Hazard Assessment Testing of the SM-3 Block IA Missile

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1 Hazard Assessment Testing of the SM-3 Block IA Missile Presentation for the NDIA Gun and Missile Systems Conference 25 April 2007 Dave Houchins Dahlgren Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center Test & Evaluation Division (Code G60)

2 Outline Description of SM-3 Block IA missile Hazard Assessment Test Program Test methodologies Summary of results Lessons-learned

3 SM-3 Block IA Missile Sea-based component of the Ballistic Missile Defense system Launched from Vertical Launching System of DDG-class ships Approximately 22 ft length x 13.5 in diameter MK 72 booster ~21 in diameter Contains ~2065 lbm propellant Designed for MK 21 MOD 2 VLS canister Total mass of all-up round ~6300 lbm (i.e., missile and canister) Exo-atmospheric intercept using Kinetic Warhead Nosecone Guidance Section Third Stage Rocket Motor Kinetic Warhead (inside Nosecone) Staging Assembly MK 104 Dual Thrust Rocket Motor Steering Control Section MK 72 Booster

4 Hazard Assessment Test Program for SM SM-3 Block SM-3 Block I 2005/2006 SM-3 Block IA Environmental Tests (encanistered missile) 28-Day Temperature 28 Day T&H & Humidity 28-Day Temperature & Humidity 28-Day Temperature & Humidity Transportation Vibration Shipboard Vibration Launch Shock 4-Day Temperature & Humidity 40-ft Drop Aft-end down Transportation Vibration Shipboard Vibration 4-Day Temperature & Humidity 40-ft Drop Horizontal Transportation Vibration Shipboard Vibration 4-Day Temperature & Humidity Near Miss Shock Functional Tests of Components Insensitive Munitions Tests (individual sections) Fast Cook-off Third Stage Rocket Motor Kinetic Warhead Slow Cook-off Third Stage Rocket Motor Kinetic Warhead Bullet Impact Third Stage Rocket Motor Kinetic Warhead Fragment Impact Third Stage Rocket Motor Kinetic Warhead Fast Cook-off Third Stage Rocket Motor

5 28-Day / 4-Day Temperature and Humidity (T&H) Test Method Encanistered missile cycled between hot/humid and cold environments Conditions based on environmental profile for logistics life-cycle +130F with 95% RH for hot/humid environment -20F for cold environment 1 cycle includes 24-hr (min) exposure to each environment Tests conducted using programmable environmental chamber Test methods identical except for duration 14 cycles for 28-day T&H; 2 cycles for 4-day T&H Temperature ( F) Nominal RH (uncontrolled) Beginning of 50 Next Cycle Temperature 20 Relative Humidity Time (hr) Relative Humidity (%)

6 Transportation Vibration Test Method Encanistered missile subjected to random vibration IAW MIL-STD-810 Simulate transportation by truck over improved roads Input applied through 3 orthogonal axes; 1 axis at a time 3 hr/axis duration to simulate 3000 miles over-the-road transport 2 hydraulic actuators used to provide input at each PHS&T skid Vertical Axis Longitudinal Axis Transverse Axis

7 .1000 Transportation Vibration Input Profile Power Spectral Density g^2/hz Vertical Axis Transverse Axis Longitudinal Axis Frequency (Hz)

8 Shipboard Vibration Test Method Encanistered missile subjected to random vibration to simulate shipboard environment Input profile and duration based on shipboard measurements in VLS cells Hz frequency range Input spectrum encompasses full range of ship speeds and sea states 39-hr/axis to simulate anticipated deployment durations Input applied through 3 orthogonal axes; 1 axis at a time System-specific tailored test requiring approval from NAVSEA 05T Most systems tested IAW MIL-STD-167 Sinusoidal vibration across 5 50 Hz frequency range Accomplished using UD-4000 electrodynamic shaker Special fixtures used to provide input at correct interfaces with canister

9 Shipboard Vibration Input Spectrum

10 Shipboard Vibration Test Setup (Transverse Axis) Transverse Shipboard Vibration Fixture Deck Interfac e Fixture All-Up Missile in MK-21 Canister UD 4000 Shaker Hydraulic Bearings VLS Dog- Down Fixture

11 Shipboard Vibration Test Setup (Longitudinal Axis) Deck Interface Fixture All-Up Missile in MK-21 Canister Lateral Support Structure UD 4000 Shaker VLS Dogdown Fixture

12 Near Miss Shock Test Method Accomplished using DS-3 Shock Machine Large-displacement, pendulum-type impact shock machine Highly-tunable design Continuously adjustable pendulum impact velocity Unique adjustable fixture permits input through 3 principal axes of item System-specific tailored test requiring approval from NAVSEA 05P3 Alternative to Heavyweight Test (i.e., Barge Test ) of MIL-S-901 Input levels tuned to actual field measurements

13 Near Miss Shock Test Setup Pendulum VLS Dog-Down Fixture Encanistered Missile Deck Interface Simulator Fixture Transfer Beam Assembly Springs Brakes Carriage Cradle

14 Tuning of Input for Near Miss Shock Test Obliquity Angle Transverse Component X - Component Transverse Component Input Y - Component Clocking Angle Longitudinal Component Pendulum drop height peak velocity Programmer pad thickness initial acceleration Brakes & Springs initial pulse duration; magnitude of neg. velocity Obliquity/clocking Longitudinal and Transverse components

15 Representative Response Data Requirement Accelerometer 1 Accelerometer 2 Accelerometer 3 Accelerometer 4 Accelerometer 5

16 Configuration of Kinetic Warhead Ejector Assembly Cryogenic Gas Bottle 6000 psi) MTA Thrusters Sustain Grain Pulse 1 Grain Guidance Unit Pulse 2 Grain 3 propellant grains in Solid Divert and Attitude Control System (SDACS) Pulse I grain is TP-H-3510 propellant Pulse 2 grain is TP-H-3511 propellant Sustain grain is TP-H-3512 propellant SDACS case is graphite-epoxy composite

17 Configuration of Kinetic Warhead for Insensitive Munitions Tests Nosecone Guidance Unit Ejector End Cap (simulated Guidance Section) Cryogenic Gas Bottle SDACS X-SMDC Kinetic Warhead assembled to simulated Guidance Section shroud in OD annular aluminum cylinder with ½-in thick aluminum closure plate Guidance Unit simulated using high-fidelity mass model Cryogenic gas bottle present and fully-charged Block IA Nosecone installed over Kinetic Warhead Secured to simulated Guidance Section shroud in same manner as tactical missile All Nosecone explosive components present

18 General Configuration of Third Stage Rocket Motor Pulse 2 Grain Ignition Tube Pulse 1 Grain Composite Case Toroidal Cold Gas Bottle 2 propellant grains Pulse I grain is TP-H-3518A propellant Pulse 2 grain is TP-H-3518B propellant Case sidewall is filament-wound graphite-epoxy composite Toroidal cold gas bottle contains pressurized nitrogen

19 Configuration of Third Stage Rocket Motor for Insensitive Munitions Tests TSRM assembled with end caps to simulate adjoining missile sections Each end cap is in OD annular aluminum cylinder with ½-in thick closure plate Aft end cap secured using 4 explosive bolts Replicate configuration of tactical missile

20 Bullet Impact Test Method Item impacted by three (max) 0.50-cal AP projectiles Velocity of 2800 ± 200 ft/s Bullets fired at 50 ms intervals using three 50-cal Mann barrels Trajectory of bullets perpendicular to longitudinal axis of test item Bullets aimed to pass through center of SDACS propellant in KW Bullets aimed to pass through Pulse II grain and ignition tube in TSRM Instrumentation and data collection IAW MIL-STD-2105B Gun firing times Bullet velocities Air shock High-speed video record of events Post-test recovery and characterization of remains

21 Bullet Impact Test Setup

22 Fragment Impact Test Method Item impacted by three ½-in mild-steel cubes Velocity of 6000 ± 200 ft/s Cubes launched using 60mm smoothbore gun and unique FRP sabot Trajectory of cubes perpendicular to longitudinal axis of test item Aimed to pass through center of SDACS propellant in KW Aimed to pass through Pulse II grain and ignition tube in TSRM Instrumentation and data collection IAW MIL-STD-2105B Cube velocities Air shock High-speed video record of events Post-test recovery and characterization of remains

23 Fragment Impact Test Setup Pressure Gauge 3 Pressure Gauge 2 60mm Gun ~7' ~25' Fragment Shield ~4.5' Pressure Gauge 1 ~4.5' 90 Pressure Gauge 4 Pressure Gauge 5 Pressure Gauge 6 15' R Velocity Screens (3) 22' R Test Item (assembled in test fixture) Plan View Forward End 34' R

24 Fast Cook-Off Test Method Item suspended above pool of burning JP-5 aviation fuel Average flame temperature >1600F 30-ft x 30-ft fuel basin used to ensure complete immersion within flame Instrumentation and data collection IAW MIL-STD-2105B Flame temperature Air shock Video record of events Post-test recovery and characterization of remains Pretest modeling to predict time to reaction 1-D model to examine radial heat transfer through case sidewall Examined two bounding flame temperature conditions 1600 F average flame temperature 2000 F average flame temperature

25 Fast Cook-Off Test Setup

26 Predicted Temperature at Liner/Propellant Interface During TSRM Fast Cook-Off F Avg Flame Temp 2000 F Avg Flame Temp Reactions Observed Temperature (deg F) Fire Build-Up Ablative Burn-Off Predicted Time of Propellant Ignition Time (minutes)

27 Summary of Test Results Test 28-Day Temperature & Humidity Transportation Vibration Shipboard Vibration 4-Day Temperature & Humidity Near Miss Shock Bullet Impact Fragment Impact Fast Cook-Off Result No safety-related anomalies No safety-related anomalies No safety-related anomalies No safety-related anomalies No safety-related anomalies Kinetic Warhead: Type IV reaction (deflagration) Third Stage Rocket Motor: Type III reaction (explosion) Kinetic Warhead: Type IV reaction (deflagration) Third Stage Rocket Motor: Type III reaction (explosion) Third Stage Rocket Motor: Type IV reaction (deflagration)

28 Lessons Learned Multi-shaker setup used for Transportation Vibration test introduces additional issues related to phase control Currently not explicitly addressed in MIL-STD-810 Accepted / best practices still evolving Not possible to achieve same input levels at both ends of canister in Shipboard Vibration test due to fixture dynamics Fact-of-life constraint for single-shaker setup using large, complex fixture Problem most pronounced at higher frequencies New state-of-the-art facility at NSWC/Dahlgren will enable multi-shaker testing in vertical orientation Near Miss Shock test demonstrated capability to replicate real-world triaxial shock input to large encanistered missile using pendulum-type shock machine Potential alternative to Barge Test for some systems Subject to approval by NAVSEA 05P5 on case-by-case basis May reduce system design risks

29 More Info Test program documented in two NSWCDD technical reports NSWCDD/TR-06/47, Standard Missile - 3 Block IA Hazard Assessment Test Results Draft currently in final review NSWCDD/TR-06/48, Standard Missile-3 Block IA Near Miss Shock Qualification Test Report

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