The Coral Triangle Initiative-Coral Reefs, Fisheries and Food Security (CTI-CFF)

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1 BIOBORNEO 2013 CONFERENCE 19 February 2013 Magellan Sutra Harbour Resort, Kota Kinabalu Sabah The Coral Triangle Initiative-Coral Reefs, Fisheries and Food Security (CTI-CFF) Prof. Dato Dr. Nor Aieni binti Hj. Mokhtar National Oceanography Directorate (NOD) Ministry of Science Technology and Innovation, MOSTI

2 Introduction Marine Bio-economy PRESENTATION OUTLINE CTI-CFF Strategies Marine Spatial Planning Conclusion

3 The Bio-economy The move to a GREEN FUTURE a sustainable economy that uses biological resources from land and sea as input to the industry and energy sector and bio-based process to green industries and to recycle waste streams. Converging all industries and economic sectors that produce, manage and otherwise make use of biological resources (incl. bio-waste) such as agriculture, forestry, fisheries, food, wellness, chemicals and energy. Based on knowledge and innovation in biosciences, in convergence with other technologies, e.g. engineering, chemistry, computer science and nanotechnologies. i.e driven by BIOTECHNOLOGY

4 Marine Bio-economy

5 More EPP opportunities in areas with strategic advantages BIOSECURITY MARINE BIOECONOMY BIOFERTILISERS BIOECONOMY

6 Resource Management Economic Benefits SUSTAINABLE GROWTH To identify opportunities for poverty reduction, income generation and alternative livelihood without compromising the ecological integrity of coastal and marine resources. National Oceanography Directorate, MOSTI

7 WORLD BIODIVERSITY CENTERS Amazone Forest The largest tropical forest in the world Congo Basin Initiative Second largest intact tropical forest in the world Coral Triangle Initiative Global center of Marine abundance & diversity

8 Global patterns of species richness as compiled from OBIS Database Coastal waters of Southeast Asia Maximum diversity in Southeast Asia A region with high impacts of human activity/climate change A region of highest potential diversity

9 CORAL DIVERSITY OF THE WORLD CTI Support Partners: USAID, AUSAID, GEF, ADB, WWF, The Nature Conservancy, Conservation International, TNC CTI: home to more than 75% of the world s known species of corals, exceeding 600 species, 35% of all known coral reef fish species-3,000 species of fish, largest tuna fishery spawning and juveniles growth area, large presence of six of the world s seven species of sea turtles, migrating sharks and manta rays, whales dolphins and coelacanths.

10 75% OF WORLD S CORAL SPECIES 10

11 37% (2,228) OF THE WORLD S CORAL REEF FISH SPECIES 11

12 6 OF THE WORLD S 7 MARINE TURTLE SPECIES 12

13 7 OF THE WORLD S 10 GIANT CLAM SPECIES 13

14 23 OF THE WORLD S 50 SEAGRASS SPECIES 14

15 51 OF THE WORLD S 70 MANGROVE SPECIES 15

16 Migratory pathway for cetaceans including Dugong

17 Tuna spawning and nursery grounds

18 Why save the Coral Triangle? Biodiversity Conservation Economic Development Food Security Ecosystem Resiliency Pharmaceuticals Potential? Livelihoods : 120 million people Habitats: $2.3 Billion /yr Tourism: $12 Billion / yr Live Reef Fish: $1 Bill / yr 50% of World Tuna stocks 60% of their protein from the sea 18

19 Fish bombing and Cyanide Fishing Threats Mass Tourism

20 Overfishing creates growth of certain fish and organisms that can be damaging to the reef if they appear in great numbers.

21 Illegal harvest and trade of endangered species

22 South China Sea Coral Triangle Initiative (CTI) 5.7 million square kilometres supports120 million people Coral Sea 29 Sept 2009 SEAFish Justice 22

23 ASIA PACIFIC REGIONAL TRADE IN LIVE REEF FOOD FISH The Asia-Pacific LRFT is significant in terms of volumes traded (approximately 30,000t worth in excess of US$800 Million)

24 When was CTI Inaugurated? CTI Summit, May 2009 Participants: Heads of State of the CT 6 Countries Relevant Ministers and Officials of CT 6 Countries OTHERS: OTHERS UNEP, UNPD, ADB, GEF, USAID, AUSAID, TNC, CI, WWF, ETC.

25 Malaysia, Sabah

26 MALAYSIAN PORTION OF THE SSME AREA MALAYSIAN SSME Area: 29,000 km 2 5% SSME area (600,000 km 2 ) 3 sub zones SSME-1 SSME-2 SSME-3 SSME-1: 7,500 km2 (26% SSME) SC Balabac Straits, South China Sea & Sulu Sea SSME-2: 9,600 km2 (33% SSME) TIPHA Selingan Group of Islands, Sulu Sea SSME-3: 11,800 km2 (41% SSME) SC Sibutu Channel, Sulawesi Sea MALAYSIAN SSME small in area but with significant fisheries role 26

27 Recognised as a Priority Conservation Area in SSME* Productive marine ecosystem (coral reefs, sea grasses and mangroves) Fish habitat & breeding grounds A corridor route for various types of migratory marine animals (whales, dolphins, dugongs and turtles) * SSME Sulu Sulawesi Marine Ecoregion

28 Dato Sri Mohd Najib bin Tun Haji Abdul Razak, Coral Triangle Initiative Summit, Manado, Indonesia, 15 May 2009 Malaysia is very committed to ensuring that our marine ecosystem remains healthy so that this rich biodiversity can be enjoyed in perpetuity and sustainably utilized for wealth creation in line with our objective to be a fully developed nation by 2020

29 Promote international cooperation on a global and regional and level.

30 TRADE IN CORAL REEF SPECIES International trade in coral, reef fish, live rock, and other coral reef organisms are activities that contribute to the decline and degradation of reefs, primarily through destructive fishing practices and the overexploitation of resources. Recent surveys of 300 reefs worldwide found that key target species of commercial interest were absent, or present in very low numbers (Hodgson, 1999).

31 Propagation of Coral Species listed under CITES Existing Project location: OFF KERINDINGAN REEF (Semporna District)

32 CORAL PROPAGATION PROJECT fragment Acropora caroliniana green Acropora caroliniana purple

33 A Sustainable Live Reef Fish Trade

34 SUSTAINABLE MARINE FOOD RESOURCES (Cont.) Lobster Farming Culture of Sea Cucumber

35 SUSTAINABLE MARINE FOOD RESOURCES Pearl Oyster Culture Cultivation of Seaweeds & Marine Algae

36 Commercial Farming of Seaweeds in ASEAN MALAYSIA IS PART OF THE CORAL TRIANGLE AND ALSO THE BRUNEI-INDONESIA-MALAYSIA-PHILIPPINES INITATIVE (BIMP) WHICH PRODUCES >90% OF GLOBAL KAPPA-CARRAGEENAN (Kappaphycus/Eucheuma)

37 UMS Seaweed Noodle - No artificial colouring - No preservatives / additives - No salt - Unique flavour of seaweed - Natural colouring - Natural blend of minerals, potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium & trace elements iodine & selenium -Natural antioxidants - Omega-3 fatty acids Silver Award, BioMalaysia Invention/Innovation Competition 2010

38 SOLAR ENERGY ALGAE BIOMASS BIOFUEL MICROALGAE LIPIDS BIODIESEL. The oil content of microalgae can range from 16 to 68% dry weight (Chisti, 2007). The oil yield from microalgae can reach up to 136,900 L/ha compared to other plant crops, which range from 172 to 5950 L/ha (Chisti, 2007). Using genetically-modified algae, a US company claimed to be able to produce 4000 gall/ac/yr of crude diesel from 40 tonnes/ac/yr biomass (presented at ISAP, Galway, 2008). CARBOHYDRATE BIOETHANOL SEAWEED 0.43 g ethanol per g substrate, using laminaran & mannitol from brown seaweed Laminaria

39 Biomimicry: Marine Plants and their Potential for Innovation

40 New Uses of Living Marine Resources (Marine Biotechnology)

41 Marine Biotechnology National Oceanography Directorate Marketing Price: RM20 per liter (200, 000 individuals) Contains selected marine organisms, cultured under manipulated environment condition High density, high nutritional value, low production cost Suitable with mouth size of early fish and shrimp larvae Marketing Price: RM5 per 100g Organic based substrate to boost production of selected copepods A waste to wealth innovation Marketing Price: RM5 per 500ml Organic conditioner for live feed rearing Improve production of live feed A waste to wealth innovation

42 STRATEGIES FOR SUSTAINABLE OCEAN AND COASTAL DEVELOPMENT

43 Goal 1 Priority Seascapes Designated and Effectively Managed Goal 2 Ecosystem Approach to Management of Fisheries (EAFM) and Other Marine Resources Fully Applied Goal 3 Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) Established and Effectively Managed Goal 4 Climate Change Adaptation Measures Achieved Goal 5 Threatened Species Status Improving

44 44

45 45

46 A NATIONAL OCEAN POLICY FRAMEWORK A Healthy Ocean Sector is Essential for a High-Income Nation The move to a GREEN FUTURE

47 The state of marine environment and ecosystem health

48 3 Ms: Measure, Monitor and Manage

49 MONITOR & PREDICT THE EVOLUTION OF THE MARINE LIVING RESOURCES

50 Marine Scientific Expedition and Bio-prospecting 50

51 Data Collection in Oceanography and Marine Science

52 Coral Triangle Atlas and Data Sharing

53 For Ocean Experts and Users

54 INTEGRATED ECORESOURCE MANAGEMENT STUDY Kota Marudu is one of the districts in Kudat with approximately square kilometres of land. The population in Kota Marudu as at 2009 is approximately 72,900 with the average population of five per household (Department of Statistics, Malaysia, 2010). Much of the wetland is state owned; surrounding areas are largely alienated for permanent and shifting agriculture. The mangrove swamps and intertidal mudflats support a major commercial fishery for both fin fish and prawns. A majority of the community depends on fisheries resources to support their livelihood.

55 Food resources from the mangroves areas 55

56 COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION Pembentangan KTP

57 Marine Eco-Tourism

58 The Regional State of Coral Triangle Report (SCTR) launched on 7 th July 2012 in Cairns, Australia in conjunction with the International Coral Reef Symposium (ICRS2012) 58

59 CORAL TRIANGLE INITIATIVE 2012: Mesyuarat Jawatankuasa Penyelarasan Nasional Inisiatif Segi Tiga Terumbu Karang (National Coordination Committee NCC) Bil. 1/ Mac 2012

60

61 Science, Technology Plenary and Innovation Sessions Towards Sustainable Green Growth Green Investments for a Blue Economy and Institutional Arrangements for Public-Private Sector Engagement Using Information Technology to Support and Defend the Coral Triangle Sustainable Marine Business Solutions Eco-Tourism, Environment, and Communities Technology and Innovation for Food Security

62 Malaysia A partnership for the collaborative management of Tun Mustapha Park PARTNERS Persatuan Permilikan Kepal Nelayan Kudat (PPKNK) Kudat Boat Owners Association The Department of Fisheries Malaysia (DoF)- Sabah Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are having an increasing role to prevent destructiv fishing, to raise awareness and to restore fish biomass.

63 Malaysia A partnership in support of responsible fishing practices to protect endangered dugongs and their valuable habitat PARTNERS Shangri-La Tanjung Aru Resort Berungus Community

64 Malaysia A partnership on marine turtle conservation in Northeast Semporna Priority Conservation Area PARTNERS Mataking The Reef Resort Pom Pom Resort Sabah Wildlife Department

65 Malaysia A partnership for the sustainable culture of live reef fish PARTNERS Shangri-La Penang Marine Fish Farmers Association of Malaysia

66 Malaysia A partnership to mass produce premium sea cucumber using cuttingedge technology PARTNERS Benih Jaya Aqua Sdn Bhd The International Islamic University of Malaysia

67

68 Marine Spatial Planning

69 MPAs in the Coral Triangle (>1500) Blue Economy Pilot Study for Rio+20

70 Spatial Planning in Malaysia Main goal: co-ordination and regulation of land-use Guiding principle: sustainable spatial development - social and economic demands need to be consistent with ecological functions

71 Area ~ mill. ha. (2.54 mill. acres); More than 50 islands 3 districts: Kudat, Kota Marudu & Pitas Population ~ 80,000 coastal people; Tun Mustapha Park - 4 species of turtles species of fish species of corals species of invertebrates - 15,500 TM fish landing (~ 100 TM landing /day, ~ RM 700,000.00/day) Tun Mustapha Park Tun Mustapha Park

72 Marine spatial planning (MSP) in Tun Mustapha Park Zoning of TMP is currently proposed for several zone categories namely, No Take, Multi-use, Community Use, Special Managed and Buffer zones. Sabah Parks, together with WWF-Malaysia and under the guidance of University of Queensland, Brisbane is preparing the zone maps using Marxan software. Once they are prepared, a series of consultations conducted by the steering committee with stakeholders will be conducted before fine-tuning the zones based on received feedbacks.

73 For the proposed TMP, the basis for MPA zoning is a mixture of sociological & biophysical principals ie: Biophysical Principles for Integrating Fisheries, Biodiversity & Climate Change Objectives Socio-Economic Principles Governance is also part of the aspects that are being considered to be discussed for future management approach (co-management) in TMP.

74 CONCLUSIONS CTI promotes innovations in marine scientific research and technology, and apply scientific results to ocean management, economic development and national food security Foster publicity and education, and enhance public awareness of the importance of the oceans and marine resources management (ie. World Ocean Week 2013)

75 World Ocean Week (WOW 13) On 1st week of June (1 10 June 2013) In conjunction with the World Ocean Day (WOD) - 8 June 2013 and Coral Triangle Day - 9 June main programmes including satellite event in Sabah. 8th June 2013 Coral Triangle Day 9th June 2013

76 Conclusions Problems and opportunities are interconnected and must be addressed in an integrated manner through facilitation and effective implementation Integration must occur: across the terrestrial and marine domains; for differing needs over time; and between the need for development and environmental protection

77 Thank You

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