housekeeping (allowing clutter to accumulate, not maintaining clean dry floors, etc.) Using improper cleaning methods (e.g., incorrectly using wax or polish; or trying to clean up grease spill with water) Not using signage when slip or trip hazards exist Inattentive Behavior: : walking, distractions (e.g., using cell phone, talking and not watching where you re going, etc.) Taking shortcuts; ; not using walkways or designated, cleared pathways; being in a hurry, rushing around
26 HUMAN FACTORS INCREASING THE RISK OF SLIPS AND TRIPS Human Behavior Behaviors actions you choose and control can contribute to a slip, trip, and fall injury if you practice careless work habits. Carrying or moving oversized objects, or too many objects, that may: - obstruct your view - impair your balance - prevent you from holding onto handrails
27 HUMAN FACTORS INCREASING THE RISK OF SLIPS AND TRIPS Inattentive walking, distractions (using cell phone, talking and not watching where you re going, etc.) Taking shortcuts; not using walkways or designated cleared pathways Being in a hurry, rushing around; moving too fast for safe practices in work environment
28 HUMAN FACTORS INCREASING THE RISK OF SLIPS AND TRIPS Poor housekeeping (allowing clutter to accumulate, not maintaining clean dry floors,) Using improper cleaning methods (e.g., incorrectly using wax or polish; or trying to clean up grease spill with water) Not using signs when slip or trip hazards exist
29 HUMAN FACTORS INCREASING THE RISK OF SLIPS AND TRIPS Footwear Taps on heels Slick smoothsurfaced soles High heels footwear not suitable for the environment (reduced traction)
30 Falls Ladders You risk falling if portable ladders are not safely positioned each time they are used. While you are on a ladder, it may move and slip from its supports. You can also lose your balance while getting on or off an unsteady ladder. Falls from ladders can cause injuries ranging from sprains to death.
31 Fall Fatality Rates by Industry Industry Construction Mining Agriculture Transportation Manufacturing All other Total Rate per 100,000 Workers (average) 0.49 Percent of Fatal Falls
32 Locations of Fatal Falls Location Percent of All Industry Fall Fatalities Percent Within Construction Buildings Scaffolds Ladders Lower Level All Other Falls Total
33 Perception of Hazards Essential to Recognize, Avoid, and Control Them Perceive v.t., to grasp or take in mentally, to become aware of through the senses; perception the process of perceiving Training makes a person more proficient in perception increasing perception by enhancing knowledge and awareness through education and training
34 Fall Hazards Fall to a lower level Falling to the same level Slips, trips, and falls Struck by falling objects, etc. Struck against Caught in, under, or between Clutter Environmental elements (wind, water, ice, heat, glare, fog, noise, etc.)
35 Falling to a Lower Level Fall Situations Common Causes Falls from elevation Falling into/onto dangerous equipment Excavations Crane work Aerial lifts Elements No personal fall protection Lack of guards No barriers No guardrails Untrained personnel Ignoring winds, ice, rain
36 Falling to the Same Level Fall Situations Fall on/from stairway Holes in walking or working surfaces Housekeeping Common Causes No platforms No covers, inadequate illumination Clutter
37 Struck-by Fall Situations Falling objects Falling materials Collapsing structures Common Causes Failure to barricade areas beneath work taking place above ground level Inadequate or absence of toe boards Placing oneself beneath suspended loads, booms, structures, etc.
38 Caught in or between Situation Common Cause Man basket structure and a beam Two beams or between a beam and a structure Scissors lift mechanism Failure to inspect and maintain manlifts Placing yourself in tight locations Placing any part of your body or clothing close to moving parts Failure to maintain communication with fellow workers
39 Clutter on/around stairs, walkways, staging areas/ hotwork, firefighting equipment, escapeways Effect/Outcome Increases the risk of STF Increases the risk of fires Blocks quick access firefighting equipment Increases evacuation time Common Causes Failure to inspect work areas Failure to remove clutter Allowing combustibles to accumulate
40 Environmental Elements Wind, water, ice, heat, cold, noise Common Causes Increase the slip, trip, fall hazard potential Increase the severity of the injury/loss Decrease productivity Reduce ability to communicate effectively (noise) Failure to monitor wind conditions Choosing to work in windy conditions Failing to control water accumulations Failure to remove ice, or apply salt, sand Failure to prepare for heat and high humidity Failure to prepare for cold temperature
41 Fall Hazard Elimination/Reduction Strategies Eliminating the hazards through engineering design/practice Use of fall protection systems Providing personal protective equipment Training personnel in hazard recognition and avoidance
42 Engineering Follow all applicable laws/regulations (CFR 29, 1926) Evaluate alternative equipment, alternative methods Conduct JSA/design jobs to avoid hazards Evaluate maintenance, housekeeping needs, and develop policies, procedures Develop written procedures (plans, protocols, checklists) for JSA, inspections, maintenance, communication, etc. Develop and implement training for each job/each equipment procedure
43 Fall Protection Systems Guardrails Personal fall arrest Warning line system and: Guardrail Personal fall arrest Safety monitoring Controlled access zone Choose the appropriate system Meet design standards Protected against damage Comply with personnel access restriction rules Enforce standards through inspection and maintenance Have written audit procedures Train workers for safe use, inspection and reporting
44 Personal Protective Equipment Dee-rings & snap hooks Horizontal lifelines Lanyard or lifeline Anchorage point Connecting devices Helmet Body belt Body harness Meet all design requirements Use according to manufacturers directions Install under supervision, where applicable Protect against damage Standards for procurement & distribution Train personnel for safe use, inspection, reporting
45 MANY OF THESE COULD HAVE BEEN PREVENTED According to the U. S. Department of Labor, slips, trips, and falls make up the majority of general industry accidents. 25% of reported claims per fiscal year are due to STF Over 17% of all disabling work injuries are the result of falls
46 WHAT CAN YOU DO TO REDUCE RISK? Safety is everybody business, however, it is employers' responsibility to provide safe work environment for all employees. Employees can improve their own safety too. You can reduce the risk of slipping on wet flooring by: otaking your time and paying attention to where you are going, oadjusting your stride to a pace that is suitable for the walking surface and the tasks you are doing, owalking with the feet pointed slightly outward, and omaking wide turns at corners. You can reduce the risk of tripping by: oalways using installed light sources that provide sufficient light for your tasks or, ousing a flashlight if you enter a dark room where there is no light, and oensuring that things you are carrying or pushing do not prevent you from seeing any obstructions, spills, etc.
47 Housekeeping DON Ts -Prop fire doors open. -Store materials in stairwells. -Store trash cans in front of doorway. -Use cinderblock to prop open the doors. -Use chair to block an emergency cut-off valve. -Place chairs in dangerous areas. For example, the chair in the picture could represent a struck against hazard. Someone could sit in the chair, and strike their head on the pipe and valve behind it. -This chair could also encourage smoking in the stairwell. Do Report these dangers!
48 Slip, Trip and Fall Hazard PROBLEM Slip: if it is wet outside and the mat is folded back, then the floor is getting wet instead of the mat absorbing the water. Trip: the mat is folded back and someone could catch their foot on the mat and trip. Fall: both a wet floor and caught foot could contribute to a fall. Report this danger!
49 This slide represents a trip hazard. Here you can see an electrical cord in the middle of the walkway. This cord is plugged into an electrical outlet. Contact Facilities Management to rearrange the room so that the piece of equipment is close to the outlet or have an additional outlet installed. If there is no way to rearrange the room or install a new outlet, then run the cord up the wall across the ceiling and down the wall to prevent the trip and fall hazard. The last resort would be to tape down the cord or use a cord cover as a means of preventing someone from STF. Report this danger! Can you identify the hazard
50 Additional Information and References Slips, Trips & Falls in Trucking Industry (L & I publication) Falls in Supermarkets (L & I publication) National Floor Safety Institute -