SLIPS, TRIPS AND FALLS SLIPS, TRIPS AND FALLS (STF) Slips, Trips and Falls: Agenda

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1 SLIPS, TRIPS AND FALLS Environmental & Occupational Health Support Services SLIPS, TRIPS AND FALLS (STF) You take hundreds of steps every day, but how many of those steps do you take seriously? By taking a few minutes to understand how slips, trips, and falls (STF) happen, you can prevent needless and painful injuries. Slips, Trips and Falls: Agenda Hazards and Control, including Industrial Regulations RMM# 312: Foot Protection Program Statistics, WSIB and McMaster University Effective Housekeeping Program Reducing Falls at Work, Office Safety Ladder Safety Reporting

2 SLIPS!! : to slide along smoothly resulting in a sudden mishap. Too little friction or traction between footwear and walking surface Transition between flooring types (carpet to tile) Weather (rain, snow, ice) Spills (water, oil, chemicals, food) Loose, unanchored rugs RMM# 312: Foot Protection Program To reduce the potential for foot injury and risk of slipping To provide guidance for the selection of protective footwear Faculty, Staff, Students and Volunteers shall wear protective footwear prescribed by the supervisor as being appropriate for the involved tasks Close-toed shoes shall be the minimum standard for foot protection wherever there is a potential for foot injury in the workplace Only CSA approved protective footwear will be used on campus when such footwear is deemed necessary Appendix B: Types of Foot Hazards and Required Protection TRIPS!! : to catch the foot on something so as to stumble. Damaged steps or misplaced items are major factors in trips. Uneven flooring Obstructions (cables) Equipment; clutter Use handrails when ascending or descending stairs.

3 FALLS!! : to descend freely by the force of gravity. õ õ Eliminate the hazard when possible (i.e. broken chair, unstable ladder, etc...) Practice good judgment - Don t lean back in chairs, don t climb on shelving or tables. WSIB Statistics 4Falls from heights (1 cm to 120 stories) account for 35% of all WSIB fall injuries 4Same level falls (slips and trips) account for 65% of all WSIB fall injuries Each year in Ontario: 4 WSIB receives 17,000 lost time injuries (LTI) due to falls in the workplace (1/5 are caused by falls 480 Ontario workers are injured every day because of a fall-----that s 1 every 20 minutes! (STF) Cost Us All: In 1996, the average Ontario WSIB claim resulted in 6 weeks off work at a direct cost of $ 19,560. For every dollar spent, an estimated $5.00 is spent in hidden costs The hidden costs increase this amount to $ 98,000 per WSIB claim (2006) Are STF a cost of doing business?

4 Annual Incident Summary 2003 Calendar 2004 Calendar 2005 Calendar 2006 Calendar Incidents Healthcare Lost Time Lost Days Average Lost Days per LT Incident Days 6 Days/Incident Days 8 Days/Incident Days 4.9 Days/Incident Days 15.1 Days/Incident 2007 Calendar Days 9.5 Days/Incident Slips, Trips and Falls Related to Lost Time Incidents Days Lost Location of Slips, Trips & Falls* *Slip, Trip & Fall incidents total 334 from 2003 to 2006.

5 Regulation 851 for Industrial Establishments 11. A floor or other surface used by any worker shall, (a) (b) Be kept free of (i) obstructions, (ii) hazards, (iii) accumulation of refuse, snow or ice; and Not have any finish or protective material used on it that is likely to make the surface slippery. Elements Of An Effective Housekeeping Program Dust and Dirt Removal In some jobs, enclosures and exhaust ventilation systems may fail to collect dust, dirt and chips adequately. Dampening floors or using sweeping compounds before sweeping reduces the amount of airborne dust. Employee Facilities Employee facilities need to be adequate, clean and well maintained. Lockers are necessary for storing employees' personal belongings. Smoking, eating or drinking in the work area should be prohibited where toxic materials are handled. Surfaces Poor floor conditions are a leading cause of accidents so cleaning up spilled liquids at once is important. Mop or sweep debris. Keeping floors in good order also means replacing any worn, ripped, or damaged flooring that poses a tripping hazard. Securing mats (tack, tape) Covering temporary cables across walkways Elements Of An Effective Housekeeping Program, continued Aisles and Stairways Aisles should be wide enough to accommodate people comfortably and safely. Warning signs and mirrors improve sight-lines in blind corners. Keeping aisles and stairways clear is important. They should not be used for temporary "overflow" or "bottleneck" storage. Spill Control The best way to control spills is to stop them before they happen. When spills do occur, it is important to clean them up immediately. Mark the wet area with signs Waste Disposal The regular collection, grading and sorting of scrap contribute to good housekeeping practices. All waste receptacles should be clearly labelled (e.g., recyclable glass, plastic, scrap metal, etc.).

6 Elements Of An Effective Housekeeping Program, continued Storage Good organization of stored materials is essential for overcoming storage problems whether on a temporary or permanent basis. Stored materials should not obstruct aisles, stairs, exits, fire equipment, emergency eyewash fountains, emergency showers, or first aid stations. Close file cabinets and storage doors. Maintain Light Fixtures Dirty light fixtures reduce essential light levels. Clean light fixtures can improve lighting efficiency significantly. Replace faulty switches. Maintenance The maintenance of buildings and equipment may be the most important element of good housekeeping. Elements Of An Effective Housekeeping Program, continued Must be ongoing: not hit or miss cleanup done occasionally If the sight of paper, debris, clutter and spills is accepted as normal, than other health and safety hazards may be taken for granted Clutter may also hide other hazards Basic component of accident prevention and fire safety Identifies and assigns responsibilities for: Clean up during the shift Day to day clean up Waste disposal Removal of unused materials Inspection to ensure clean up is completed Elements Of An Effective Housekeeping Program, continued Both slips and trips result from some kind of unintended or unexpected change in the contact between the feet and the ground or walking surface. This shows that good housekeeping, quality of walking surfaces (flooring), selection of proper footwear, and appropriate pace of walking are critical for preventing fall accidents.

7 Housekeeping Without good housekeeping practices, any other preventive measures such as installation of sophisticated flooring, specialty footwear or training on techniques of walking and safe falling will never be fully effective. Flooring and Footwear Changing or modifying walking surfaces is the next level of preventing slips and trips. Recoating or replacing floors, installing mats, pressuresensitive abrasive strips or abrasive-filled paint-on coating and metal or synthetic decking can further improve safety and reduce risk of falling. However, it is critical to remember that high-tech flooring requires good housekeeping as much as any other flooring. In addition, resilient, nonslippery flooring prevents or reduces foot fatigue and contributes to slip prevention measures. Use good judgment with regard to footwear while on duty. Be certain footwear is in good condition and appropriate to your job function and outside weather condition. Reducing STF at Work, Office Safety Ensure electrical and computer cords, bags and purse straps are covered or out of the way of pedestrians. Mats must be tacked or taped down Use appropriate ladders or step stools to reach high items, do not stand on tables or chairs.

8 Reducing STF at Work, Office Safety Ensure all drawers are kept closed Prevent a potential injury by cleaning up spills and wet floors. Keep isles and walkways clear of clutter or obstructions. Report hazards to your supervisor and Facility Services (Physical Plant) Ladder Safety Industrial Regulations (sections 18, 19, 20 and 73) Hazards Inspection and Maintenance Storage Set up and Use Regulations 851 for Industrial Establishments 18 (1) Subject to subsection (2), an access ladder fixed in position shall, (a) be vertical (b) have rest platforms at not more than nine meter intervals; (c) be offset at each rest platform; (d) where the ladder extends over five meters, above grade, floor or landing, have a safety cage commencing not more than 2.2 meters above grade and continuing at least ninety-centimeters above the top landing with openings to permit access by a worker to rest platforms or to the top landing; (e) have side rails that extend ninety centimeters above the landing; and (f) Have rings which are at least fifteen centimeters from the wall and spaced at regular intervals. 18 (2) Subsection (1) does not apply to an access ladder on a tower, water tank, chimney or similar structure which has a safety device which will provide protection should a worker using a ladder fall. R.R.O. Reg. 851, s 18.

9 Regulations, continued 19. Where frequent access is required to equipment elevated above or located below floor level, permanent platforms shall be provided with access by a fixed, (a) stair; or (b) access ladder 20. Barriers, warning signs or other safeguards for the protection of all workers in an area shall be used where vehicle or pedestrian traffic may endanger the safety of any worker. R.R.O. 1990, REG. 851, s.20 Regulations, continued 73. A portable ladder shall, (a) Be free from broken or loose members or other faults (b) Have non slip feet (c) Be placed on a firm footing (d) Where it, (i) exceeds six meters in length and is not securely fastened, or (ii) is likely to be endangered by traffic, be held in place by one or more workers while being used; and (e) When not securely fastened, be inclined so that the horizontal distance from the top support to the foot of the ladder is not less than ¼ and not more than 1/3 of the length of the ladder. R.R.O. 1990, Reg. 851, s. 73. LADDER HAZARDS Ladders with missing or broken parts. Using a ladder with too low a weight rating. Using a ladder that is too short for purpose. Using metal ladders near energized electrical equipment. Using ladders as a working platform. Objects falling from ladders.

10 LADDER INSPECTION/MAINTENANCE All rungs and steps are free of oil, grease, dirt, etc. All fittings are tight. Spreaders or other locking devices are in place. Non-skid safety feet are in place. No structural defects, all support braces intact. Keep ladders clean. Never replace broken parts unless provided by the original manufacturer. Do not attempt to repair broken side rails. Implement a basic inspection schedule DO NOT use broken ladders. Contact Maintenance to have broken ladders tagged Do Not Use and removed from service. LADDER STORAGE Store ladders on sturdy hooks in areas where they cannot be damaged. Store to prevent warping or sagging. Do not hang anything on ladders that are in a stored condition. LADDER SETUP Procedure to prevent ladder incidents: Place ladder on a clean slip free level surface. Extend the ladder 3 feet above the top support, if used to access roof or other elevated surface. Anchor or secure the top of the ladder when the 3 feet extension is not possible. Place the ladder base ¼ the height of the ladder from the wall when using a straight ladder.

11 LADDER SETUP, continued Never allow more than one person on a ladder. Use tool belts or hand lines to carry objects. Do not lean out from the ladder in any direction. Do not allow others to work under a ladder in use. Be aware of possible pedestrian traffic in the area. Have someone guard the area if necessary FIVE RULES OF LADDER SAFETY 1. Select the right ladder for the job. 2. Inspect ladder before you use it. 3. Setup the ladder with care. 4. Climb and descend ladders cautiously.3-point contact: 2 hands and one foot; or two feet and one hand on ladder Face ladder and hold on with both hands. Carry tools on belt or raise and lower with hand line. Check shoes and rungs for slippery surfaces. 5. Use safe practices when working on a ladder. Always hold on with one hand and never reach too far to either side or rear to maintain balance. Never climb higher than second step from top Never attempt to move or shift ladder in use.

12 McMaster - Reporting Hazards Importance of reporting: for every serious injury, there are 600 near misses! All employees of the University have a legal obligation to report any hazards Regular business hours: Facility Services (formally known as Physical Plant) customer service desk ext [ inside buildings, stairs leading to buildings, fire exits] or; Grounds at ext [snow removal of pathways, sidewalks, roads, parking lots] Parking at ext [repairs to pathways, sidewalks, roads, lots] Emergency? [On Campus, dial 88, FHSc: 5555, DTC: 911] Injured? Main Campus/DTC: Call ext FHSc: ext Questions?

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