1 CYCLORAMA TEACHER S GUIDE GRADES K-5 This teacher s guide is aligned to the Georgia Performance Standards
2 TABLE OF CONTENTS: OVERVIEW OF CYCLORAMA...PAGE 1 CYCLORAMA ETIQUETTE....PAGE 2 LEARNING GOALS...PAGE 3 GEORGIA PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PAGE 3 GEORGIA PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR SOCIAL STUDIES...PAGE 4 ACTIVITIES...PAGES 5-10 SELECTED CYCLORAMA RESOURCES WEBSITES.PAGE 11 TEXTS PAGE 12
3 OVERVIEW: The Cyclorama painting, which illustrates the 1864 Battle of Atlanta, stands 42 feet tall and is 358 feet in circumference. It is said to be the largest painting in the world, and is enhanced by a foreground of threedimensional figures and terrain. The Battle of Atlanta was painted in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, in the studios of the American Panorama Company. Company manager William Wehner went to Europe to find artists with the necessary skills. He selected a group of German artists with experience in European cyclorama painting and brought them to Milwaukee. The artists studied the landscape depicted in Cyclorama from a 40-foot wooden tower erected near the intersection of Moreland Avenue and the Georgia Railroad. They correlated landmarks with references made in military maps and official reports of the battle and made oil sketches of many details of the battle area. During their several months of study in the tower, the artists received helpful information and insightful reminiscences from Confederate and Union veterans and residents of the surrounding neighborhood. An interpreter translated for the non-englishspeaking artists. William Wehner placed the Battle of Atlanta on exhibition in Detroit in This was the first of several stops on a tour of large cities that ended in Indianapolis, where the painting was displayed in During the tour it was publicized as "Logan's Great Battle," in reference to General John A. Logan, commander of the Union Army of the Tennessee in the Battle of Atlanta. According to tradition, the painting was originally commissioned to boost Logan's vice presidential candidacy on the ticket with James G. Blaine in But the timing was off by two years, and General Logan, who died in 1886, probably never saw the completed work. Legal difficulties forced Wehner to relinquish ownership of the painting in 1888 to the Miller heirs who owned the land where the painting was housed. The Miller heirs, in turn, sold the painting to Paul Atkinson of Madison, Georgia, in In 1892, The Battle of Atlanta was brought to and exhibited in a building on Edgewood Avenue (between Courtland Ave. and Piedmont Rd.). In 1893 Atkinson sold the painting to H.H. Harrison of Florida. Heavy snowfall that winter caved in the roof of the Edgewood structure and damaged the painting. It was sold at auction in 1893 to Ernest Woodruff. He in turn sold it to George Valentine Gress and Charles Northen, who asked the city to assign space for it in one of the city parks. Atlanta agreed and a frame structure was erected in Grant Park. In 1898, Gress gave the Cyclorama to the city, asking only that the painting be repaired and its wooden building improved. In 1919, an amendment to the Atlanta city charter allowed the city to erect a fireproof building to house the painting and thus ensure its preservation. The current building, designed by Atlanta architect John Francis Downing, was dedicated on October 1, The diorama was added in 1936, providing a three-dimensional foreground that blends seamlessly with the painting. In 1979, the Cyclorama was shut down for a two-year period while the painting was repaired and the museum and theater were updated. It reopened in 1982 with a dynamic new program, rotating seats, surround sound and theater lighting.
4 CYCLORAMA ETIQUETTE: Museums, like libraries, are places of learning, introspection and leisure. Please respect the Atlanta Cyclorama, its visitors and staff by adhering to the following: Please be mindful of staff interaction with other patrons and of ongoing film showings in the Auditorium and use speaking voices that will not interfere with either Running in the building is not permitted, as students may hurt themselves and/or other visitors or staff Leaning and/or sitting on artifacts, exhibits or exhibit cases is not permitted Eating or drinking in the Cyclorama auditorium is not permitted
5 LEARNING GOALS: The importance of the Battle of Atlanta to Atlanta history from present The importance of the Battle of Atlanta as it relates to the Civil War To understand the impact of the Civil War on the economy of both Confederate and Union States and on the United States global image The importance of understanding the impact of the Civil War on race, gender and class and how those factors influenced the growth and development of the United States from 1865-present The importance of preserving and interpreting Cyclorama as a historic document and artifact GEORGIA PERFORMANCE STANDARDS: SSKG2 The student will explain that a map is a drawing of a place and a globe is a model of the Earth. SS1H1 The student will read about and describe the life of historical figures in American history. SS1CG1 The student will describe how the historical figures in SS1H1a display positive character traits of fairness, respect for others, respect for the environment, conservation, courage, equality, tolerance, perseverance, and commitment. SS2H1 The student will read about and describe the lives of historical figures in Georgia history. SS3H2 The student will discuss the lives of Americans who expanded people s rights and freedoms in a democracy. SS3CG2 The student will discuss the character of different historical figures in SS3H2a. SS4H7 The student will examine the main ideas of the abolitionist and suffrage movements. SS4CG5 The student will name positive character traits of key historical figures and government leaders (honesty, patriotism, courage, trustworthiness). SS5H1 The student will explain the causes, major events, and consequences of the Civil War. SS5H2 The student will analyze the effects of Reconstruction on American life. SS5G2 The student will explain the reasons for the spatial patterns of economic activities.
6 GEORGIA PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR SOCIAL STUDIES The Georgia Performance Standards for Social Studies were designed to develop informed Georgia citizens who understand the history of the United States and our place in an ever increasing interconnected world. It is essential that students understand their past and how that past influences the present day and the future. To accomplish our goal of informed citizens, it is essential that social studies teachers: 1. Bridge essential understanding about the past to contemporary events. 2. Assist students in understanding the nature of historical inquiry and the role of primary and secondary sources. 3. Encourage the consideration of multiple perspectives on events. 4. Engage students in speculation about the known and unknown motives and actions of historic figures. 5. Integrate the strands of Social Studies. The ever growing body of children s literature that has relevant social studies themes should be incorporated into the Social Studies curriculum. Reading in Social Studies is part of the 25 book standard. In addition, the reading of social studies related books should be an integral part of the elementary reading program. The Social Studies skills identified on the Skills Matrix are to be integrated into the content as appropriate, not taught separately from the content. Skills are introduced in a given year, then developed and mastered over time; and once mastered, they must continue to be refined throughout the student s academic career. Through the use of a varied assessment program, students should be provided with periodic opportunities to engage in inquiry-oriented projects related to social studies. A varied assessment program with multiple types of both formative and summative assessments provides the teacher, the student, and the parent with an understanding of the student s progress and mastery of the Georgia Performance Standards for Social Studies.
7 ACTIVITY 1 THROUGH A CHILD S EYES: UNDERSTANDING THE CIVIL WAR ENDURING UNDERSTANDING: TO UNDERSTAND THE BASIC REASONS FOR WHICH THE CIVIL WAR WAS FOUGHT. TO LEARN ABOUT THE KEY FIGURES OF THE CIVIL WAR (THEIR CHARACTER TRAITS, PERSONALITIES, STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES, ETC.). TO LEARN ABOUT AND DISCUSS WHY THESE INDIVIDUALS WERE IMPORTANT WHAT MAKES A PERSON IMPORTANT? ESSENTIAL QUESTION: WHAT WAS THE CIVIL WAR? WHAT WERE SOME OF THE REASONS FOR WHICH THE WAR WAS FOUGHT? WHO ARE SOME OF THE KEY FIGURES OF THE CIVIL WAR? WHY? SUGGESTED SUPPLIES/MATERIALS: INTERNET ACCESS MEDIA CENTER & LIBRARY ACCESS PAPER, PENCILS PROMETHEAN BOARD OPENING: WITH TEACHER GUIDANCE, STUDENTS WILL RESEARCH AND GATHER HISTORICAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR. THE INTERNET AND TEXTBOOKS WILL BE UTILIZED. ORGANIZE THE STUDENTS INTO TWO (OR MORE) GROUPS. STUDENTS WILL WORK TOGETHER IN THEIR GROUPS TO IDENTIFY KEY REASONS FOR WHICH THE WAR WAS FOUGHT. GROUPS WILL COMPARE AND CONTRAST THEIR LISTS AND, WITH GUIDANCE OF TEACHER, COMPILE A MASTER LIST. STUDENTS WILL WORK TOGETHER IN THEIR GROUP TO IDENTIFY KEY FIGURES PRIMARY AND SECONDARY--IN THE CIVIL WAR (PRIMARY: GENERALS, POLITICIANS, STATESMEN; AND SECONDARY: SOLDIERS, CIVILIANS, ETC.). GROUPS WILL COMPARE THEIR LISTS AND, WITH GUIDANCE OF TEACHER, COMPILE A MASTER LIST. TEACHER WILL LEAD A CLASS DISCUSSION ABOUT THE REASONS FOR THE WAR AND THE IMPORTANT FIGURES IN THE WAR. BROAD THEMES TO CONSIDER: POLITICS, BUSINESS/FINANCE, SLAVERY, CULTURE CLOSING: RESULTS OF THIS ACTIVITY MAY BE SHARED VIA PROMETHIUM BOARD WITH OTHER CLASSES AND PARENTS.
8 ACTIVITY 2 WAR, WHAT IS IT GOOD FOR? ENDURING UNDERSTANDING: TO EFFECTIVELY COMMUNICATE AND INTERACT WITH OTHERS; AND TO COMMUNICATE INFORMATION THROUGH DIFFERENT MODES OF PRESENTATION. TO ENCOURAGE THE CONSIDERATION OF MULTIPLE PERSPECTIVES ON EVENTS. ESSENTIAL QUESTION: ARE WARS NECESSARY? DO YOU THINK THAT A SOLUTION COULD HAVE BEEN REACHED AT THE CONFERENCE TABLE? WHY OR WHY NOT? DO YOU KNOW THE CAUSES OF THE CIVIL WAR? SUGGESTED SUPPLIES/MATERIALS: INTERNET ACCESS MEDIA CENTER & LIBRARY ACCESS PAPER, PENCILS PROMETHEAN BOARD OPENING: STUDENTS WILL RESEARCH AND GATHER HISTORICAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR. THE INTERNET AND TEXTBOOKS WILL BE UTILIZED. ORGANIZE THE STUDENTS INTO TWO GROUPS. STUDENTS WILL DECIDE TO WORK ON TEAMS (PRO AND CON). RULES FOR DISCUSSION/DEBATE MUST BE ESTABLISHED. THE STUDENTS WILL SELECT JUDGES AND TIME-KEEPERS FOR THE DEBATE. VENN DIAGRAMS MAY BE USED TO RECORD DATA. USE A CHRONOLOGY TO CHECK DATES AND EVENTS. EXTENDED LESSON: STUDENTS WILL USE THE COLLECTED DATA TO CREATE A RAP SONG OR POEM. CLOSING: THIS ACTIVITY MAY BE SHARED VIA PROMETHIUM BOARD WITH OTHER CLASSES AND PARENTS.
9 ACTIVITY 3 MAP MAKING SHERMAN S ADVANCE ON ATLANTA ENDURING UNDERSTANDING: TO COMPARE AND CONTRAST THE GEOGRAPHICAL LAYOUT OF ATLANTA IN 1864 TO THAT OF ATLANTA TODAY. ESSENTIAL QUESTION: CAN YOU IDENTIFY THE ATLANTA STREETS THAT MARKED GENERAL WILLIAM T. SHERMAN S MARCH? SUGGESTED SUPPLIES/ MATERIALS: INTERNET RULERS CLEAR PLASTIC OVERLAYS ACCESS TO PUBLIC LIBRARY/ SCHOOL MEDIA CENTER PENCILS, DRAWING PAPER, COLORED MARKERS OPENING: STUDENTS WILL CREATE A MAP OVERLAY OF THE ADVANCE ON ATLANTA IN STUDENTS WILL CHART PRESENT DAY LANDMARKS ON THE AREAS WHERE THE BATTLE OF ATLANTA WAS FOUGHT (EG. MEMORIAL DRIVE, CANDLER PARK, DECATUR, AUSTIN AVENUE AT EUCLID, FAYETTEVILLE ROAD, ETC.) STUDENTS WILL USE CLEAR PLASTIC OVERLAYS TO COMPARE THE TWO SETTINGS. WORK SESSION: DRAW A MAP OF ATLANTA TO IDENTIFY THE PATH THAT SHERMAN MARCHED USING BLACK MARKER ON WHITE DRAWING PAPER. ON A PLASTIC OVERLAY, USE A CONTRASTING COLORED MARKER TO SHOW THE PRESENT DAY ATLANTA STREETS. CLOSING: SHARE MAPS ORALLY AND EXHIBIT ON BULLETIN BOARDS
10 ACTIVITY 4 IMPORTANT CIVIL WAR FIGURES TALES OF CIVIL WAR SOLDIERS ENDURING UNDERSTANDING: DETERMINE THE KEY MILITARY FIGURES OF THE CIVIL WAR AND THE BATTLE OF ATLANTA. ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS: WHO WERE THE KEY MILITARY FIGURES IN THE CIVIL WAR AND THE BATTLE OF ATLANTA AND WHAT ROLES DID THEY PLAY? SUGGESTED MATERIALS/SUPPLIES: COMPUTERS INTERNET ACCESS LIBRARY/MEDIA CENTER ACCESS PAPER & PENCILS OPENING: TEACHERS SHARE IMPORTANT MILITARY FIGURES/LEADERS THAT WERE INVOLVED IN THE CIVIL WAR AND THE BATTLE OF ATLANTA. WORK SESSIONS: STUDENTS SELECT A KEY MILITARY FIGURE(S) AND RESEARCH THEIR ROLE IN THE CIVIL WAR. WRITE AN ESSAY OR CREATE A POWER POINT, DRAMATIZATION TO EXPLAIN THEIR ROLES AND OR RESPONSIBILITIES INCLUDE PICTURES OR ILLUSTRATIONS. SHARE WITH WHOLE CLASS. CLOSING: SUMMARIZE AND SHARE FINDINGS WITH CLASS. DISPLAY FINDINGS ON STUDENT MADE BULLETIN BOARD AND POWER POINT PRESENTATIONS.
11 ACTIVITY 5 ORIGINAL CIVIL WAR BOARD GAMES CIVIL WAR JEOPARDY ENDURING UNDERSTANDING: TO COMMUNICATE INFORMATION THROUGH DIFFERENT MODES OF PRESENTATION. ESSENTIAL QUESTION: LEARNING HISTORY CAN BE AS EASY AS PLAYING A GAME OF JEOPARDY! CAN YOU FORMULATE THE FACTS YOU HAVE LEARNED ABOUT THE CIVIL WAR INTO CATEGORIES, CLUES AND QUESTIONS FOR YOUR OWN CLASSROOM JEOPARDY GAME? SUGGESTED SUPPLIES/ MATERIALS: INDEX CARDS PENCILS, MARKERS INTERNET ACCESS / LIBRARY/ MEDIA CENTER ACCESS EGG TIMER/ BUZZER SYSTEM OR STOP-WATCH PRIZES ( SOLICIT DONATIONS FROM COMMUNITY PARTNERS) OPENING: STUDENTS WILL GATHER HISTORICAL FACTS AND TRIVIA ABOUT THE CIVIL WAR AND ENACT AN ORIGINAL JEOPARDY GAME. NOTE: THE ANSWER IS IN THE FORM OF A QUESTION. WORK SESSION: USE TIMELINES (CHRONOLOGY OF THE CIVIL WAR), INTERNET AND TEXTBOOKS TO GATHER FACTS AND TRIVIA. ORGANIZE CLUES INTO CATEGORIES. SELECT GAME HOST, JUDGES, SCORE KEEPER AND PARTICIPANTS. CLOSING: CULMINATING ACTIVITY: PRESENT GAME TO A LIVE AUDIENCE IN A SCHOOL ASSEMBLY OR PTA MEETING.
12 ACTIVITY 6 ATLANTA CYCLORAMA A STUDY OF ART RESTORATION ENDURING UNDERSTANDING: TO EXPLORE THE CAUSES OF DAMAGE TO GREAT WORKS OF ART, SPECIFICALLY THE ATLANTA CYCLORAMA. TO UNDERSTAND THAT A CYCLORAMA IS A LARGE CYLINDRICAL PAINTING. IT IS THEATER-IN-THE-ROUND. (EXAMPLES OF CAUSES OF DAMAGE: EXTREME TEMPERATURE CHANGES, WATER DAMAGE, EXPOSURE TO SUNLIGHT AND/OR FLORESCENT LIGHT, DUST, MOLD, MILDEW AND DIRT, ETC.) ESSENTIAL QUESTION: WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO PRESERVE HISTORICAL PAINTINGS? NOTE TO TEACHER: IT IS ESSENTIAL TO PRESERVE PAINTINGS THAT DEPICT HISTORY BECAUSE THEY OFFER A VALUABLE WINDOW INTO OUR PAST. IT IS IMPORTANT TO REMEMBER THAT BEFORE TELEVISION, MOVIES AND THE INTERNET, PAINTINGS WERE A MAIN SOURCE OF STORYTELLING AND INFORMATION. SUGGESTED SUPPLIES/ MATERIALS: COMPOSITION BOOKS AND PENCILS INTERNET ACCESS ART CONSERVATION WEBSITES ACCESS TO PUBLIC LIBRARY/ SCHOOL MEDIA CENTER OPENING: STUDENTS WILL RESEARCH THE MAJOR CAUSES OF DAMAGE TO OIL PAINTINGS ON CANVAS. STUDENTS WILL LEARN ABOUT THE RESTORATION AND PRESERVATION OF OIL PAINTINGS. STUDENTS WILL RESEARCH WORLDWIDE EXISTING PANORAMAS (SUBJECTS, PLACES, LEADING ARTISTS, YEAR OF COMPLETION) STUDENTS WILL LEARN ART AND ART CONSERVATION/PRESERVATION TERMINOLOGY (EXAMPLES: CYCLORAMA, PERSPECTIVE, FOREGROUND, BACKGROUND, TEXTURE, PATTERN, DETAIL ETC.) STUDENTS WILL DISCOVER HOW SIZE AND PLACEMENT OF FIGURES AND OBJECTS ON THE CANVAS CREATE PERSPECTIVE. WORK SESSION: SELECT ONE FAMOUS OIL PAINTING ON CANVAS THAT HAS UNDERGONE A RESTORATION PROCESS AND WRITE A RESEARCH PAPER ABOUT THE CAUSES OF DAMAGE AND THE PROCESS USED TO REPAIR THE PAINTING. WHEN WRITING YOUR RESEARCH PAPER, REMEMBER TO UTILIZE ART TERMINOLOGY. WRITE A ROUGH DRAFT, EDIT AND THEN TYPE FINAL DRAFT. TEACHER WILL DETERMINE LENGTH OF PAPER BASED ON GRADE LEVEL. CLOSING: SHARE RESEARCH PROJECTS ORALLY IN CLASS. FIELD EXCURSION: VISIT THE ATLANTA CYCLORAMA & CIVIL WAR MUSEUM
13 Selected Cyclorama Resources Websites: African American Civil War Memorial and Museum ATLANTA CYCLORAMA The Atlanta History Center/Keenan Research Center B*ATL ENOTES GEORGIA ARCHIVES INTERMUSEUM CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION LIBRARY OF CONGRESS MAPS ETC The National Archives The National Park Service The New Georgia Encyclopedia THE SOUTHERN MUSEUM WIKIPEDIA
14 Texts* A People s History of the United States, by Howard Zinn The Atlanta Campaign, by J. Britt McCarley Blue and Gray Navies: The Civil War Afloat, by Spencer C. Tucker The Bonfire: The Siege and Burning of Atlanta, by Marc Wortman The Great Locomotive Chase, by Gordon L. Rottman Hell s Broke Loose in Georgia, by Scott Walker Look Away: A History of the Confederate States of America, by William C. David Marching Through Georgia, by Lee Kennett The Negro s Civil War, by James M. McPherson The Politically Incorrect Guide to the Civil War, by H.W. Crocker III Reconstruction , by Eric Fonner Slavery by Another Name, by Doug Blackmon Stealing the General, by Russell Bands *All texts are available at the Atlanta Cyclorama gift shop