Section C. Diet, Food Production, and Public Health

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2 Section C Diet, Food Production, and Public Health

3 Global Health and Disease: The Nutrition Transition Changes in food type, availability, cost, physical activity Many lower- and middle-income countries are facing a double burden of disease Sources: World Health Organization and International Diabetes Foundation. 3

4 Global Health and Disease: The Nutrition Transition Health care systems of low- and middle-income countries are overwhelmed by the rise in non-communicable diseases - Globally, obesity has more than doubled since % of those with diabetes live in developing countries Note: 90% of all diabetes cases are Type II 1985: 30 million cases globally 2010: 285 million cases globally 2030: 366 million cases globally estimated - Heart disease and stroke - Certain cancers By decreasing morbidity and mortality, advanced medical interventions that treat symptoms of chronic disease may mask the impacts of our diet and food system on public health Sources: World Health Organization and International Diabetes Foundation. 4

5 Under- and Overweight, Age 5 and Under Underweight and overweight now coexist in the same countries, communities, and households Countries 5

6 What Does the World Eat? 6

7 Inequitable Distribution of Food Source: International Herald Tribune. (2008). All Rights Reserved. No longer available online. 7

8 Who Consumes the World s Food? Grain consumption per capita per year - US ~ 800 kg - Italy ~ 400 kg - Taiwan ~ 300 kg - China ~ 250 kg - India ~ 200 kg Source: Lester Brown. (1995). 8

9 Why? Meat-based diets consume more resources than plant-based diets (Source: USDA) - ~700 kg grain to produce 100 kg of beef - ~650 kg grain to produce 100 kg of pork - ~260 kg grain to produce 100 kg of poultry 1,000 kg water is used to produce 1 kg of grain 9

10 Global Meat Demand Doubling in 30 Years Since 1961, US per capita meat consumption has increased by 70% from 141 pounds to 223 pounds (100 kg) Global demand for meat will double from the 1990s to 2020 The average American derives 67% of protein from animal sources, compared to 34% worldwide Actual and Projected Meat Consumption (million metric tons) China India Developed countries Less-developed countries World Source: International Food Policy Research Institute. (1999). Livestock to 2020: The next food revolution. 10

11 Global Meat Consumption: 82% Increase Since 1961 lbs. Per Capita Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 11

12 Do We Need All That Protein and Meat? The average US adult male consumes 170% of RDA for protein (56g) The average US adult female consumes 127% of RDA for protein (46g) Note: recommended dietary allowance (RDA) equals the average daily dietary intake level that is sufficient to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all (97%) healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group (USDA) 12

13 Basic Dietary Advice Is the Same World Health Organization - Achieve energy balance and a healthy weight - Eliminate trans-fatty acids, limit total fats and saturated fats, shift fats toward unsaturated fats - Increase consumption of fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole grains, and nuts - Limit sugar and salt (sodium) US Dietary Guidelines for Americans, Balance calories with physical activity to manage weight - Consume more of certain foods and nutrients, such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, fat-free and low-fat dairy products, and seafood - Consume fewer foods with sodium (salt), saturated fats, trans fats, cholesterol, added sugars, and refined grains 13

14 Federal Farm Subsidies vs. Dietary Guidelines The Farm Bill Subsidies Breakdown Meat, dairy $ 51,832,388, % [direct and indirect through feed] Grains for human consumption $ 9,288,990, % [corn, wheat, sorghum, oats, barley] Sugar, starch, oil, alcohol $ 7,507,626, % [corn, sugar beet, canola, 80% sunflower as oil] Nuts and legumes $ 1,339,263, % [soy, peanuts, 20% sunflower as seeds] Apples $ 261,540, % Total agricultural subsidies $70, 229,820, % Source: Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine. All Rights Reserved. 14

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