GGOS Bureau for Networks and Commuications Michael Pearlman Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics Cambridge MA USA

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1 GGOS Bureau for Networks and Commuications Michael Pearlman Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics Cambridge MA USA GGOS Bureau for Networks and Communications Donatello Hotel, San Francisco CA December 15,

2 Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) Official Component (Observing System) of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) with the objective of: Ensuring the availability of geodetic science, infrastructure, and products to support global change research in Earth sciences to: extend our knowledge and understanding of system processes; monitor ongoing changes; increase our capability to predict the future behaviour; and improve the accessibility of geodetic observations and products for a wide range of users; Improve and maintain the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) GGOS Bureau for Networks and Communications Provide oversight, coordination, and guidance for the development, implementation and operation of the Network of Core (co-location) Sites. Develop a strategy to design, integrate and maintain the fundamental geodetic network of co-located instruments and supporting infrastructure in a sustainable way to satisfy the long term (10-20 years) requirements identified by the GGOS Science Council. Accepted as a Sub-Task under the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) GGOS Bureau for Networks and Communications Donatello Hotel, San Francisco CA December 15,

3 Bureau Role Promote communication and integration among the Services; Develop and maintain a ground network station information base and data product directory; Monitor the development of prototype ground systems to understand performance and availability; Monitor network performance and advocate for maximum participation to maintain reference frame and other data product quality; Advocate the continued support and maintenance of the current geodetic networks and the implementation of upgraded and new field systems; Define the network requirements and scope the size and geometry of the gravimetry and tide gauge ground networks; advocate for their continued support, upgrade and expansion; Interface with upcoming missions to advocate for the best satellite technology to support the reference frame tasks; Advocate for reference frame connections through GNSS to other geodetic instruments including tide gauges, gravimeters, etc. Promote the formation of key partnerships to establish stations in present network gaps, Exploit synergistic opportunities to better integrate or co-locate stations with the infrastructure and communications networks of the many other Earth Observation disciplines; slide 2 GGOS Bureau for Networks and Communications Donatello Hotel, San Francisco CA December 15,

4 The Geodetic Reference Frame (International Terrestrial Reference Frame) GGOS Bureau for Networks and Communications Donatello Hotel, San Francisco CA December 15,

5 Requirements for a Fundamental Station (with co-located VLBI, SLR, GNSS, and DORIS) Stable geology, away from earthquake regions and regions of local deformation Dry, clear weather (for SLR) Quiet radio frequency interference conditions Clear horizon conditions Wide-band communications for near real-time data transfer and instrument control and monitoring Site area of at least 2-3 hectares with some control over the surrounding region Site accessibility for shipping and personnel Local infrastructure (power, roads, etc.) Technical and personnel support, etc Site security GGOS Bureau for Networks and Communications Donatello Hotel, San Francisco CA December 15,

6 Example Fundamental Station NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt MD, USA Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory (GGAO) has four techniques on site Legacy SLR, VLBI, GPS, DORIS NGSLR semi - operational VLBI2010 systems in testing GGAO will be the location for the prototype next generation multi-technique station GGOS Bureau for Networks and Communications Donatello Hotel, San Francisco CA December 15,

7 SLR+VLBI Networks (with SLR/VLBI Co-locations noted) (all co-location stations have GNSS) 6 SLR/VLBI Co-location stations operating 2 stations in process Several more stations germinating GGOS Bureau for Networks and Communications Donatello Hotel, San Francisco CA December 15,

8 The plan for co-location sites from Korea side 1. Inside of Korea (On-going) Locations : Sejong City (36.47N/127.24E) Infrastructures 21m Geodetic VLBI (2012) Multi GNSS (2012) 1m SLR (2014, TBD) Contributors: NGII/KASI 2. Outside of Korea (Plan) Location : TBD Geographical distribution plan of GGOS network and Korea government Infrastructures VLBI 2010, Next Generation SLR, Multi-GNSS, modern DORIS and etc. One of the infrastructure in Korea National Large Research Facilities Roadmap Contributor : KASI/MEST (Ministry of Education, Science & Technology Timeline : 2012/13 ~ 2016/2017 (5 years) GGOS Bureau for Networks and Communications Donatello Hotel, San Francisco CA December 15,

9 Simulation Studies (Erricos Pavlis) First Phase completed ~30 globally distributed, well positioned, co-location (fundamental) stations with proper conditions will be required to define and maintain the reference frame; 16 of these co-location stations must track GNSS satellites with SLR to calibrate the GNSS orbits which are used to distribute the reference frame; Examined some strategies for SLR tracking of many GNSS satellites Follow-on Phases to: Include real-life conditions as we locate stations and contend with constraints and trade-offs; scope the GNSS network required to provide global access to the reference frame; GGOS Bureau for Networks and Communications Donatello Hotel, San Francisco CA December 15,

10 GGOS Conceptual Network of Fundamental Stations (30 Stations) GGOS Bureau for Networks and Communications Donatello Hotel, San Francisco CA December 15,

11 ILRS Retroreflector Standards for GNSS Satellites Retroreflector payloads for GNSS satellites in the neighborhood 20,000 km altitude should have a minimum effective crosssection of 100 million sq. meters (5 times that of GPS-35 and -36) Retroreflector payloads for GNSS satellites in higher or lower orbits should have a minimum effective cross-section scaled to compensate for the R**4 increase or decrease in signal strength The parameters necessary for the precise definition of the vectors between the effective reflection plane, the radiometric antenna phase center and the center of mass of the spacecraft be specified and maintained with an accuracy sufficient to support GGOS objectives. GGOS Bureau for Networks and Communications Donatello Hotel, San Francisco CA December 15,

12 NASA Space Geodesy Project Provide NASA s contribution to a worldwide network of modern space geodesy fundamental stations; Phase 1 Proposal developed for a 2 year activity: Complete network simulations to scope the network and examine geographic, operational and technical tradeoffs based on LAGEOS and GNSS tracking with SLR; Complete the prototype SLR (NGSLR) and VLBI (VLBI 2010) instruments; Co-locate these instrument with the newest generation GNSS and DORIS ground stations at GSFC; Implement a modern survey system to measure inter-technique vectors for colocation; Develop generalized station layout considering RFI and operations constraints; Undertake supporting data analysis; Begin site evaluation for network station deployment; Develop a full network implementation plan; Follow-on phase for deployment for up to 10 stations; Separate Proposal for building of first retroreflector array for future GPS satellites GGOS Bureau for Networks and Communications Donatello Hotel, San Francisco CA December 15,

13 Networks Outreach GGOS Network Talks Meeting of the Americas (AGU) in Brazil on August 2010 GGOS-IAU Symposium on Earth Rotation in China, October 2010 Space Conference of the Americas, Mexico, November 2010 AGU, San Francisco, December 2010 EGU, Vienna, April 2011 AOGS, Taipei, August 2011 Meetings during the last 6 months Brazil: INPE, Sao Paulo, August 2010 (Technology Director) Colombia: Colombia ambassador to the OAS Instituto Geografico Agustin Codazzi (Invitation to visit GSFC) Norway: Norwegian Mapping Authority/Norwegian Ministry of the Environment; China: Shanghai Observatory Canada: Natural Resources Canada - Geodetic Survey Division Korea: The Korean Delegation during the MEST-NASA Bilateral meetings GGOS Bureau for Networks and Communications Donatello Hotel, San Francisco CA December 15,

14 Option being Examined Workshop with GGOS, SIRGAS, and interested National Agencies in the Americas to see if we can develop a strategy for implementing the American Component of the GGOS Network including Sponsors Partners, etc. GGOS Bureau for Networks and Communications Donatello Hotel, San Francisco CA December 15,

15 Actions and Issues Short Term Continue development by the Services (VLBI2010, NGSLR, new generation GNSS receivers, modern DORIS ground systems and new satellites; retro arrays on GPS, etc; Continue outreach Give presentations; meet with potential participants; Pursue the American Networks Concept in the first half of 2011; Need to do something about Africa; Complete the simulation to scope the GNSS network; Develop Site Specification Document; Complicated by lack of configuration uniformity; Work on the technical and operational issues; Continue working with IERS WG, NGS, and other organizations on Inter-system vectors (co-location); Communications requirement; Multi-instrument control systems; Issue the CFP in concert with the GIAC; Strengthen our connection with the non-geometry geodesy techniques Long Term Characterize performance and trade-offs as the network builds up Implement the Network GGOS Bureau for Networks and Communications Donatello Hotel, San Francisco CA December 15,

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