2 To discuss the idea of multiple layering in data communication and networking and the interrelationship between layers. To discuss the OSI model and its layer architecture and to show the interface between the layers. To briefly discuss the functions of each layer in the OSI model. To introduce the TCP/IP protocol suite and compare its layers with the ones in the OSI model. To show the functionality of each layer in the TCP/IP protocol with some examples. To discuss the addressing mechanism used in some layers of the TCP/IP protocol suite for the delivery of a message from the source to the destination.
3 Example Assume Maria and Ann are neighbors with a lot of common ideas. However, Maria speaks only Spanish, and Ann speaks only English. Since both have learned the sign language in their childhood, they enjoy meeting in a cafe a couple of days per week and exchange their ideas using signs. Occasionally, they also use a bilingual dictionary. Communication is face to face and Happens in one layer as shown in Fig.
4 Example Now assume that Ann has to move to another town because of her job. Before she moves, the two meet for the last time in the same cafe. Although both are sad, Maria surprises Ann when she opens a packet that contains two small machines. The first machine can scan and transform a letter in English to a secret code or vice versa. The other machine can scan and translate a letter in Spanish to the same secret code or vice versa. Ann takes the first machine; Maria keeps the second one. The two friends can still communicate using the secret code, as shown in Fig.
5 THE OSI MODEL Established in 1947, the International Standards Organization (ISO) is a multinational body dedicated to worldwide agreement on international standards. Almost three-fourths of countries in the world are represented in the ISO. An ISO standard that covers all aspects of network communications is the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model. It was first introduced in the late 1970s.
6 Topics Discussed in the Section Layered Architecture Layer-to-layer Communication Encapsulation Layers in the OSI Model
7 Note ISO is the organization; OSI is the model.
8 The OSI model
9 OSI layers
10 An exchange using the OSI model
11 Note The physical layer is responsible for moving individual bits from one (node) to the next.
12 Summary of OSI Layers
13 A private internet
14 Communication at the physical layer Legend Source Destination Physical layer A R1 R3 R4 B Physical layer Link 1 Link 3 Link 5 Link
15 Note The unit of communication at the physical layer is a bit.
16 Communication at the data link layer Legend Source Destination D Data H Header A R1 R3 R4 B Data link Data link Physical Link 1 Link 3 Link 5 Link 6 Physical D2 H2 Frame D2 H2 Frame D2 H2 Frame D2 H2 Frame
17 Note The unit of communication at the data link layer is a frame.
18 Communication at the network layer Legend Source Destination D Data H Header A R1 R3 R4 B Network Network Data link Data link Physical Physical D3 H3 Datagram D3 H3 Datagram
19 Note The unit of communication at the network layer is a datagram.
20 Communication at transport layer Transport A Legend Source Destination D Data R1 R3 R4 H Header B Transport Network Network Data link Data link Physical Physical D4 H4 Segment D4 H4 Segment
21 Note The unit of communication at the transport layer is a segment, user datagram, or a packet, depending on the specific protocol used in this layer.
22 Communication at application layer A B Application Legend Source Destination D Data H Header Application Transport Network Data link Physical R1 R3 R4 Transport Network Data link Physical D5 D5 Message D5 D5 Message
23 Note The unit of communication at the application layer is a message.
24 Responsible for movement of data from one node to another node. Concerned with Physical Characteristics of the medium Representation of bits- Electrical, Electromagnetic, Optical Data rate Line Configuration Synchronization Physical Topology Transmission Mode- Simplex, Duplex, Half Duplex McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000
25 Physical Layer
26 Responsible for moving frames from one node to the other- Next hop delivery Framing- divides the data from N/W layer into frames Physical Addressing- Sender and Rx if the Rx is within the N/W, otherwise next hop addressing. Data Flow Control on the sender Error detection/control with the use of trailer Access control- in case of Multi Link system
27 Data Link Layer
28 Source to Destination Delivery of Packets Not required in peer-to-peer delivery Adds Logical addresses of sender and Rx. Routing for internetwork communication.
29 Network Layer
30 A B 10 Medium 85 T2 DATA A P F R 20 G RING N T2 DATA A P R 66 P T2 DATA A P M 95 Medium 77
31 Process to Process Delivery of message b/w Tx & Rx Create connection b/w two end ports for sake of security. Service Point or Port Addressing Yahoo Messenger Segmentation and Reassembly- Divide the message received from Session layer in to Segments and number them to make a sequence for reassembly at the receiving side Flow Control End to End rather than across a link. Controls duplication of message Connection Control Connection Oriented Transport Layer, like Telephone Connectionless Transport Layer, like Error Control End to End rather than across a link. Sending transport layer makes ensure that the entire message arrives at the receiving transport layer without error.
32 A P DATA J K TL TL DATA J K DATA 2 J k A P DATA 1 J k A P NL NL DATA 1 J k A P DATA 2 J k A P T2 T2 DLL DATA 2 J k A P H2 DATA 1 J k A P H2 DLL T2 T2 DATA 1 J k A P H2 DATA 2 J k A P H2 INTERNET
33 Network dialog controller. Establishes, maintains and Synchronizes interaction b/w comm. systems Dialog Controlling Half Duplex or Full Duplex Synchronization Allows a process to add checkpoints to a stream of data
34 From PL L6 Data To PL L6 Data H5 H5 Session Layer Session Layer Syn Syn L5 Data To TL L5 Data From TL
35 Concerned with Syntax and Semantics of the information exchanged b/w the two communication systems Translation Encoding and Decoding Sender to Common format on Sending side Common to Receiving format on Rx side Encryption for security and privacy purpose Compression reducing the number of bits to sent over network.
36 From AL To AL L7 Data L7 Data Encoded, Encrypted and compress Data H6 Decoded, Decrypted and Decompress Data H6 Presentation Layer Presentation Layer Syn L6 Data L6 Data To SL From SL
37 Provides User interfaces and support for Services, like , file transfer. Network Virtual terminal File Transfer Access, and Management(FATM) Mail Services Directory Services
38 User A User B X.500 FATM X.400 X.500 FATM X.400 Application Layer Application Layer L7 Data To PL L7 Data From PL
39 2-4 ADDRESSING Four levels of addresses are used in an internet employing the TCP/IP protocols: physical address, logical address, port address, and applicationspecific address. Each address is related to a one layer in the TCP/IP architecture, as shown in Figure 2.15.
40 Topics Discussed in the Section Physical Addresses Logical Addresses Port Addresses Application-Specific Addresses
41 Figure 2.15 Addresses in the TCP/IP protocol suite
42 Example 2.3 In Figure 2.16 a node with physical address 10 sends a frame to a node with physical address 87. The two nodes are connected by a link (a LAN). At the data link layer, this frame contains physical (link) addresses in the header. These are the only addresses needed. The rest of the header contains other information needed at this level. As the figure shows, the computer with physical address 10 is the sender, and the computer with physical address 87 is the receiver. The data link layer at the sender receives data from an upper layer. It encapsulates the data in a frame. The frame is propagated through the LAN. Each station with a physical address other than 87 drops the frame because the destination address in the frame does not match its own physical address. The intended destination computer, however, finds a match between the destination address in the frame and its own physical address.
43 Figure 2.16 Example 2.3: physical addresses Data 1 packet accepted Data 4
44 Example 2.4 As we will see in Chapter 3, most local area networks use a 48- bit (6-byte) physical address written as 12 hexadecimal digits; every byte (2 hexadecimal digits) is separated by a colon, as shown below: 07:01:02:01:2C:4B A 6-byte (12 hexadecimal digits) physical address
45 Example 2.5 Figure 2.17 shows a part of an internet with two routers connecting three LANs. Each device (computer or router) has a pair of addresses (logical and physical) for each connection. In this case, each computer is connected to only one link and therefore has only one pair of addresses. Each router, however, is connected to three networks. So each router has three pairs of addresses, one for each connection. Although it may be obvious that each router must have a separate physical address for each connection, it may not be obvious why it needs a logical address for each connection. We discuss these issues in Chapters 11 and 12 when we discuss routing. The computer with logical address A and physical address 10 needs to send a packet to the computer with logical address P and physical address 95. We use letters to show the logical addresses and numbers for physical addresses, but note that both are actually numbers, as we will see in later chapters.
46 Figure 2.17 Example 2.5: logical addresses A P Data A P Data A P Data Physical addresses changed A P Data A P Data A P Data Physical addresses changed
47 Note The physical addresses will change from hop to hop, but the logical addresses remain the same.
48 Example 2.6 Figure 2.18 shows two computers communicating via the Internet. The sending computer is running three processes at this time with port addresses a, b, and c. The receiving computer is running two processes at this time with port addresses j and k. Process a in the sending computer needs to communicate with process j in the receiving computer. Note that although both computers are using the same application, FTP, for example, the port addresses are different because one is a client program and the other is a server program, as we will see in Chapter 17.
49 Figure 2.18 Example 2.6: port numbers A Sender Receiver P Data Data a j Data a j Data A P a j Data A P a j Data H2 A P a j Data H2 A P a j Data Internet
50 Note The physical addresses change from hop to hop, but the logical and port addresses usually remain the same.
51 Example 2.7 As we will see in future chapters, a port address is a 16-bit address represented by one decimal number as shown. 753 A 16-bit port address represented as one single number
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