Data Communication Networks

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1 Data Communication Networks Data communication networks typically do not send real time data As a result, packet switching is often used OPTI 500, Spring 2011, Lecture 6, Data Networks 1

2 Packet Switching In Out When data is switched packet by packet, individual packets (or frames) can follow separate paths OPTI 500, Spring 2011, Lecture 6, Data Networks 2

3 Ethernet Packet Structure 4 bytes bytes 2 bytes 6 bytes 6 bytes 1 byte 7 bytes Frame Check Data + Pad Length Source Address Destination Address Frame Delimiter Preamble/ Synch Ethernet data packets contain address information that is used to direct the packets through a network OPTI 500, Spring 2011, Lecture 6, Data Networks 3

4 Internet Protocol (IP) Packet Structure Data IP Header Source Address (e.g ) Destination Address Sequence Number Time to Live Type of Service Total Length IP packets contain address information that is used to direct the packets between hosts (e.g. computers) that may be in different networks OPTI 500, Spring 2011, Lecture 6, Data Networks 4

5 Network Classification by Switching Type Communication Networks Switched Networks Broadcast Networks Ethernet Circuit Switched Packet Switched SONET Ethernet There is no switching in broadcast networks Ethernet networks often contain broadcast regions connected by packet switches IP OPTI 500, Spring 2011, Lecture 6, Data Networks 5

6 Anatomy of a Data Communication Session (from Network Routing Basics, by James Macfarlane) Sending Side Data from the user s application (on Computer A) must be passed to the network. The data may need to be converted (ASCI to EBCDIC for example). The data may need to be encrypted and/or compressed. If reliable communications are desired, a communication channel with the destination computer (computer B) must be established to track each packet. In that case, a mechanism is needed to tag each packet and follow up on the delivery attempt. OPTI 500, Spring 2011, Lecture 6, Data Networks 6

7 Anatomy of a Data Communication Sending Side Session The data must be broken up into smaller chunks that can be handled by the network (you don t send a 10MB file in a single packet). The logical and physical addresses (IP address and MAC address respectively) must be determined for the destination computer. Error-detection information must be added to the packets. The best route to the destination host must be determined. OPTI 500, Spring 2011, Lecture 6, Data Networks 7

8 Anatomy of a Data Communication Sending Side Session The packets then need to be formatted into the particular frame type unique to the network architecture of the of computer A (Ethernet, Token Ring, and so on). The packets must be converted into electrical or optical signals and placed on the cable or optical fiber. Access to the network cable or optical fiber must be managed. The packets may need to be repackaged along the way into a differing frame type if computer B resides on a network with a different LAN architecture. OPTI 500, Spring 2011, Lecture 6, Data Networks 8

9 Anatomy of a Data Communication Receiving Side Session Computer B must have a way of knowing which packets are intended for it. Computer B must have a way of knowing which application should receive the packets Access to the network cable/fiber must be managed to retrieve the packets. The packets must be converted from electrical/optical signals to bits. The packets must be checked for corruption. OPTI 500, Spring 2011, Lecture 6, Data Networks 9

10 Anatomy of a Data Communication Receiving Side Session The packets must be checked for correct order delivery and for missing packets. Packets received out of order must be reordered. If reliable delivery was utilized, an acknowledgement message must be sent for packets received intact. A retransmit message must be sent for missing packets. The packet data needs to be rearranged into a format the receiving application can understand. The data may need to be decrypted and/or decompressed. OPTI 500, Spring 2011, Lecture 6, Data Networks 10

11 The Way Things Were in the Old Days IBM 7904 Mainframe s The manufacturer, e.g. IBM, handled all aspects of the computer to computer communication. OPTI 500, Spring 2011, Lecture 6, Data Networks 11

12 The Way Things are Now Multiple vendors handle various aspects of the communication. Fry s Electronics Palo Alto, CA, 2008 (photo by Klaus Nahr) Problem How do we ensure compatibility? Answer The OSI layered model (ISO, 1984). OPTI 500, Spring 2011, Lecture 6, Data Networks 12

13 The Open System Interconnection (OSI) Layered Network Model Host Layers Network Layers Layer Name Function Device 7 Application Network entry point for data received from application 6 Presentation Application based conversion, translation, encryption, and compression of data 5 Session Establish a communication with another host 4 Transport Breaks data into segments, flow control, ensure packet delivery 3 Network Address packets (logical address), route determination, determines physical addresses 2 Data Link Frames packets (appends physical address and error detection bits), handles access to network media IP Router Ethernet Switch 1 Physical Converts bits in frames to electrical/optical signals Repeater Based on Network Routing Basics, by James Macfarlane OPTI 500, Spring 2011, Lecture 6, Data Networks 13

14 Intra-Node Layer Communication Layer N+1 Information Exchange Layer N Layer N-1 In the OSI model, layers communicate only with other layers that are immediately above are below them. CIAN is investigating cross-layer communication between non-adjacent layers OPTI 500, Spring 2011, Lecture 6, Data Networks 14

15 Inter-Node (Peer-to-Peer) Communication Presentation Layer Logical Connection Presentation Layer Physical Layer Physical Connection Physical Layer Optical Transceiver Optical Fiber Repeater (Optical Ampfier) For different network nodes, communication is only between the same layer OPTI 500, Spring 2011, Lecture 6, Data Networks 15

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