History Day 2015: Leadership and Legacy

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1 History Day 2015: Leadership and Legacy Dear History Day Students: Leadership and Legacy: This year's National History Day topic is a perfect one for Washington students. Our state's history is crowded with leaders, both men and women, who influenced the eras in which they lived and left lasting legacies that still influence our lives today. HistoryLink.org, the online encyclopedia of Washington state history, has put together here a blockbuster selection of essays that tell the stories of many of these leaders. These essays have been fully researched and professionally written, and they contain detailed information about the contributions these men and women made and the legacies they left -- to their communities, to our state, and in some cases, to the nation and the world. And remember, this is only a sampling of what is available on HistoryLink that you could use in selecting a subject and preparing your History Day essays. Here's how to take full advantage of our content: First, read the short descriptions below and pick someone you find interesting and would like to know more about. Then go to HistoryLink.org, and in the SEARCH box in the upper right corner, type the essay number, followed by a space and the person's last name (don't use quotation marks). Here are two examples: 65 Boone will take you to our Essay No. 65, which is about an early Seattle architect, William E. Boone. If you enter 9865 Dunbar, you will find our essay on astronaut Bonnie Dunbar. Occasionally, more than one essay will come up with your search, but it should be easy to spot the one you are looking for. If you want to narrow it down further, use the subject's last and first name in your search string. Most of the essays you search for will show up on the left, in the "Cyberpedia" column of the results page. Our Cyberpedias include biographies and detailed essays on a range of general topics. One of the best parts about using HistoryLink are the lists of sources that come at the end of each Cyberpedia and Timeline. These identify the specific resources the author relied upon when researching and writing that essay. You should find this very useful, both as you dig deeper for more information and when you are putting together your own bibliography. HistoryLink's Education Page also provides a list of valuable primary and secondary sources that should be helpful in your research. Just click on "Education" in the row of tabs at the top of the home page and go from there. And one more great thing -- as part of our participation in History Day, HistoryLink offers an award, named for one of our founders, the late Walt Crowley. This award is presented for a student-written historical paper that highlights a relevant aspect of Washington's history and 1

2 wins first place in either the North Puget Sound Regional or the state competition. The student(s) with the winning historical paper(s) will receive an award of money and will be invited to HistoryLink's annual HistoryLunch as a special guest. The winning paper may also be posted on the HistoryLink website, along with a brief biography of the student author. Please contact the Education Team at for more information. Good luck on your projects this year! And let us know if we can be of any help. Patricia Filer, Education Director Leigh Sheridan, Education Intern ARCHITECTS Kichio Allen Arai was Seattle's first Asian American architect to design buildings under his own name. (Essay #139) Elizabeth Ayer, the first female graduate of the University of Washington's architecture program, helped fashion the residential architecture of many Seattle neighborhoods in the midtwentieth century. (Essay #1721) William Bain Sr. was a founding principal of Naramore, Bain, Brady and Johansen (NBBJ), now one of the world's largest architecture firms. His accomplishments included the design of an elaborate false town used to camouflage the Boeing plant in Seattle during World War II. (Essay #117) Fred Bassetti was an architect and advocate who had a profound influence on shaping Seattle's skyline and the design of Northwest urban communities. Beginning in the late 1940s, Bassetti made significant contributions to the development of modern architecture in the Pacific Northwest. Among his designs are the Jackson Federal Building and Seattle Municipal Tower, and he also made significant contributions to the Woodland Park Zoo, the Seattle Aquarium, and many other projects. (Essay #8959) Beezer Brothers, an early nineteenth-century architectural firm headed by twins Louis and Michael J. Beezer, had many commissions across Washington state, most notably in Walla Walla, where they built the city's first skyscraper. They are also known for their work with Catholic communities around the state, including the design of Edward J. O'Dea High School in Seattle, a notable example of Gothic Revival style. (Essay #122) William E. Boone was Seattle's premier architect before the great fire of 1889 and also designed significant buildings in Tacoma. He was one of the few Seattle architects to continue in practice after the Financial Panic of 1893 brought new building to a near halt nationwide, and in 1894 he 2

3 became a founding member of the local chapter of the American Institute of Architects. (Essay #65) Kirtland Kelsey Cutter was a Spokane architect, but his legacy is much wider and includes large-scale houses and public buildings, varied in style and impressive in design, that still stand in Spokane, Seattle, Southern California, and elsewhere. (Essay #115) Elmer H. Fisher was Seattle's leading commercial architect for a few years before and after the Great Fire of He also designed the McCurdy Block and several other late-nineteenthcentury buildings in Port Townsend. (Essay #66) Carl F. Gould founded the University of Washington's School of Architecture, which would provide the state with a pool of locally educated designers. He was a prolific architect who, in partnership with Charles H. Bebb, designed such well-known structures as the University of Washington's Suzzallo Library, the Seattle Asian Art Museum in Volunteer Park, the Everett Public Library, and the Longview Post Office. (Essay #116) John Graham Jr. won international acclaim for his design of Seattle's celebrated Space Needle and a number of large-scale shopping complexes. (Essay #140) John Graham Sr. designed many of Seattle's most significant commercial buildings during the first half of the twentieth century. Many still form the core of the city's historic commercial district. (Essay #124) L. Jane Hastings began her studies in 1946 as the only female among 200 students in her University of Washington architecture class. In 1953, she became the eighth woman licensed as an architect in Washington since the state began regulating the profession 30 years earlier. In 1959 she became the principal partner in Washington's oldest, woman-owned architecture firm and was an influential member of the International Union of Women Architects (UIFA) in its formative years. (Essay #9046) Steven Holl designed two notable King County buildings, Seattle University's Chapel of St. Ignatius, completed in March 1997 and winner of an award for design excellence from the American Institute of Architects, and the Bellevue Art Museum, which opened (Essay #2932) Johnpaul Jones is one of perhaps 100 Native American architects in the United State. His Choctaw/Cherokee heritage is visible in a number of internationally significant projects. He is founding principal of Seattle-based Jones & Jones Architects and Landscape Architects, and his projects at Seattle's Woodland Park Zoo have earned widespread recognition for innovation in providing healthy environments for captive animals and heightening human sensitivity to cultural and environmental issues. Jones's career perhaps reached its culmination with a 12-year 3

4 engagement as lead design consultant for the Smithsonian's National Museum of the American Indian on the Capitol Mall in Washington, D.C. (Essay #9472) Benjamin F. McAdoo was the first African American architect to maintain a practice in Washington state. He was a national advocate for the development of low-cost housing solutions, and his Seattle-area house designs brought him local acclaim. McAdoo was also an outspoken civic leader who served as president of the Seattle chapter of the NAACP in the 1960s and hosted a weekly radio show that focused on social issues. (Essay #1161) Floyd A. Naramore was perhaps best known for his more than 20 Seattle public-school designs made between World War I and the early years of the Great Depression. He was a founding principal of Naramore, Bain, Brady and Johansen (NBBJ), which today one of the largest architecture firm in the world. (Essay #120) Ibsen Nelsen was a Seattle-based architect who designed the Museum of Flight, the Inn at the Market, and several buildings at Western Washington University in Bellingham, among other projects. He also was a prominent voice for historic preservation in the Puget Sound region. (Essay #7267) B. Marcus Priteca was one of America's foremost theater architects. His work included Seattle's Coliseum, Orpheum, Paramount, and Admiral theaters, and he also lent his design expertise to the Congregation Bikur Cholim Synagogue, the Jewish House Educational Center, Longacres Racetrack, and the 1962 conversion of the Civic Auditorium into the Seattle Center Opera House. (Essay #8815) Victor Steinbrueck, perhaps best known today for his efforts to protect Seattle's historic Pike Place Market and Pioneer Square, worked to adapt modern architecture to reflect the Puget Sound region's unique character. His devotion to his craft, colored by his passionate belief in socially conscious design, guided his life's work and civic involvement. (Essay #67) Ellsworth Storey, one of Seattle's most popular architects during the first half of the twentieth century, combined contemporary trends in domestic architecture with the use of local materials. His approach created a number of houses and public works grounded in Seattle's natural environment. Story also designed the fire-watch tower and other structures at Moran State Park on Orcas Island. (Essay #141) Paul Thiry was a major influence in the emergence of the "Northwest style" of architecture and an early proponent of modernist design. As principal architect of the 1962 Seattle World's Fair, Thiry helped craft the ongoing legacy of the Seattle Center. Over a career spanning nearly 50 years, he also designed signature residential projects in and beyond Seattle, the Frye Art Museum, the Museum of History & Industry in Seattle's Arboretum, the Washington State Library, and many other large public and private projects throughout the United States. (Essay #9383) 4

5 Harlan Thomas gave Seattle a number of well-executed architectural designs during the first half of the twentieth century, including the Sorrento Hotel and Harborview Hospital. He also designed schools for Aberdeen, Monroe, and Enumclaw; World War II housing in Bremerton; and private homes in various Western Washington locations. (Essay #114) Minoru Yamasaki was born in Seattle in 1912 to immigrant Japanese parents and studied architecture at the University of Washington. Among his designs are the Pacific Science Center and Rainier Square and Tower, but he is best known as the chief architect of the World Trade Center in New York City, destroyed in the terrorist attacks on September 11, (Essay #5352) ARTISTS VISUAL ARTS Leo Adams, a member of the Yakama Nation, is one of Eastern Washington's most acclaimed artists. He is a uniquely gifted painter and designer, and his house overlooking the Yakima Valley has long been considered a Northwest treasure. Constructed with modest means and salvaged materials, the building reflects the characteristics of the surrounding landscape filtered through Adams's creative imagination. (Essay #10440) Jacqueline Barnett is a prolific painter and printmaker based in Seattle. Her work has been featured in numerous group, thematic, and solo exhibitions since her move to the Pacific Northwest in Her abstract oil paintings tend to be brilliantly colored, expressionistic, and gestural, while her monotypes are calmer and more lyrical. (Essay #10422) Doris Totten Chase was born in Seattle in 1923 and became a noted painter, teacher, and sculptor of monumental kinetic forms. She is perhaps best remembered for having produced more than 50 videos that are regarded as key works in the history of video art. (Essay #5330) Dale Chihuly is unquestionably the most famous living visual artist in the Northwest. His influence is international and his reputation encompasses his roles as artist, teacher, designer, and co-founder of Pilchuck Glass School in Stanwood, one of the world's leading glass-art teaching institutions. (Essay #7754) William Cumming, a leading artist of the group of artists known as the Northwest School, called himself "The Willie Nelson of Northwest Painting." His brilliant career as a painter was interrupted by tuberculosis and intertwined with political controversy, including being blacklisted during the McCarthy era, but his reputation as an artist and teacher survived intact. (Essay #5221) 5

6 Imogen Cunningham was one of the foremost photographers of the twentieth century. She grew up in Port Angeles and opened a portrait studio in Seattle in Although she spent most of her career in San Francisco, she maintained life-long ties to the Puget Sound area. (Essay #5220) Asahel Curtis was a Seattle-based photographer who made 60,000 photographic images over a 44-year career, leaving as a legacy a remarkable visual record of the Pacific Northwest. He was the brother of Edward Curtis. (Essay #8780) Edward Curtis is acknowledged as one of the leading American photographers of his time. He produced iconic portraits of many important historical figures, including Chief Joseph, J. P. Morgan, and President Theodore Roosevelt, who was among his most ardent supporters. Best known today for his epic 20-volume book, The North American Indian, Curtis also served as Seattle's finest commercial and portrait photographer of the early twentieth century. (Essay #8857) Jini Dellaccio was a California-based fashion photographer, former jazz musician, and longtime fan of classical music. She likely will be most remembered for her stunning, mainly black-andwhite images of many of the Pacific Northwest's rock 'n' roll bands from the "Louie Louie" era of the 1960s. (Essay #8953) Dr. Richard Eugene Fuller, together with his mother, Margaret MacTavish Fuller, founded the original Seattle Art Museum in the city's Volunteer Park, and he served as the museum's president and main benefactor from 1933 until his retirement in Many other Seattle cultural organizations were also beneficiaries of Fuller's generosity, as were a wide variety of Northwest artists whose work he purchased and careers he nurtured. (Essay #7190) Andrew Gerber was an influential painter in Seattle's burgeoning Belltown art scene of the 1980s and early 1990s and a member of the staff of the Center on Contemporary Art (COCA). He is best known for his "Rubble Without a Cause," a series of drawings and paintings of demolished buildings that were powerful comments on the destruction of low-income hotels and apartments in Seattle. (Essay #7442) Richard Gilkey painted landscapes, often using a palette knife to apply thick paint to huge canvases. A serious automobile accident in 1984 interrupted his work for three years, and when he was able to paint again, his work became more interior, a record of human consciousness. Recognized as a member of the famed Northwest School of artists, Gilkey achieved a degree of fame both in the Pacific Northwest and internationally. (Essay #5404) Morris Graves was the most eccentric of the "Northwest Mystics" -- a group of four artists of the Northwest School that also included Mark Tobey, Kenneth Callahan, and Guy Anderson. Burdened by early fame, he chose to separate himself from society in his quest to paint symbolic representations of consciousness, often in the form of a bird or a chalice. (Essay #5205) 6

7 Z. Vanessa Helder was one of Washington's most distinguished artists of the early twentieth century. Her Northwest landscapes, especially those of Eastern Washington, brought attention to the unique geographical and atmospheric qualities of her home state. Helder's series of watercolors documenting the construction of Grand Coulee Dam remains one of the major accomplishments of any regional artist. (Essay #8633) Bill Holm is one of the world's leading authorities on Northwest Coast Indian art and an expert carver of masks and totem poles. In 1965, he published Northwest Coast Indian Art: An Analysis of Form, which became the definitive scholarly work on the subject and one of the best-selling books ever published by the University of Washington Press. In 2003, the Bill Holm Center for the Study of Northwest Coast Art at the Burke Museum in Seattle was launched in his honor. (Essay #10397) Ella McBride was an internationally noted fine-art photographer, as well as an avid mountain climber, environmentalist, and civic leader. For about eight years, she managed the Seattle photography studio of Edward S. Curtis and for more than 30 years operated her own successful Seattle photography studio. She was an adventurous, creative woman who embodied the pioneering spirit associated with the American West. (Essay #8513) Paul Horiuchi is an artist known for his layered collage paintings, which carry overtones of fragmented messages and of memories eroded by time, often with torn edges that suggest wounding and loss. Before finding success, Horiuchi traveled from a cultured family in Japan to hard times in America, working on the railroad and at other jobs. (Essay #3829) Frank Jacobs was a Seattle pioneer in the field of photojournalism and covered events big and small throughout the Pacific Northwest. He started as a part-time photographer with the Seattle Post-Intelligencer, for which he covered the Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition in Jacobs went on to make his mark photographing such transportation disasters as train wrecks, ship collisions, airplane crashes, and the like. (Essay #3258) Clayton James was attending the Rhode Island School of Design when World War II broke out. He declared himself a conscientious objector and was assigned to a camp for artists in Waldport, Oregon. He has lived in the Northwest ever since, creating art that reflects the influences of this region and using a variety of media. Over the years, he has produced painted landscapes, made furniture, and sculpted in clay, wood, and concrete. (Essay #5349) Fay Jones is an artist whose paintings and prints can be found on the walls of local museums, restaurants, and hospitals, and on book covers, magazines, jewelry, and wine labels. Since 1970, when she began exhibiting in Seattle, Jones has become one of the Northwest's most esteemed artists. (Essay #10129) Robert Jones established himself as one of the Northwest's most prominent abstract painters after moving to Seattle in 1960 to teach art at the University of Washington. In the Seattle arts community, Jones and his wife, the painter Fay Jones, are admired not only for the excellence of their artwork, but also for their generosity and goodwill to other artists. (Essay #10394) 7

8 Helmi Juvonen was diagnosed as manic depressive in 1930 and committed to a mental hospital in She spent the last 25 years of her life at Oakhurst Convalescent Center in Cowlitz County. During these years, exhibitions arranged by her artist friends sparked a rediscovery of her work and brought her considerable recognition. (Essay #3831) Leo Kenney had his first solo show of paintings at the Seattle Art Museum in 1949, when he was just 24 years old. To this day, he is one of the youngest artists ever to have received such early recognition. After he experimented with mescaline in 1962, his artwork changed to the style for which he is now best known, psychedelic circle paintings that he considered representations of nature. (Essay #5350) Gideon A. Kramer was a visionary designer, artist, inventor, teacher, builder, lecturer, and businessman, a true renaissance man. Long fascinated by the relationship between materials, technology, design, and function -- and given to flights of insightful socio-cultural and philosophical musings -- Kramer is recognized as one of the greatest industrial designers of our age. (Essay #9222) Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight, husband and wife, moved to Seattle from New York in 1971 when Jacob accepted a teaching post at the University of Washington. They were two of the country's preeminent visual artists of the last half of the twentieth century and built national reputations as painters, printmakers, art educators, and activists. (Essay #5120) Gypsy Rose Lee was born in Seattle in 1911 as Rose Louise Hovick and went on to fame in burlesque as a classy and witty striptease artist. Her bestselling 1957 memoir, Gypsy, became a Broadway smash-hit play. Lee's younger sister became the noted actress June Havoc. (Essay #5686) Phillip Levine has 30 sculptures that stand in public places, including Dancer with Flat Hat at the University of Washington and Walking with Logs on a hill facing the West Seattle Freeway. Beginning work in the 1960s when the trend in art was toward abstraction, Levine concentrated on representational figures, and his works have withstood the test of time. (Essay #3834) Alden Mason was one of the Northwest's most prolific and delightful painters. In 1980, Mason and a university art-department colleague, Michael Spafford, were commissioned to paint murals for the State Capitol Building in Olympia. Their work proved controversial, and after long public battles and at considerable taxpayer expense, politicians finally ordered the paintings removed. (Essay #10116) Neil Meitzler is best known for paintings in which broad sweeps of aqueous color are overlaid with flung, spattered, and blotted paint to create lively representations of mountain rocks and waterfalls. From 1957 to 1977 he was a designer at the Seattle Art Museum (SAM). (Essay #5327) 8

9 Johsel Namkung, born in Korea, was a Seattle-based photographer whose sharp-focused studies of nature convey more than just visual information. To see one of his scenes is to be present with him at the moment of its capture and to share in the sense of place. (Essay #5346) Mary Randlett, a Northwest photographer, has created five distinct bodies of work, covering architecture, nature, Northwest artists, Northwest writers, and public art. Her resume lists images of more than 500 writers and artists. Taken as a whole, her work provides a comprehensive visual documentation of the Northwest art scene in the second half of the twentieth century. (Essay #3844) Clara and Alice Rigby owned and operated an Everett photographic studio from 1905 to 1915, successfully competing with a dozen other local firms. Calling their business the Rigby Photo Shop, the sisters specialized in portraiture, particularly of children. (Essay #8529) Francine Seders took over the Otto Seligman Gallery in 1966 and has been a major player in the Northwest art scene, representing some of the region's premier artists, including internationally known painters Mark Tobey and Jacob Lawrence. Seders closed her gallery in 2013 after a historic 47-year run that launched some careers, but continued selling art and assisting clients from her nearby home. (Essay #10675) Buster Simpson is an artist who is predominately active in urban settings. In the early1970s, he started camping out in buildings in downtown Seattle that were about to be demolished, where he made art out of the readily available materials he found there. He went on to create installations in cities around the world that follow his principle of "poetic utility." A pioneer of urban "eco art," he typically works directly in the landscape rather than installing works in museums and galleries. (Essay #10620) Barbara Earl Thomas is the executive director of Seattle's Northwest African American Museum and an inspiring lecturer on the topics of art and culture. She has established herself as an artist of prominent stature, and her work has been exhibited across the nation. (Essay #9197) Mark Tobey was the first painter of the Northwest School to achieve international fame. He became renowned for an energetic, Eastern-influenced, "white writing" style of abstraction, which he first used to express the frenetic pulse of New York City. It was a style that would influence Jackson Pollock, among others. (Essay #5217) George Tsutakawa was an internationally recognized artist of Japanese American heritage. A native and longtime resident of Seattle, he was a painter, sculptor, and fountain maker. He made an art form of water and created more than 70 fountains for public places around the world, no doubt a world record and one unlikely to be broken. Tsutakawa also taught at the University of Washington for more than 30 years. (Essay #5426) James Washington Jr. was an African American sculptor and painter and a leading member of the Northwest School of artists. He placed his visionary paintings and sculptures in the service of 9

10 his religious faith and sought to express the unity of God, humankind, and nature using symbols derived from Freemasonry and the animal world. (Essay #5328) WRITERS Don Berry was primarily known for his three historical novels of early Oregon country -- Trask, Moontrap, and To Build a Ship. He ventured into educational software in the pioneering days of computers, authored scripts for adventure films, wrote commissioned books, and built a website called Berryworks for his own unpublished works of fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and philosophy. His Oregon trilogy and a history, A Majority of Scoundrels, were written and published between 1960 and 1963 and helped create a new Northwest fiction style. (Essay #10386) Royal Brougham, a 68-year veteran of the Seattle Post-Intelligencer, was once dubbed "Dean of American Sportswriters." Brougham established himself as one of Seattle's most celebrated, opinionated, and influential journalists and was also one of the city's most generous men. (Essay #7395) Margaret Bundy Callahan was a Seattle writer, journalist, and editor. She reported for The Seattle Star and The Seattle Times and wrote and helped edit the arts weekly Town Crier during the 1920s and 1930s. Callahan was at the nucleus of Seattle's creative artistic community, and many Seattle writers, artists, and performers felt the improving influence of her keen intelligence, encouragement, and opinions. No less a figure than artist Mark Tobey considered her the "Mother of the Northwest School." (Essay #10346) Walter C. Crowley was the founding president and executive director of History Ink and HistoryLink.org. A Seattle resident since 1961, Walt worked as a journalist, a social-services director, a policy planner for the City of Seattle and the Municipal League of King County, a television news commentator, and a freelance writer and communications consultant. Starting in the 1960s, he was active in numerous social-justice and historic-preservation causes and was the author or co-author of more than a dozen books on local history and institutions. (Essay #7216) Richard Hugo rose from an insecure childhood in White Center, a poor area just south of Seattle, to become one of the foremost American poets of his generation. His collected poems in Making Certain It Goes On range from his memories of the Duwamish Valley to a sojourn in Italy, and to towns, bars, and people across the Northwest. (Essay #5082) Betty MacDonald was an author whose first book, The Egg and I, rocketed to the top of the national bestseller list in In the wake of World War II, her hilarious accounts of her adventures as a backwoods farmer's wife in Chimacum Valley came as a breath of fresh air for readers around the world. (Essay #156) Murray Morgan was a journalist, political commentator, theater and arts reviewer, political activist, freelance writer, and college history teacher. In his later career, he was known mainly as an author. His best-known book, Skid Road: An Informal Portrait of Seattle, has been print 10

11 almost continuously since its first publication by Viking Press in 1951, and it is still considered by many to be the best history of the city ever written. (Essay #5021) Mary McCarthy was born in Seattle and became a famous writer and one of the twentieth century's most prominent American intellectuals. Her considerable body of work includes essays, fiction, journalism, criticism, and memoir. Scholar Morris Dickstein summed up McCarthy's literary and cultural impact in an essay entitled "A Glint of Malice," calling her "the fastest gun in the intellectual world, daringly sexual yet crisply intelligent." (Essay #8426) Paul Dorpat was one of three founders of HistoryLink.org and is well known for his many books and publications on Seattle, past and present. He has contributed more than 1,300 "Now & Then" features to Pacific Northwest magazine, published weekly by The Seattle Times. He calls himself "a tourist in my own hometown" and is an indefatigable chronicler of the local scene through both words and photographs. (Essay #8704) Theodore Roethke is recognized by many as one of the greatest American poets of the twentieth century. He taught at the University of Washington from 1947 until his death in 1963 and inspired a generation of poets that included Richard Hugo and many others who would become well known. (Essay #5410) Emmett Watson was a fixture in Seattle journalism for more than half a century, first as a sports writer for the Seattle Star and then as a columnist for the Seattle Post-Intelligencer and The Seattle Times. He scored his first international scoop by revealing the suicide of author Ernest Hemingway in 1961, and later entertained generations with pithy commentaries on Seattle's changing social landscape. (Essay #3274) STAGE & SCREEN Mervin "Bear Trainer" Barackman was a middleweight wrestling champ who also made a name for himself in the sport of bear wrestling. He had a tumultuous personal life, and he and his bears, including Billy and Big Andy, wrestled all around the West. As concerns increased about human safety and animal cruelty (bears were trained through fear of physical punishment rather than positive reinforcement), the attraction fell out of favor. (Essay #10709) Stan Boreson was a musician, recording artist, humorist, and pioneering 1950s kiddie-show host in the early days of Seattle television. Boreson was Everett's king of Scandinavian humor, and in his six decades of recording and performing he brought joy to generations in his native Northwest, across America, and around the globe. (Essay #8553) John Cort started as a small-time, variety-act manager in Seattle. He eventually parlayed his local success into membership in New York's theatrical establishment, and at one point owned more high-class theaters than any other individual in the United States. (Essay #3296) Merce Cunningham, born in Centralia in 1919, was probably the most famous living choreographer in the world before his death in July 2009, noted for continually expanding the boundaries of contemporary dance. He developed experimental dance methods using the element 11

12 of chance and helped create innovative computer software for designing and teaching choreography. (Essay #9042) Frances Farmer was born in Seattle in 1913 and became a rising movie star in the 1930s, but is remembered today more for her unfortunate life story than for her once-promising career. Talented and beautiful, Farmer was also a willful, troubled, and self-destructive woman. Since her death in 1970 she has become something of a cult figure and the subject of three books and three movies (the best known of which is the 1982 film Frances, starring Jessica Lange). (Essays #5058 and #5059) Gracie Hansen is best remembered for presenting shapely showgirls in her glamorous, Las Vegas-style burlesque nightclub at Seattle's Century 21 Exposition in Her Paradise International Club on the fairgrounds packed in crowds, in large part because of Hansen's knack for generating newspaper headlines in the mildly scandalized town. Rumors of police raids, lawsuits, and her own reputed but untrue background as a madam kept gossips chattering endlessly. She was a publicity agent's dream come true. (Essay #9365) Glenn Hughes, director of the drama program at the University of Washington for more than 30 years, gained international fame as a pioneer of "theater in the round." His experiments in a friend's penthouse apartment led to the construction of the Penthouse Theatre, the world's first modern arena theater. His innovative curriculum and state-of-the-art facilities made the University of Washington's drama program one of the best known in the nation. (Essay #3694) Burton W. and Florence Bean James were founders of the Seattle Repertory Playhouse and played a central role in the city's theatrical life for nearly 30 years. Their reputation was tarnished and their theater forced out of business in 1950 after they became targets of the Communisthunting Washington State Legislative Committee on Un-American Activities, headed by Rep. Albert Canwell of Spokane. (Essay #598) Gene Keene founded and led the Cirque Playhouse, which forged a special place in Northwest history during its three decades of almost-continuous operation. The Cirque staged hundreds of different shows between 1950 and 1981 and filled a cultural void in the years prior to the establishment of other resident groups, which included the Seattle Repertory Theatre, A Contemporary Theatre, and Black Arts/West. (Essay #9762) Bruce Lee popularized Kung Fu and other Asian martial-arts disciplines during a brief but influential career as an instructor and as an actor on television and in feature films. Born in San Francisco and raised in Hong Kong, Bruce moved to Seattle in 1959 to work at Ruby Chow's Chinese restaurant and to attend the University of Washington. His roles in the television series Green Hornet and the 1973 film Enter the Dragon won international acclaim, and made Kung Fu a household word around the globe. (Essay #3999) "Texas" Jim Lewis was one of America's original cowboy stars. He played live country music over the radio in the 1920s, formed a Western swing string band in the 1930s, and recorded hits for various major labels into the 1940s. He also appeared in 42 films and became the very first 12

13 country-music radio DJ in Los Angeles. Even with this earlier success, Lewis is perhaps best and most fondly recalled as the cackling host of KING-TV's trail-blazing kiddie show Sheriff Tex's Safety Junction. (Essay #8657) Martha Nishitani was a modern dance teacher and choreographer in Seattle and one of the leading proponents of modern dance in the Pacific Northwest. As a leader in the field of creative movement for children, Nishitani helped generations of Seattle children discover the joy of moving to music. As a veritable missionary of modern dance, she helped educate Washingtonians of all ages about the art form. (Essay #10638) Alexander Pantages was a theatrical entrepreneur who had a considerable impact on the development of popular stage entertainments in the Puget Sound region in the early twentieth century. He created a popular vaudeville circuit and commissioned the design of elaborate theater buildings in several cities, including Seattle. During his last decade, motion pictures and personal scandals contributed to his decline. (Essay #2999) J. P. Patches hosted one of the longest-running children's TV shows in American history on the Seattle-based station KIRO-TV. Portrayed by Chris Wedes ( ), J. P. Patches lived in the city dump, wore a black rumpled hat and a yellow patchwork coat, had a "girlfriend" who sported a five o'clock shadow, and became a nostalgic icon to almost everyone who grew up near Puget Sound during the last half of the twentieth century. (Essay #5344) Hannah Wiley was a University of Washington professor who founded Chamber Dance Company in 1990 as the mainstay of a new master of fine arts degree in dance. Early on, Wiley broadened the company's mission by videotaping and archiving dance performances and conducting interviews to capture their memories of aging dancers and choreographers. The company's repertoire now includes more than a hundred works. (Essay #10797) August Wilson was a two-time Pulitzer Prize winning playwright who lived the final 15 years of his life in the Capitol Hill neighborhood of Seattle. His 10-play cycle of dramas covered each decade of African American life in the twentieth century. A New York Broadway theater was renamed in his honor and a pedestrian promenade in Seattle Center is now called August Wilson Way. (Essay #10315) MUSIC Ernestine Anderson launched her amazing career as a jazz singer while still a teenaged Seattle high-school student back in the 1940s. By the 1950s she was an experienced performer who had toured widely and sung with big-name bands. Anderson's debut album brought rave reviews from leading music critics, which led to her being included in the lineup of the very first Monterey Jazz Festival in In the decades since, she has cut more than 30 albums of sophisticated and sensual jazz and blues music, received four GRAMMY award nominations, and been honored with a command performance at the White House. (Essay #8520) 13

14 The Barons were a talented doo-wop group from Tacoma who came on the scene before the Pacific Northwest's great rock 'n' roll eruption of They was signed by Imperial Records in Los Angeles and scored a series of promising hits. Unfortunately, The Barons were a bit ahead of their time and disbanded before they could make the most of their remarkable success. (Essay #9207) Kearney Barton was the man whose audio-engineering work can be credited with forging the powerful aural aesthetic that became widely known as the "original Northwest Sound." Perhaps most significantly, over the decades Barton trained and mentored an entire generation of students in the art and science of audio engineering through instructional classes held at his Audio Recording studios. (Essay #8719) Overton Berry was a member of Seattle's segregated Negro Musicians Union (the American Federation of Musicians Local 493), but after integration came in 1958 he joined the newly inclusive AFM Local 76. The pianist did USO tours, including Vietnam in 1968, and was one of the few Seattle musicians who found employment on the fairgrounds in 1962 during Seattle's Century 21 World's Fair. In 2012, the Northwest piano legend was inducted into the Seattle Jazz Hall of Fame. (Essay #10326) Joe Boles, the founder of Seattle Harbor Water Tours, is far more famous as the proprietor of Seattle's first truly successful recording studio. His skill behind the mixing console will always be associated with seminal Northwest rock 'n' roll classics, including "Come Softly to Me," the No. 1 hit by the Fleetwoods; "Walk -- Don't Run," a smash hit by the Ventures; and the version of the timeless, No. 1 regional fave, "Louie Louie" performed by Rockin' Robin Roberts and the Wailers. (Essay #8924) Dave Bunker has been called an "extremist in guitar invention," and his radical instrument designs once earned him a spot on a list of the "Top Ten Weirdest Guitars" ever made. Bunker will likely be remembered longest for his electric "Touch" guitars, specifically built for playing using an unorthodox technique now commonly known as "tapping." Bunker is also an accomplished inventor and has received numerous design patents, including ones for the first headless guitar, a fulcrum tremolo, a manual muting system, the first dual-neck guitar to earn a patent, and a tension-free neck. (Essay #10453) John Cage was a groundbreaking explorer of atonal music, an early adopter of electronic devices in music-making, and a leading theoretician and practitioner of using the two aural extremes -- noise and silence -- in his compositions. Cage embraced a radical vision that by design would produce music without order, harmony, or even sound. He also formed America's first all-percussion musical group. The result of his efforts was anarchic music that the general public barely noticed and mostly rejected, but which thrilled listeners blessed with open ears and progressive minds. (Essay #9423) Ray Charles was a poor, blind, and newly orphaned teenager living in Tampa, Florida, in 1948 when he decided to move to Seattle, picking the city because it was as far away as he could get 14

15 from where he was. He stayed only two years, but during that time he cut his first record and began to develop the genre-bending musical style that would make him an international star. (Essay #5707) Nancy Claire was a teenage female singers at a time when the Pacific Northwest's early rock 'n' roll scene boasted but a few. Hailing from the Kent Valley, Claire would become the most indemand vocalist of them all and was Northwest rock 'n' roll's First Lady. Over the following decades, she honed her blues skills with numerous fine bands and earned many new fans. (Essay #10374) Kurt Cobain was the guitarist and lead singer of the seminal Seattle grunge band Nirvana before his suicide in (Essay No. 3263) John Coppock was an early West Coast recording artist, innovative luthier, and music teacher who helped bring a lot of music-making to the small Washington communities of Peshastin, Dryden, Cashmere, Leavenworth, and Wenatchee. Coppock also is known for his manufacturing of unique, electric Hawaiian guitars. (Essay #9160) Bing Crosby and Mildred Bailey had careers that were so intertwined their stories are perhaps best told as one. Crosby, "The King of the Crooners," and Bailey, "That Princess of Rhythm" were innovative Jazz Age vocalists who went on to conquer the music world in big ways, although their shared beginnings on the fringes of the Spokane's Prohibition-era speakeasy jazz scene were quite humble. (Essay #7445) Bonnie Guitar is a musician, songwriter, singer, major hit-maker, and one of the biggest stars to ever emerge from the Pacific Northwest's music scene. Her path to fame saw her become an early "crossover" artist, and from the 1950s up through the 1980s she created songs that scored on the best-seller charts of pop and/or country. She will be remembered as a woman pioneer in a business that was traditionally dominated by men. (Essay #8656) Woody Guthrie was a Dust Bowl refugee from Oklahoma. A wandering troubadour, he was also a natural-born populist whose guitar was emblazoned with the in-your-face slogan, "This Machine Kills Fascists." Though blacklisted during the McCarthy era and dogged by the FBI, Guthrie today is universally acknowledged as America's Okie poet laureate. His "This Land Is Your Land," "Hard Travelin," and "Oklahoma Hills" have become staples in the folk music canon and national treasures. Guthrie loved the Pacific Northwest, and he sang and played his guitar on Seattle streets. His "Roll On Columbia, Roll On" was designated in 1987 as Washington's official state folk song. (Essay #3174) Harvey Hansen was a Seattle lamp maker and can-do handyman who borrowed liberally from such electrified guitars as the Audiovox-brand instrument to create and market his own -- now exceedingly rare -- line of Hanburt electric guitars. (Essay #8817) 15

16 Jimi Hendrix is the most famous musician to ever emerge from the Pacific Northwest's music scene. He rose from humble beginnings to establish himself as perhaps the most gifted and inventive guitarist of all time, one who would be globally recognized as a major force in twentieth-century music. In 1967, he and his band played at the Monterey Pop Festival and within months became a top concert draw, and their albums were instant psychedelic rock 'n' roll classics. In 1969, Hendrix was a headliner at the legendary Woodstock festival, a performance perhaps best remembered for his rendition of "The Star-Spangled Banner." (Essay #2498) Ron Holden helped form one of the very first of Seattle's 1950s teenage R&B groups, the Playboys, which helped establish the song "Louie Louie" as a regional standard. Holden's original 1959 ballad, "Love You So," became an international Top-10 hit, and he appeared on American Bandstand, shared gigs with Ray Charles and Elvis Presley, and toured the world. (Essay #8705) Milton Katims was a violist and orchestral conductor of world renown. From 1954 to 1976 he was music director of the Seattle Symphony Orchestra. During that time he worked to build the organization from a small local effort to one of the major regional orchestras in the country. (Essay #7171) Dave Lewis was the most significant figure in the Pacific Northwest's nascent rhythm & blues scene in the 1950s and 1960s. By 1955, he'd helped found Seattle's first notable teenage doo-wop vocal group, the Five Checks. In 1956, his Dave Lewis Combo was established as the region's most musically influential ensemble. In the early 1960s, the Dave Lewis Trio's infectious electric-organ-based instrumental compositions were embraced by fans and fellow musicians, including the young Jimmy (aka "Jimi") Hendrix. Lewis went on in 1989 to become an early inductee into the Northwest Area Music Association Hall of Fame. (Essay #8684) Morrie and Alice Morrison launched what became the region's first successful commercial pop-music empire. Their pioneering web of interrelated mom-and-pop businesses would grow to include a dance school, a sheet-music publishing company, a vaudeville orchestra, a dancehall chain, a record label, a Seattle-based recording studio and record-pressing plant, and a film production company. (Essay #7548) Krist Novoselic rose from the Pacific Northwest's 1980s underground punk-rock scene to earn global fame as bassist with Nirvana, the most impactful rock 'n' roll band of his generation. Born to Croatian-American immigrants, Novoselic is well-read and well-traveled, a multilingual, Renaissance man who has contributed to his culture and community as an author, filmmaker, newspaper blogger/columnist, radio host, rural Grange member, political activist, and futurist. (Essay # 9931) Pat O'Day is known as the founding father of Northwest rock 'n' roll and the godfather of the 1960s teen-dance scene. As Seattle's highest-profile DJ of the 1960s and the region's dominant dance promoter, O'Day ran Northwest rock 'n' roll for nearly a decade. (Essay #3130) 16

17 Quincy Jones has humble roots tracing back to Chicago's ghettos and the segregated World War II-era housing navy housing Bremerton. As a teen trumpeter, he rose quickly through the ranks of Seattle's 1940s jazz scene, later honing his skills as a composer/arranger. An entrepreneur, humanitarian, and philanthropist, he is the recipient of numerous honorary degrees and doctorates, scores of Grammy Awards, and several Academy Award nominations, and a 2013 induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. A Seattle legend and a national treasure, Jones has become one of the most globally esteemed musicians in modern history. (Essay #10354) Ed McMichael, known to all as Tuba Man, made a remarkable impact on his fellow townsfolk during a two-decade career as a Seattle musician who supported himself by earning tips from passersby, who often made requests and tossed coins into his big horn. The city mourned when Tuba Man died in November 2008, apparently from a head injury sustained in an assault near Seattle Center nine days earlier. (Essay #8848) "Rockin' Robin" Roberts was one of the founding father of Northwest rock 'n' roll. He sang with Tacoma's trailblazing, white rhythm & blues combo the Blue Notes and with the Wailers, who helped define the original Northwest rock sound of largely instrumental tunes. Roberts pushed his fellow band members to form their own record company, an unprecedented move for a teenaged group, and their 1961 Etiquette Records' debut release, the earliest garage-rock version of "Louie Louie," featured his electrifying vocals and became a number one, region-wide radio hit and an inspiration to legions of later bands. (Essay #9217) Earl Robinson was a Seattle-born activist and musician and is remembered for writing some of the labor movement's most famous ballads, including "I Dreamed I Saw Joe Hill Last Night." His patriotic themes expressed strong sympathy for the working class and ordinary citizens. They earned him the friendship of Eleanor Roosevelt and Paul Robeson, Hollywood movie commissions, and a right-wing blacklisting in the 1950s. Earl Robinson was "rediscovered" during the folk music revival of the 1960s. (Essay #2029) Cecilia Augspurger Schultz had a remarkable talent for bringing to the city many of the world's most noted musicians, singers, and ballet dancers. Perhaps more than any other person, Schultz put Seattle on the classical-music map, and over the years she became friend and confidante to a growing roster of the world's most accomplished performers. She more than held her own with famous East Coast male impresarios of the day and during her 14-year management of the Moore Theatre in Seattle faced down a local censor board and temperamental performers alike. Her energy, skill, and deep knowledge of music and artists led her to leadership positions in several local musical organizations. (Essay #1678) Harvey Thomas created the Thomas Custom Guitars line of instruments, which included such mind-boggling units as a pink-fur-covered guitar; a cuckoo-clock guitar; a shotgun guitar; a hand-carved, sculptural, naked-lady guitar; a battle-axe guitar; a truly wicked-looking guillotineblade guitar; toilet-seat guitars; swastika guitars; and iconic iron-cross-shaped guitars. Although Thomas's core circle of musical friends were mainstays of the Northwest's country/western 17

18 scene, it was the up-and-coming teenage musicians of the 1960s rock 'n' roll scene who really helped establish Thomas Custom Guitars (Essay #10304) Paul Tutmarc was a Seattle musician and inventor who in the 1930s designed and created a radical new class of musical instrument -- electrified and amplified guitars -- through his Audiovox Manufacturing Company. (Essay #7479) Paula Tutmarc-Johnson went to Hollywood at age 15 to record an album of folk-pop songs with famous, top-tier session players. In promoted as "Alexys" -- she scored a Top-10 regional radio hit with her tune "Freedom's Child," and in 1966 her band performed at the Seattle Center Coliseum on the same bill with the Beach Boys and the Yardbirds. In the late 1960s, Tutmarc-Johnson resurfaced with the Maple Valley-based hippie band Peece and played at several of the outdoor rock festivals of the day. (Essay #10384) Pat Wright is founding director of the Total Experience Gospel Choir and a long-time youth mentor and community leader. She led her first church choir at age 14, and her first recording has become a soul-music collectible of the first magnitude. Among her many causes, Wright and the choir dedicated countless hours to assisting victims of 2005's Hurricane Katrina. Called "Seattle's First Lady of Gospel," Wright has received many prestigious honors, including the Washington State Governors Ethnic Heritage Award and the Martin Luther King Humanitarian Award. (Essay #10392) CIVIC LEADERS BUSINESS Morris Alhadeff was general manager and chairman of Longacres horse-racing track in Renton and served the Seattle community throughout his life as a director on numerous civic boards and committees. (Essay #7348) Paul Allen, co-founder of Microsoft, is an investor and philanthropist. Since leaving his fulltime role with Microsoft in 1983, Allen has invested in a broad range of technology companies, real estate, sports teams, and the arts. He has also become one of the country's leading philanthropists, focusing his efforts on education, the arts, health care, space, and, especially, neuroscience. (Essay #10335) William M. Allen served the Boeing Company as president from 1945 to 1968 and is credited with leading the company into the jet age and providing a strong and enduring tradition of integrity and leadership. (Essay #7520) Jean Bartell Barber currently serves as vice chairman and treasurer of the Bartell Drug Company, which was founded in 1890 by her grandfather George Bartell Sr. She joined Bartell 18

19 Drugs in 1993 and has used her banking experience to help improve the company's operations and contribute to its success. (Essay #10411) Eddie Bauer, inventor of the down parka, made his name synonymous with high-quality outdoor clothing and sporting goods. An avid outdoorsman, Bauer opened a small sporting goods store in downtown Seattle in His own brush with hypothermia while on a fishing trip a few years later led to his experiments with down-filled clothing. (Essay #1671) Jack Benaroya was a real-estate developer, civic leader, and philanthropist. A pioneer in the development of industrial parks in the Pacific Northwest, he and his wife, Becky, were major benefactors to the region's cultural, educational, and medical worlds. In 1993, the Benaroyas provided $15 million in seed money to help launch the building of the Seattle Symphony's performance hall in downtown Seattle, now called Benaroya Hall. They also supported the Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason Medical Center in Seattle and the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation, as well as other Seattle hospitals and area arts organizations. (Essay #7419) Alden J. Blethen purchased The Seattle Daily Times in 1896 and built the paper's circulation by introducing large typefaces for headlines, more photographs, dramatic (and highly partisan) news coverage, and a Sunday supplement with color comics. Now Seattle's only printed daily newspaper, The Seattle Times is still controlled and published by the Blethen family. (Essay #1681) Prentice Bloedel managed his family's timber empire, led the industry's forest-conservation efforts, and guided the firm into a merger with Canada's giant H. R. MacMillan Export Co. Bloedel and his wife, Virginia, created the Bloedel Reserve, a botanical showcase of gardens, pools, lawns, and arbors on Bainbridge Island. (Essay #5227) William Edward Boeing founded the Boeing Airplane Company, which became one of the signature corporations of Seattle and the Pacific Northwest and, in good times and bad, dominated the region's economy for most of the twentieth century. (Essay #8023) Paul Brainerd founded the Aldus software company, which produced the first desktoppublishing program, Pagemaker, and catapulted him into the ranks of the youthful millionaires of the dot-com boom. In his second career, Brainerd devoted himself to environmental protection and organizing his contemporaries into useful philanthropic efforts. (Essay #7657) Herbert "Herb" Bridge and his brother, Robert, took over their father's Seattle jewelry store, Ben Bridge, and went on to develop a chain of more than 70 stores from Minnesota to Hawaii. (Essay #7307) Henry Broderick was a highly respected Seattle civic leader and the longtime president of what became the city's largest real estate firm. He was a member of the Seattle Arts Commission, a trustee of the Seattle Chorale, and a founding member of the Seattle Realty Board (now the Seattle-King County Board of Realtors). (Essay #7701) 19

20 Jeffrey and Susan Brotman have been one of the most dynamic and public-spirited couples, with philanthropic efforts ranging over the arts, health care, education, and diversity. Jeffrey Brotman is cofounder and chairman of Costco Wholesale Corporation, the largest warehouseclub chain in the world. Susan serves as an officer for a variety of nonprofit institutions, ranging from the Seattle Art Museum and Pacific Northwest Ballet to the University of Washington Foundation. Over the years, the Brotmans have given tens of millions of dollars to various causes. (Essay #8172) Dorothy Stimson Bullitt, an heir to an old Seattle fortune, purchased a small Seattle radio station with almost no listeners in 1947, entering a business world at a time women were not welcome. She expanded KING into one of the finest broadcasting empires in the nation while also becoming a leader in a variety of civic causes. The Seattle-King County Association of Realtors named Bullitt Seattle's First Citizen of (Essay #677) Edward "Eddie" E. Carlson was a Seattle business executive and a tireless civic leader who chaired the World's Fair Commission, the organizing muscle behind the 1962 Century 21 Exposition. In 1970 he became president and chief executive officer of United Airlines and its holding company U.A.L., Inc. The Seattle-King County Association of Realtors named Edward Carlson Seattle's First Citizen of (Essay #7202) Norton Clapp was a Seattle businessman and philanthropist and one of the five original investors in Seattle's Space Needle. He served as president of the Weyerhaeuser Corporation and in a wide variety of civic and organizational leadership positions, including a stint as president of the Boy Scouts of America. (Essay #7295) James W. Clise arrived in Seattle the day after the great fire of 1889 had burned down the business district. He started a real estate company and launched a career that made him one of the most prolific real estate developers in the region. His wife, Anna Herr Clise, became the prime mover in the founding of Seattle's Children's Orthopedic Hospital. (Essay #1688) James Murray Colman carried the Seattle & Walla Walla Railroad through to completion after the Northern Pacific decided to make Tacoma rather than Seattle its Western terminus. He later built Colman's Dock (today Pier 52, the terminal for the Washington State Ferries), which became a thriving hub of maritime commerce during and after the Klondike Gold Rush of (Essay #1680) Daniel Chase Corbin moved to Spokane in 1889 and had a major influence on making that city the economic center of the inland Northwest. (Essay #7960) Fredric A. Danz inherited his father's chain of movie theaters in the early 1960s and expanded the business to become the Sterling Recreation Organization (SRO), which at its height owned more than 100 theaters on the West Coast. He also was deeply involved in civic activities, and the Seattle-King County Association of Realtors named him Seattle's First Citizen of (Essay #7306) 20

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