Chapter 6 Interest rates and Bond Valuation Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 41


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1 Chapter 6 Interest rates and Bond Valuation 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 41
2 Interest Rates and Required Returns: Interest Rate Fundamentals The interest rate is usually applied to debt instruments such as bank loans or bonds; the compensation paid by the borrower of funds to the lender; from the borrower s point of view, the cost of borrowing funds. The required return is usually applied to equity instruments such as common stock; the cost of funds obtained by selling an ownership interest Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 62
3 Interest Rates and Required Returns: Interest Rate Fundamentals Several factors can influence the equilibrium interest rate: 1. Inflation, which is a rising trend in the prices of most goods and services. 2. Risk, which leads investors to expect a higher return on their investment 3. Liquidity preference, which refers to the general tendency of investors to prefer shortterm securities 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 63
4 Interest Rates and Required Returns: The Real Rate of Interest The real rate of interest is the rate that creates equilibrium between the supply of savings and the demand for investment funds in a perfect world, without inflation, where suppliers and demanders of funds have no liquidity preferences and there is no risk. The real rate of interest changes with changing economic conditions, tastes, and preferences. The supplydemand relationship that determines the real rate is shown in Figure 6.1 on the following slide Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 64
5 Figure 6.1 Supply Demand Relationship 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 65
6 Interest Rates and Required Returns: Nominal or Actual Rate of Interest (Return) The nominal rate of interest is the actual rate of interest charged by the supplier of funds and paid by the demander. The nominal rate differs from the real rate of interest, r* as a result of two factors: Inflationary expectations reflected in an inflation premium (IP), and Issuer and issue characteristics such as default risks and contractual provisions as reflected in a risk premium (RP) Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 66
7 Interest Rates and Required Returns: Nominal or Actual Rate of Interest (cont.) For the moment, ignore the risk premium, RP 1, and focus exclusively on the riskfree rate. The risk free rate can be represented as: R F = r* + IP The riskfree rate (as shown in the preceding equation) embodies the real rate of interest plus the expected inflation premium. The inflation premium is driven by investors expectations about inflation the more inflation they expect, the higher will be the inflation premium and the higher will be the nominal interest rate Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 67
8 Personal Finance Example Marilyn Carbo has $10 that she can spend on candy costing $0.25 per piece. She could buy 40 pieces of candy ($10.00/$0.25) today. The nominal rate of interest on a 1year deposit is currently 7%, and the expected rate of inflation over the coming year is 4%. If Marilyn invested the $10, how many pieces of candy could she buy in one year? In one year, Marilyn would have ( ) $10.00 = $10.70 Due to inflation, one piece of candy would cost ( ) $0.25 = $0.26 As a result, Marilyn would be able to buy $10.70/$0.26 = 41.2 pieces This 3% increase in buying power (41.2/40) is Marilyn s real rate of return 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 68
9 Focus on Practice IBonds Adjust for Inflation One of the disadvantages of bonds is that they usually offer a fixed interest rate. This presents a serious risk to bond investors, because if inflation rises while the nominal rate on the bond remains fixed, the real rate of return falls. The U.S. Treasury Department now offers the Ibond, which is an inflationadjusted savings bond. A SeriesI bond earns interest through the application of a composite rate. The composite rate consists of a fixed rate that remains the same for the life of the bond and an adjustable rate equal to the actual rate of inflation. The adjustable rate changes twice per year and is based on movements in the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPIU). What effect do you think the inflationadjusted interest rate has on the cost of an Ibond in comparison with similar bonds with no allowance for inflation? 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 69
10 Term Structure of Interest Rates The term structure of interest rates is the relationship between the maturity and rate of return for bonds with similar levels of risk. A graphic depiction of the term structure of interest rates is called the yield curve. The yield to maturity is the compound annual rate of return earned on a debt security purchased on a given day and held to maturity Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 610
11 Why do the yield curves increase for the different bonds? If we assume that the curves maintain a fairly consistent distance from each other, and that you could forecast one of them, could you then forecast the rest? What is the relationship between stocks and bonds? How do they move relative to each other? Why? Can you exploit this relationship? 2012 Pearson Pice Hall. All rights reserved. 711
12 Yields and stocks This website shows the relationship between the yield curve and the S&P 500 stock index Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 712
13 Figure 6.3 Treasury Yield Curves 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 613
14 Term Structure of Interest Rates: Yield Curves (cont.) A normal yield curve is an upwardsloping yield curve indicates that longterm interest rates are generally higher than shortterm interest rates. An inverted yield curve is a downwardsloping yield curve indicates that shortterm interest rates are generally higher than longterm interest rates. A flat yield curve is a yield curve that indicates that interest rates do not vary much at different maturities Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 614
15 Term Structure of Interest Rates: Theories of Term Structure Expectations Theory Expectations theory is the theory that the yield curve reflects investor expectations about future interest rates; an expectation of rising interest rates results in an upwardsloping yield curve Law of one price Invest in US Govt for two years Invest in US govt for one year; then for the second year These options must have equal returns 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 615
16 Term Structure of Interest Rates: Theories of Term Structure (cont.) Liquidity Preference Theory Liquidity preference theory suggests that longterm rates are generally higher than shortterm rates (hence, the yield curve is upward sloping) because investors perceive shortterm investments to be more liquid and less risky than longterm investments. Borrowers must offer higher rates on longterm bonds to entice investors away from their preferred shortterm securities Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 616
17 Term Structure of Interest Rates: Theories of Term Structure (cont.) Market Segmentation Theory Market segmentation theory suggests that the market for loans is segmented on the basis of maturity and that the supply of and demand for loans within each segment determine its prevailing interest rate; the slope of the yield curve is determined by the general relationship between the prevailing rates in each market segment Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 617
18 Risk Premiums: Issue and Issuer Characteristics 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 618
19 Interest rate examples real rate Infl Prem RF A 2% 5 7 B 2% 3 5 C 2% 2 4 RF RP K A B C Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 619
20 Fisher Effect Fisher Effect Solve for Real Rate Solve for Nominal Rate Nominal Rate 12.00% 7.10% Inflation Premium 5.00% 5.00% Real Rate 6.67% 2.00% Fisher Effect used for Treasury Securities Fisher Effect Approximation Solve for Real Rate Solve for Nominal Rate Nominal Rate 15.00% Inflation Premium 8.00% Risk Premium 5.00% Real Rate 0.00% 2.00% 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. Fisher Effect 620
21 Corporate Bonds A bond is a longterm debt instrument indicating that a corporation has borrowed a certain amount of money and promises to repay it in the future under clearly defined terms. The bond s coupon interest rate is the percentage of a bond s par value that will be paid annually, typically in two equal semiannual payments, as interest. The bond s par value, or face value, is the amount borrowed by the company and the amount owed to the bond holder on the maturity date. The bond s maturity date is the time at which a bond becomes due and the principal must be repaid Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 621
22 Corporate Bonds: Legal Aspects of Corporate Bonds The bond indenture is a legal document that specifies both the rights of the bondholders and the duties of the issuing corporation. Standard debt provisions are provisions in a bond indenture specifying certain recordkeeping and general business practices that the bond issuer must follow; normally, they do not place a burden on a financially sound business. Restrictive covenants are provisions in a bond indenture that place operating and financial constraints on the borrower Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 622
23 Corporate Bonds: Legal Aspects of Corporate Bonds (cont.) Subordination in a bond indenture is the stipulation that subsequent creditors agree to wait until all claims of the senior debt are satisfied. Sinking fund requirements are a restrictive provision often included in a bond indenture, providing for the systematic retirement of bonds prior to their maturity. A trustee is a paid individual, corporation, or commercial bank trust department that acts as the third party to a bond indenture and can take specified actions on behalf of the bondholders if the terms of the indenture are violated Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 623
24 Corporate Bonds: Cost of Bonds to the Issuer In general, the longer the bond s maturity, the higher the interest rate (or cost) to the firm. In addition, the larger the size of the offering, the lower will be the cost (in % terms) of the bond. Also, the greater the default risk of the issuing firm, the higher the cost of the issue. Finally, the cost of money in the capital market is the basis form determining a bond s coupon interest rate Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 624
25 Corporate Bonds: General Features of a Bond Issue The conversion feature of convertible bonds allows bondholders to change each bond into a stated number of shares of common stock. Bondholders will exercise this option only when the market price of the stock is greater than the conversion price. A call feature, which is included in nearly all corporate bond issues, gives the issuer the opportunity to repurchase bonds at a stated call price prior to maturity. Refinancing opprtunity The call price is the stated price at which a bond may be repurchased, by use of a call feature, prior to maturity. The call premium is the amount by which a bond s call price exceeds its par value Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 625
26 Corporate Bonds: Bond Yields The three most widely cited yields are: Current yield Coupon divided by market price Yield to maturity (YTM) Return if you purchase and hold to maturity Yield to call (YTC) Return from the current day until the first opportunity for call 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 626
27 Table 6.3 Moody s and Standard & Poor s Bond Ratings 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 627
28 Focus on Ethics Can We Trust the Bond Raters? Creditrating agencies evaluate and attach ratings to credit instruments (e.g, bonds). Historically, bonds that received higher ratings were almost always repaid, while lower rated more speculative junk bonds experienced much higher default rates. Recently, the creditrating agencies have been criticized for their role in the subprime crisis. The agencies attached ratings to complex securities that did not reflect the true risk of the underlying investments. What effect will the new legislation likely have on the market share of the largest rating agencies? How will the new legislation affect the process of finding ratings information for investors? 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 628
29 Table 6.4a Characteristics and Priority of Lender s Claim of Traditional Types of Bonds Unsecured (Junior) Debentures Subordinated Debentures Income Bonds Secured (Senior) Mortgage bonds Collateral Trust bonds Equipment trust bonds 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 629
30 Corporate Bonds: International Bond Issues Companies and governments borrow internationally by issuing bonds in two principal financial markets: A Eurobond is a bond issued by an international borrower and sold to investors in countries with currencies other than the currency in which the bond is denominated. In contrast, a foreign bond is a bond issued in a host country s financial market, in the host country s currency, by a foreign borrower. Both markets give borrowers the opportunity to obtain large amounts of longterm debt financing quickly, in the currency of their choice and with flexible repayment terms Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 630
31 Valuation Fundamentals Valuation is the process that links risk and return to determine the worth of an asset. There are three key inputs to the valuation process: 1. Cash flows (returns) 2. Timing 3. A measure of risk, which determines the required return 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 631
32 Basic Valuation Model The value of any asset is the present value of all future cash flows it is expected to provide over the relevant time period. The value of any asset at time zero, V 0, can be expressed as where v 0 = Value of the asset at time zero CF T = cash flow expected at the end of year t r = appropriate required return (discount rate) n = relevant time period 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 632
33 Basic Investment Rules If Value >= Price, buy the asset Price is known, so we must solve for value If Expected return >= required return, buy the asset Expected return = return if we buy at the current price and the cash flows actually occur Required return reflects risk 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 633
34 Bond example A bond has a 10% coupon; pays interest annually; has a par value of 1000; has 15 years left in maturity; and has a 8% required return. What is the value of the bond? Par Value $1, Bond Value $1, Annual Coupon 10.00% Coupon per Period 10.00% Yield to Maturity 8.78% Required Return 8.00% Time to Maturity 15 Yield to Call 9.29% Compounding Frequency 1 Price $1, Realized Yield to Maturity 9.74% Current Yield 9.09% What if semiannual compounding Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Bond Valuation
35 Bond example A bond has a 12% coupon; pays interest annually; has a par value of 1000; has 25 years left in maturity; and has a 10% required return. The bond is callable in 10 years with a call premium of What are Current Yield, YTM, and the YTC of the bond? 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved Bond Valuation
36 Bond Valuation: Bond Value Behavior In practice, the value of a bond in the marketplace is rarely equal to its par value. Whenever the required return on a bond differs from the bond s coupon interest rate, the bond s value will differ from its par value. The required return is likely to differ from the coupon interest rate because either (1) economic conditions have changed, causing a shift in the basic cost of longterm funds, or (2) the firm s risk has changed. Increases in the basic cost of longterm funds or in risk will raise the required return; decreases in the cost of funds or in risk will lower the required return Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 636
37 What is a Bond?? v=eevj43whoq 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 737
38 Bond valuation 1) c = 12% k = 10% n = (6.1446) (.3855) = premium 2) c = 10% k = 10% n = ) c = 8% k = 10% n = 10 80(6.1446) (.3855) = discount 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 638
39 Price Converges on Par at Maturity When you buy a bond what types of returns do you receive? $1,122 B) Go back to bond 1 on the previous slide. Put the value in for the price. What is the YTM? $1, yrs time $877 A) Go back to bond 3 on the previous slide. Put the value in for the price. What is the YTM? 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 639
40 Bond Valuation: Bond Value Behavior (cont.) Interest rate risk is the chance that interest rates will change and thereby change the required return and bond value. Rising rates, which result in decreasing bond values, are of greatest concern. The shorter the amount of time until a bond s maturity, the less responsive is its market value to a given change in the required return Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 640
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