A Special Paper on Heritage and Tourism, Chanderi

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1 URBAN ADMINISTRATION AND DEVELOPMENT DEPARTMENT Government of Madhya Pradesh A Special Paper on Heritage and Tourism, Chanderi City Development Plan - CHANDERI Project Coordination: City Managers Association Madhya Pradesh LEA Associates South Asia Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi June 2011

2 1 A STUDY ON HERITAGE AND TOURISM CHANDERI 1.1 INTRODUCTION 1. Chanderi is a town of historic importance which lies on the edge of Malwa Plateau and Bundelkhand region. The hilly terrain of Chanderi is characterized with several structures of architectural and heritage value. This paper deals with the significance of heritage and tourism sector in Chanderi. The paper has been divided into 10 sections. After an introductory section, the second section of the paper lists out the major sources of information which were used to assess the status of heritage and tourism in Chanderi. Section 3 deals with the legal framework of heritage conservation. Section 4 describes the significances of architectural and cultural heritage, Section 5 gives a detailed account of the significance of architectural and cultural heritage in Chanderi and Section 6 documents the current status of heritage structures. Section 7 deals with tourism and related material. Heritage and tourism related issues are presented in section 8. Section 9 describes a SWOT analysis and section 10 concludes the paper with strategy and action plan for heritage and tourism. 1.2 SOURCES OF INFORMATION AND CONSULTATION WITH KEY STAKEHOLDERS 2. The information on architectural and cultural heritage has been collected from both primary and secondary sources. Consultations at various levels were conducted considering the importance of heritage in Chanderi. Several resource persons on heritage were consulted so as to obtain an understanding of the rich heritage of Chanderi. Table 1-1 gives the sources of information on heritage of Chanderi. Secondary Sources of Study Site Visits Meeting with Key Stakeholders Table 1-1: Sources of Information and Site Reconnaissance Surveys Discovering Chanderi on Foot: A Guide. INTACH Regional Chapter, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, Chanderi: Ithihas or Viraasat: Muzaffar Ahammad Ansari, Chanderi, Chanderi: The Built Heritage, Ishwar Dass and Meera I Dass. Journal of the Development and Research Organization for Nature, Arts and Heritage, Vol.V, Issue 1, Spring/Summer Collection of Domestic Tourism Statistics for the State of Madhya Pradesh, Department of Tourism, Government of Madhya Pradesh, 2006 Site visits to Chanderi by Key Personnel between 14 th to 16 th October 2009 Site visit and workshop with stakeholders on 10 th November 2009 Site visit to identify and assess status of heritage resources of Chanderi from 28 th to 30 th November, 2009 Mr. Narendra Pathak, Chief Municipal Officer, Chanderi Mr. Umesh Purohit, Social Activist, Chanderi Mr. Muzaffar Ahamad Ansari, Tourist Guide, Chanderi. Mr. Mudasar Ali, In-Charge, Archaeological Survey of India, Chanderi. Manager, Tana Bana Hotel, MPSTDC, Chanderi. 1.3 LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR HERITAGE CONSERVATION The Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act, The Act provides for the preservation of ancient and historical monuments and archaeological sites and remains of national importance. The Act is also for the regulation of archaeological excavations and for the protection of sculptures, carvings and other like objects. It is relevant to those ancient and historical monuments or archaeological sites and remains which have been declared by 1-1

3 City Development Plan of Various Urban Local Bodies of Madhya Pradesh A STUDY ON HERITAGE AND TOURISM, CHANDERI the Ancient and Historical Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains (Declaration of National Importance) Act, 1951 or by section 126 of the States Reorganisation Act It also gives power to the Central Government to declare ancient monuments or archaeological site and remains not included in section 3 of national importance. 4. The Act provides for the acquisition of rights in a protected monument, preservation of protected monument by agreement, imposing restriction on enjoyment of property rights in protected areas, conduct of archaeological excavations and protection of antiquities and also ensures appropriate compensation for loss or damage due to entry or excavations to the owner or occupier of such protected land Madhya Pradesh Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act, 1964 and its Amendment The Act provides for the preservation of certain ancient and historical monuments and archaeological sites and remains and for the regulation of excavation of archaeological sites in Madhya Pradesh. The Act gives power to the state government to declare ancient monuments to be state protected monuments or archaeological site and remains to be a state protected area, gives provisions for the maintenance of protected monuments, preservation amenities of protected monuments, imposing restrictions on constructing any building within the protected area. 6. The Act provides for compulsory acquisition of protected monument, as per clause 12, under the provisions of the Land Acquisition (LA) Act, 1894 (I of 1894), as if the maintenance of the state protected monument were a public purpose to equate the purpose of LA Act. The Act has been amended in 1970 with amendment of section 2 which dealt with the meaning of ancient monument and has inserted new sections, 23-A and 23-B which dealt with any antiquity and intimation regarding its transfer or acquisition. Other amendments were with respect to section 29 and SIGNIFICANCE OF ARCHITECTURAL AND CULTURAL HERITAGE 7. Chanderi unfolds the architectural heritage of a vast period ranging from the prehistoric era till present day. Chanderi was an important fortress and administrative centre during the Malwa Sultanate in the 15th Century. The town was initially a walled town. Magnificent stone monuments such as havelis, temples, domed mosques, and step-wells were constructed and are can be seen today. These monuments bear testimony to the rich architectural heritage of the town. The various monuments are witness to the tide of time and the dynasties which have ruled over the region. Chanderi has witnessed a turbulent history with war, blood shed and even exodus of its inhabitants to distant places. There are records which show that Chanderi had more than people during 15th Century and during the 18th century the population was reduced to barely 2000, as Chanderi became a battlefield during the 1857 disturbances. The chronological history of Chanderi has been given in Table The Municipal Council has identified 102 monuments and precincts which are of historical importance while Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage (INTACH) has identified 321 heritage buildings and precincts in an independent study. Out of these, nine monuments are protected in accordance with the provisions of the Ancient Monuments and Archeological sites and Remains Act, The responsibility of protecting conserving these monuments lies with the ASI. Besides the nine monuments protected by ASI, there are 3 other monuments namely Chakla Baodi, Ram Nagar Mahal and Chhatris that have been notified for protection under the Madhya Pradesh Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act,

4 City Development Plan of Various Urban Local Bodies of Madhya Pradesh A STUDY ON HERITAGE AND TOURISM, CHANDERI Period 10 th to 12 th Century 13 th to 15 th Century 16 th Century (first half) 16 th Century (second half) 17 th Century to beginning of 19 th Century 19 th Century Post Independence Table 1-2: Chronological Events of History of Chanderi Events The pratiharas had their kingdom centred in and around Gwalior region with a strong presence at Chanderi. Kirtidurg at Chandragiri and Kirtisagar at the foot of the hill are attributed to Kirti Pala, a Pratihara king. Kalyan Rai temple also belongs to the same phase. There was a strong presence of the Jain community at Chanderi during this period confirmed by large Jain images carved into living rock at Khandargiri and Jain temple bearing pilgrims record dated 1259 AD. Chanderi town was conquered by Ghiyas al Din Balban in 1251 AD. Ala al Din Khilji conquers Chanderi in 1305 AD and the settling in of Muslims. Development to a big town with market centres. Dilavar Khan, then Governor of Malwa constructs a Mosque in The main gate of the lower town Delhi Gate was built in 1412 under Sultan Hoshang Shah. In 1515, Rana Sangor of Chitor captured the town and gave it to Medini Rai, the rebel Minister of Sultan Mahmud II. Medini Rai was defeated by Babur in In 1540, Purbia Rajput Puranmal (one of the main followers of Rai Sen) attacked and conquered Chanderi. In 1540, Sher Shah recovered Chanderi from Rai Sen but again Puranmal captured Chanderi back. Again in 1543 Sher Shah conquered Chanderi afresh. Chanderi fell to Akbar in 1569 and headquartered a sarkar of Malwa. Chanderi rises to fame as one of the largest of ancient cities. During the period Chanderi had to its credit one stone fort, stone houses, 384 markets, 360 caravanserails and mosques. Later in 1586 Chanderi was conquered by Bundelas and was held by Ram Singh, son of Raja Madhukar Shah of Orchha. In 1612, Bharat Shah Bundela attacked the citadel and expelled Groda Ram, who held it on behalf of Muslim Kings of the Deccan. Shahjahan approved this take-over of Chanderi. Chanderi remained in the hands of Bundelas until Bundela principality had owed nominal allegiance to the Moghul Sultan of Delhi. During this period several worship places and recreational spaces were built. Chanderi for was taken by Colonel Jean-Baptiste Filose for Daulat Rao Sindia and Chanderi became part of Sindia estates. In 1844, under a treaty signed with British the revenue of Chanderi and adjoining countryside was assigned for the upkeep of the then formed Gwalior contingent. In 1854, Chanderi was included in the Jhansi superintendency. Chanderi met with major impact of the 1857 uprising. After the recovery by the British, Chanderi was made part of Lalitpur tehsil following a treaty signed with Sindia on December 12, After 1947, the princely Gwalior State became part of newly formed Madhya Bharat State. Chanderi became a Municipality from 1956 until in 1979, Special Area Development Authority (SADA) was formed for Chanderi under the Madhya Pradesh Urban and Rural Rehabilitation Act of Chanderi town was mainly confined within the andar shahar. In the recent past, new developments have taken place primarily along Pichhore road in the northern direction and somewhat towards Fatehbad. Bahar shahar is also in the process of densification as envisaged in the Chanderi development Plan. Nagar Palika boundary was expanded to include Fatehbad in the South-West in the year IDENTIFICATION OF ARCHITECTURAL AND CULTURAL HERITAGE OF CHANDERI Chanderi has a rich and varied history of built, natural and living or intangible heritage. The heritage of Chanderi may be grouped under three categories viz. architectural heritage, natural heritage, living and traditional heritage. Architectural heritage of Chanderi is documented with focus on the protected monuments as well as unattended monuments. Table 1-3 lists the protected monuments and Figure 1-13 shows the location of protected and other important monuments in Chanderi. The note on natural heritage explains the natural setting of Chanderi and its utilization for enhancing the resources over time. The living heritage of Chanderi is perceived on the knowledge and practice of saree weaving, making brass, terracotta, bamboo, wood and stone crafts. 1-3

5 City Development Plan of Various Urban Local Bodies of Madhya Pradesh A STUDY ON HERITAGE AND TOURISM, CHANDERI Architectural Heritage 9. The earliest architectural evidence is attributed to Pratiharas, who built the stone fort known by name Kirti Durg atop the Chandergiri hills during 11th century. Some of the prominent heritage properties in Chanderi were built during the independent rule of Mandu Sultans ( ). Chanderi became a heavily fortified town in 1411, in which the fortified Ander Sheher (inner city) became extremely important, principally the Bala Kila, in defending the Mughals from Delhi and Jaunpur Sultans from Malwa. Later with the construction of Jama Masjid in 1438 outside the inner city, paved the way for the expansion of the town towards the south into Bahar Sheher (outer city) with a surrounding wall. Afterwards, the next phase of expansion and construction happened with the inclusion of Fatehabad and the construction of Koshak Mahal towards the later part of 15th century. 10. The Bundela rule of Chanderi which lasted for about two centuries had gifted many great buildings including the ancient law court called Purani Adalat, Raja Mahal, Rani Mahal, havelis of caretakers, large buildings of administrative offices, the Hawa Mahal and the Naukhanda Mahal at the Citadel. Apart from this, many temples were also constructed during the Bundela rule, including the extension of Jogeshwari Devi Mandir, construction of Harsidhi Devi Mandir, Narasimha Mandir, Hanuman Mandir and Laxman Mandir. The double arched gateway Badal Mahal is attributed to the Tughlak architecture and often to toranas of Hindu temple Rock Paintings and Mammoth Fossil 11. The surrounding regions of Chanderi, Nannon, Budhi Chanderi, was also rich with its architectural and cultural heritage and had tremendous implications on the heritage and tourism of Chanderi. There is a cave near Nannon, 28 km south-west of Chanderi on the banks of river Urvashi, where rock painting is identified. A jaw and teeth of a mammoth which was of a hippopotamus year old was discovered here Another ancient site identified recently is the Baheti Math, where the structure of a temple dates back to the 5th century Gupta period (Picture 1-1). This lies about 20km south-east of Chanderi. Near the Baheti Math, a rock painting shelter site Gitkhal Caves - was also identified (Picture 1-2). Picture 1-1: Fifth century Gupta Temple - Baheti Math Picture 1-2: Gitkhal Caves 1 Chanderi: The Built Heritage, Ishwar Dass and Meera I Dass. Journal of the Development and Research Organisation for Nature, Arts and Heritage, Vol.V, Issue 1, Spring/Summer Chanderi: The Built Heritage, Ishwar Dass and Meera I Dass. Journal of the Development and Research Organisation for Nature, Arts and Heritage, Vol.V, Issue 1, Spring/Summer

6 City Development Plan of Various Urban Local Bodies of Madhya Pradesh A STUDY ON HERITAGE AND TOURISM, CHANDERI Natural Heritage 13. Physiographic and the natural surroundings of Chanderi are part of the natural heritage of the Chanderi. The town is surrounded by low hills with the inner town settlement (Andar Shaher) planned on the western slope of Chander Giri that later spilled over into the areas to the South-West and the North and in recent times beyond it on comparatively flat land on the road to Pichhore. The hills surrounding Chanderi were covered with dense forests and foliage which has been reduced to mere scrubland in the recent past. Along with the forests and the hills, the water bodies; both natural and artificially created also form an intrinsic part of the natural heritage. 14. Talaabs have been important reservoirs of water since time immemorial. The town is divided into two hydrological systems with Nayapura talaab popularly known as Khassiyon-ki-tallaya situated within Bahar Shehar acting as the water divide. It is a perennial talaab. It has been established that there were at least four reservoirs percolating into each other as part of the Northern hydrological system. The surface run off from Ander Shehar flowed alongside Delhi Darwaza to Parmeshwar talaab and was channelized downstream of Shahzadi ka roza into these reservoirs. These also acted as recharge areas which ensured that baodies such as Battisi Baodi, Qazion ki Baodi, the Panchmahal Baodi and Jalahar Baodi had water even during the summer months. The southern hydrological system originates mainly from Chander Giri and Karla Pahar. Kirti Sagar, an ancient talaab built in the 12th century, is at the head of a highly complex drainage system. The valley floor was dug out into a series of terraces and further dammed to give the appearance of talaabs. The trinity of tanks, the Dhubiya Talaab, Pann Baodi and the Lal Baodi are constructed in the above mentioned manner between Karla Pahar and Moriya Pahar. Sultani Talaab lies further downstream Traditional and Living Heritage 15. The living or intangible heritage of Chanderi is manifested in the form of handlooms and other handicrafts. The Bundelkhand region is rich in performing arts like folk dances, folk music and theatre (storytelling). This gets reflected in the culture of Chanderi as well. 16. The history of handlooms goes back to the rule of the Bundela Rajputs who patronized and encouraged the weaving of textile fabrics in Chanderi. During this time, the craft was restricted to the Momins/Ansaris who were engaged in the weaving of the fabric. The handloom industry in Chanderi declined in the latter half of the 19th century and early decade of the 20th century. In 1926, the Economic and Industrial Survey Commission of the Gwalior Government, introduced sericulture near Chanderi and set up local industries for manufacturing gold and silver threads. This development encouraged the shift to silk in the 1930s and for about three decades Chanderi specialized in silk sarees and dupatta. The textile weaving industry suffered heavily immediately after the merger of Gwalior state into the union of India in 1948 as Chanderi lost the importance it enjoyed in the smaller entity of Gwalior state. Revival of the industry took place with the strengthening and active participation of Cooperatives, M.P textile Cooperation and M.P Laghu Udyog Nigam in the 1970s and 1980s. The industry is said to have received a setback post-liberalization as the subsidies were reduced. Several weavers took up agricultural labour and masonry work while others migrated to Kota in Rajasthan during this time. The situation has been improving since 2004 with the participation of Bunkar Vikas Sanstha under the guidance of United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO).Initially it had 60 Self Help Groups (SHG) which were graded and seven were selected on the basis of their excellence. Six more SHGs were subsequently added. The involvement of NGOs and such societies 1-5

7 City Development Plan of Various Urban Local Bodies of Madhya Pradesh A STUDY ON HERITAGE AND TOURISM, CHANDERI has also resulted in obtaining a Certificate of Registration of Geographic indication for Chanderi sarees under section 16(1) of the Geographical Indication of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act 1999.However handloom sarees produced in other places like Waraseoni and Sounsar are also being marketed as Chanderi sarees. 17. Surveys carried out by INTACH in 2007 revealed that weavers as individuals are attached to some master weaver or trader and depend on him for loans, advances and raw material such that the cost of which is adjusted when the finished product is delivered to the master weaver or trader. The study estimated around 56 master weavers and traders. As discussed in the earlier paragraph, SHGs of weavers have been formed with the help of Bunkar Vikas Sanstha. It was concluded in the study that there was need for a comprehensive study to determine the linkages, deficiencies and to evolve strategies to rectify the same. 1-6

8 City Development Plan of Various Urban Local Bodies of Madhya Pradesh A STUDY ON HERITAGE AND TOURISM, CHANDERI Figure 1-1: Protected and other Important Monuments 1-7

9 City Development Plan of Various Urban Local Bodies of Madhya Pradesh A STUDY ON HERITAGE AND TOURISM, CHANDERI Monument Chanderi Fort / Kirti Durg Battisi Baodi Katighati Koshak Mahal Jama Masjid Badal Mahal Gateway Shahzadi ka Roza Mazar Khandan-e- Hazrat Nizamuddin Bada Madarsa Table 1-3: Protected Monuments (ASI) Description The fort dates back to the 11 th century and was built by Pratihara king Kirtipal. It is situated at a height of 230 feet on Chander giri hills. Johar smarak which was built as attribute to the rajput women who gave up their lives as satis during a war in 1528 and Khooni Darwaza are the important remnants of the fort. Khooni darwaza, a 15 m wide gate is hollow on either side of its 3.5m corbelled central opening. The corbelling is typical of Chanderi and used in combination with Ogee arches (Picture 1-3). The Baodi was built in 1485 A.D under the rule of Malwa sultan GyasShah Khilji. It has 32 ghats and same level of water in all the ghats lends its unique character. Katighati refers to a gate which was carved out of a massive rock of height 30 feet, length 192 feet and breadth 39 feet. Such a massive gate being carved out of a chisel and hammer lends the gate its unique identity. Historians believe that the Koshak Mahal was ordered to be built by Mahmud Khilji of Malwa when he passed through Chanderi in 1445 AD. The original plan of the Khilji ruler was to build a seven-storey palace though only two could be completed during his life time. The Mahal is divided into four equal parts and has architecture resembling that of Mandu (Picture 1-4). Jama Masjid is one of the oldest structures of Bundelkhand built to service the large Muslim population of Chanderi. It is located just outside Ander Shehar. Constructed in a unique style, stone slabs are interlocked to hold the brick outside finished with Lapis Lazuli glazed terracotta tiles. The intricate, ornamental and graceful serpentine brackets supporting the bold chhajja above the elegant ogee arches are distinct about Jama Masjid. They form the most exclusive feature of the early architecture of Chanderi (Picture 1-5). Exclusive to Chanderi, the Badal Mahal gateway is double arched with circular and tapering slender bastions on the two sides rising to a height of about 50 feet with a width of 25 feet. The opening between the tapering slender bastions is spanned by two ogee arches, one over the other with an intervening section filled in with filigree style jail and carving together forming a composition of unparalleled beauty. This gate was probably constructed during the reign of Sultan Mamood Shah Khalji in 1450 and faces the Jama Masjid. They may have been gates to Mahals of Governors (Picture 1-6). Shahzadi ka roza is situated outside the town in an abandoned and desolate place. It is a square building originally covered by a single dome that has now fallen. Masiive chhajjas rest on massive serpentine graceful brackets at two levels. Carved freize bears traces of glazed tiling. Parapet has beautifully designed merlons. The dome in the centre was flanked on either corner by a square chhatri. The dome has now fallen down as also the three chhatries. The characteristic features of this tomb are the serpentine brackets used on the exterior in double series on all sides, ogee of the ornamental arches, large scale use of pendentives and stone work in the interior, chhatries on the superstructure and glazed tiling on the frieze. It appears to be built later than the Jama Masjid around 1470 A.D. (Picture 1-7). The graveyard is believed to be built in the 15 th century. There are several graves of saints within the enclosure constructed in exquisitely carved dark sandstone. The jaali work along with the symbolic motifs on the gravestone is believed to be exceptional. Chanderi appears for the first time in the inscriptions. This is a graveyard built in the 15 th century. The jaali work and the carvings are exceptional beauty. 1-8

10 City Development Plan of Various Urban Local Bodies of Madhya Pradesh A STUDY ON HERITAGE AND TOURISM, CHANDERI Picture 1-3: Chanderi Fort Picture 1-4: Koshak Mahal Picture 1-5: Jama Masjid Picture 1-6: Badal Mahal Picture 1-7: Shahzadi ka Roza Picture 1-8: Lal Baodi Existing Situation 18. The gradual shift from a traditional system to the present day town characteristics is assessed. The yesteryears of glory and wealth coupled with civic life seen through indicators such as residential areas, road network and public places are presented in Table

11 City Development Plan of Various Urban Local Bodies of Madhya Pradesh A STUDY ON HERITAGE AND TOURISM, CHANDERI Table 1-4: Existing Situation Assessment- Chanderi Aspects Traditional System Present Status Palaces and havelis with two or more internal courtyards characterized the residential sectors. Houses of middle-class people were two-storied building with one or two inner courtyards. Labour class people such as artisans, potters, etc. had either semi-pucca or katchha structure. Two types of clustering patterns are seen in Chanderi as Street cluster and Space cluster. Most striking features in the buildings are the Nine monuments including palaces, talabs, and religious places are protected by ASI. The office of the Forest Department is situated in Kankuruti Taksal (mint building) where coins were minted during 14 th to 19 th century. Purana Tehsil building in Katra Bazar is being used as a school building. Almost all monuments are kept open for the public and tourists. However the Chhatris, Residential courtyards and terraces. Talaabs, Fort Wall are in dilapidated condition Areas Each of the mohallas comprised of common The middle-class houses inside the fort wall facilities like drinking water- well (step-well in have been renovated without much structural many places), workshop area, chabutara, worship places, religious practices deities and festivals, used to symbolize a strong community feeling. changes to the old building. The courtyards are now used for different purpose parking, storage, utilities, etc. Stepwell are mostly owned and operated by religious institutions and are used by locals. Chabutara are still existing and used for community gathering and local performances Lack of awareness on heritage and Road Network Public Places Stone paved roads within the inner city. Approaches to Parameswar Talaab were also stone paved. On the main streets, strict control was exercised on the street facade, along which shops and arcades were located. Pilgrimage and stepped embankments near Laxman Mandir, Dhobiya Talaab, Lal Baodi (Picture 1-8), Hauz Khas, Kukku Thalaiya. Platform for various religious ceremonies. Large and small pockets of open spaces within each mohalla for informal gathering. Temples and monuments were also used for the public gathering Conservation of Heritage Properties conservation. Roads in front of Circuit House, the major market centre, is encroached by the street hawkers, extension of shops, etc creating problems like insufficient parking space, drainage, etc. Increased vehicular ownership within the city area and the influx of tourist vehicles has led to chaos in the core city area. Infrastructure facilities like drainage, road, etc insufficient in core city wards. The drain aside the approach road leading to Parameswari Talaab is polluting and deteriorates the aesthetic value of the place. Talaabs and surrounding grounds are still places of major religious ceremonies (for Dussehra, Mohrahm Tazia in Dhobia Talaab area and Jogeswari Devi Mela in Mela ground near Hauz Khaz) and public gathering. Parameswari Talab is used also as ghat by locals. Other talabs are also used as fishing ground by the traditional fisher community. Chabutra (platform) are used in various mohallas for public gathering and recreation activities. 19. A few heritage properties are protected and renovated under ASI. However, there are still a large number of monuments which remain unattended. There are instances in which the monuments are situated within private properties and without any sort of connectivity (Picture 1-9). The fort wall around the inner city is encroached in many places and unauthorized construction of homesteads and shops are seen. One monument of the 14th century Kotri 84 which lies near Fatehabad is now in an almost ruined condition (Picture 1-10). The monument was believed to be a large building with 84 rooms and in the due course of time; the local residents have taken out the stones from these monuments for their own construction purposes. 1-10

12 City Development Plan of Various Urban Local Bodies of Madhya Pradesh A STUDY ON HERITAGE AND TOURISM, CHANDERI Picture 1-9: A monument without connectivity and lies within private property Picture 1-10: Kotri-84 at Fatehabad: Almost Ruined 20. The havelis in Chanderi are in use without any major renovation so far. These structures are mostly two-storied and characterized with stone walls and roofs with open balconies (Picture 1-11). The local residents have discovered many ancient inscriptions while renovating these havelis and are preserved by them (Picture 1-12). Several of these buildings are in dilapidated state and require reconstruction. Such buildings are a potential safety hazard to the people. Picture 1-11: A two-storied haveli at the inner city Picture 1-12: A local resident holding an ancient inscription obtained while renovating their residence 21. The reuse of some monuments is in practice at Chanderi. The present office of the Forest Department is situated in Kankuruti Taksal (mint building) where coins were minted during 14th to 19th century (Picture 1-13). The Purana Tehsil building is used as a school within the Ander Shehar area (Picture 1-14). 1-11

13 City Development Plan of Various Urban Local Bodies of Madhya Pradesh A STUDY ON HERITAGE AND TOURISM, CHANDERI Picture 1-13: Kankuruti Taksal (Mint Building): presently office of the Forest Department Picture 1-14: Purana Tehsil in Katra Bazar: presently used by a school 22. The Fort-wall which was constructed during the 15th century around the inner city area is encroached at many places (Picture 1-15). Discussion with key resource persons reveal that about 240 households have encroached and constructed houses or shops. The Delhi Darwaza, Pakhan Darwaza (Picture 1-16), Kidki Darwaza, Dholiya Darwaza are all associated with this fort wall. Picture 1-15: Ruined Fort Wall around the inner city area Picture 1-16: Pakhan Darwaja and the Fort Wall 1.6 TOURISM 23. Tourism in Chanderi is at a nascent stage. The tourism potential is yet to be tapped completely by the Government. The number of tourists visiting Chanderi is rather miniscule considering the potential of the place. The town is more popular with tourists who visit the town for a day with around 500 day tourists coming to Chanderi from nearby places like Jhansi, Gwalior, Laitpur etc while 1000 school children visit the town annually. 3 It is estimated that around 200 domestic tourists and 15,000 Jain pilgrims visit Chanderi every year. 24. The average monthly inflow of tourists to Chanderi is estimated from the available data for The data is obtained from Chanderi Museum run by ASI and is based on the tickets sold at 3 Chanderi Ecocity development Plan ; INTACH 1-12

14 City Development Plan of Various Urban Local Bodies of Madhya Pradesh A STUDY ON HERITAGE AND TOURISM, CHANDERI the Museum counter. The actual number of tourists visiting Chanderi is much more than these figures. The Chanderi Museum was earlier functioning at the Singhpura Mahal which was shifted to its new building situated at Mungaoli road. The Museum had not been opened for public during its renovation and shifting during 2007 June to 2008 September. The monthly average inflow of tourists during the period from 2005 to 2009 is estimated to be about 2000, in which the percentage of foreign tourists is 2 percent (Table 1-5). Estimates for annual projected tourist inflow have been given in Appendix The inflow of domestic tourists is observed to be higher during the month of January to March and the lean season for domestic tourist is November and December (Figure 1-2). At the same time, the peak season for foreign tourists is during the month of May and lean season is June to August (Figure 1-3). Number of Domestic Tourists January Domestic Tourist Inflow February March April May June July August September October November December Number of Foreign Tourists January February Foreign Tourist Inflow March April May June July August September October November December Figure 1-2: Average Monthly Inflow of Domestic Tourists in Chanderi ( ) Figure 1-3: Average Monthly Inflow of Foreign Tourists in Chanderi ( ) Months Table 1-5: Average Monthly Tourist inflow in Chanderi during Domestic Tourist Inflow Foreign Tourist Inflow Total Tourist Inflow Percentage of Domestic Tourist to Total Percentage of Foreign Tourists to Total January February March April May June July August September October November December TOTAL Source: Museum, Archaeological Survey of India, Chanderi Tourist Infrastructure Accommodation 26. The lodging facilities for domestic and foreign tourists visiting Chanderi is limited. There are about 5 Dharmashalas, 2 government guest houses and 6 major hotel accommodation facilities in Chanderi and Tana Bana Hotel owned by the MPSTDC also gives comfortable lodging facilities to 1-13

15 City Development Plan of Various Urban Local Bodies of Madhya Pradesh A STUDY ON HERITAGE AND TOURISM, CHANDERI domestic as well as international tourists (Picture 1-17 and Picture 1-18). The details of hotels/dharmasalas and the respective rates of rent per night are mentioned in Table 1-6. Table 1-6 Details of Accommodation Facilities in Chanderi Place of Accommodation No. of Beds Room Rents (Rs./Night) Dharmashalas/ Yatri Niwas (5) 78 Less than 150 Tana Bana Amrai Resort Shiv Lok, Pichore Road 10 Sada Bahar Ashoka Garden Dak Bungalow 4 Kila Koti (Circuit House) Hotel Sreekunj Source: Consultations during Reconnaissance visit, 2009 Picture 1-17: Government owned accommodation facilities for tourists Picture 1-18: Private owned accommodation facility in Chanderi Roads 27. The approach roads to various architectural monuments are either absent or are dilapidated. A discussion with the ASI In-Charge at Chanderi has revealed that some major monument sites like Battisi Baodi, Shahazadi-Ka-Roza, Chakla Baodi and Ramnagar Mahal do not have proper connectivity (Picture 1-19). For many other monuments and heritage sites, there are roads paved with sandstones. The roads leading to Cenotaphs situated near and on the way to Parmeshwar Talaab are stone paved and having a width of 3 metre (Picture 1-20). The approach way from the Delhi Darwaza to the Cenotaphs along the open drain is a narrow strip of 2 meter wide walkway that is used for two-wheeler movement also. 1-14

16 City Development Plan of Various Urban Local Bodies of Madhya Pradesh A STUDY ON HERITAGE AND TOURISM, CHANDERI Picture 1-19: Earthen road in front of Shahazadi-ka- Roza, an ASI Protected Monument Picture 1-20: Stone paved road leading to Parmeshwar Talaab and Chhatries Transport and Guide 28. The nearest rail connectivity to Chanderi is Lalitpur which is at distance of 37 km. Jhansi is another major city with important rail and road junction located at a distance of 90 km. Tourists mostly comes via Jhansi. In spite of the availability of tourist vehicles in Chanderi, many of the tourist places are usually approached by foot due to the poor approach roads. There is an authorized tourist-guide who is also a resident of Chanderi. 1.7 TOURIST INFRASTRUCTURE GAP Basic Infrastructure Facilities for Tourists 29. The provision of basic infrastructure services like water, sanitation facilities (sewerage and toilet), drainage and solid waste management (SWM) should be made available at heritage sites for the tourists. These services have been included as on site infrastructure development for select heritage sites. The existing situation and future demand of on and off site infrastructure services also have been assessed. A gap analysis of these services has been carried out considering the projected tourist population in Chanderi for the years 2015, 2025 and 2035 (Table 1-7). Table 1-7: On and Off-site Infrastructure Facilities for Tourists: Gap Analysis Location Facilities Unit Year Drinking water points Number Public toilets (2WC+2U) Number On-site Storm water drainage Rmt Solid waste management Number Pathways Square Meter Street lighting Number Drinking water points Number Off-site Public toilets (2WC+2U) Number Solid waste management Number Source: LASA Estimates, Hotel and Accommodation 30. The present status of accommodation facilities and the future requirements have been estimated for the projected tourist population. Considering the present tourist inflow in Chanderi, the 1-15

17 City Development Plan of Various Urban Local Bodies of Madhya Pradesh A STUDY ON HERITAGE AND TOURISM, CHANDERI existing number of beds available in various accommodation places is sufficient to meet the current requirements. However, Chanderi would require a total number of 7201 beds by 2035 as per the estimated tourist inflow. The area required to accommodate the additional bed has been worked out to be 3ha in 2015 and 14 ha in 2035 (Table 1-8). Table 1-8: Tourist Inflow and Accommodation Facilities (Bed Requirement) in Chanderi: Gap Analysis Category / Year Annual tourist inflow Domestic Foreign Average monthly tourist inflow Domestic Foreign Bed requirement during peak month* Domestic Foreign Monthly bed requirement based on number of night-stay** Domestic Foreign Daily bed requirement Domestic Foreign Total bed requirement Existing number of beds Additional bed requirement Area Requirement for additional beds (ha) *Domestic tourist inflow is observed to be highest during January and foreign tourist inflow is highest during February. **Average night stay is assumed to be 3 nights for domestic tourists and 4 nights for foreign tourists. The estimate is based on peak month demand. Source: LASA Estimates, 2010 (based on data collected during Reconnaissance Visit, 2009 and Annual Final Report: Collection of Domestic Tourism Statistics for the State of Madhya Pradesh, Department of Tourism, Government of India, 2006). 31. The bed requirement under various categories of accommodation also has been estimated. The estimates are based on the distribution pattern of tourists staying in various types of accommodation units. As per the estimates, an additional number of 1383 beds required under unstarred hotel category in 2015 and the requirement will be about 6575 in 2035 considering the nightstaying tourists Table 1-9. Table 1-9: Bed Requirement and Type of Accommodation in Chanderi Year Category Additional Bed Requirement Type of Accommodation % Distribution* Starred Hotel Un Starred Hotel Heritage Guest House/Rest House/Tourist Bungalow Youth Hostels/YMCA etc * Annual Final Report: Collection of Domestic Tourism Statistics for the State of Madhya Pradesh, Department of Tourism, Government of India, 2006 Source: LASA Estimates, HERITAGE AND TOURISM RELATED ISSUES 32. The major issues with respect to heritage and conservation include excessive commercialization, insufficient infrastructure facilities especially lack of approach roads to many 1-16

18 City Development Plan of Various Urban Local Bodies of Madhya Pradesh A STUDY ON HERITAGE AND TOURISM, CHANDERI heritage properties and sites, encroachment on streets by hawkers and vehicles, inadequate parking facility and lack of awareness. 33. There are important urban heritage precincts, heritage areas and properties, and traditional and living heritage practices which are critical to economic, urban image and social development of Chanderi. The process is to be set in view of developing a system for care of heritage assets and bring out economic regeneration in the town around heritage resources Need for preservation and protection of heritage sites 34. Many of the heritage sites and properties are gradually degenerated due to lack of reuse, inadequate maintenance and inappropriate development framework for integrating them into urban economy of the town. There is a critical need to protect these monuments of heritage importance through state department or any private agency. The lack of appropriate legislation with respect to conservation and preservation of un-protected monuments sites poses severe problems in Chanderi. The encroachment of heritage sites and structures by public ultimately destroys the historic wealth of the region and the nation. 35. Talaabs of historic importance are also in a decaying condition. These large water bodies give ample space for community life, however due to lack of care; these culturally centric places are gradually vanishing. Some talaabs are fishing grounds which provides livelihood to few fisher households. The vast potential of developing these talaabs for water based tourism is untapped. 36. The reuse of many monuments is possible yet not utilized to their maximum extent. The development of some structures into heritage hotels would possibly counterbalance the lack of accommodation facilities for high-end tourists, at the same time provides an economic opportunity for the tourism sector Lack of proper connectivity to heritage sites 37. The approach roads to some of the major heritage sites are either in dilapidated condition or even do not exist. Appropriate connectivity is a basic necessity with respect to the maintenance and also with respect to tourist visibility of a heritage structure. Consultation with tourists and key resource persons has also revealed that there were many cases of snake-bites happened to tourists. 38. The inter city connectivity by road is in an archaic state in Chanderi. The lack of advanced connectivity and mode of travel could enhance the potentials of tourist based economic activities. These infrastructure necessities are lacking in the heritage based tourism sector of Chanderi Banking infrastructure 39. Chanderi is a town without any Automated Teller Machine (ATM) facility and exchange of foreign currency. Though Chanderi has many banking institutions including branch-offices of some major public sector and private sector banks Lack of appropriate tourist promotion strategies 40. The analysis of tourist inflow shows that the percentage of foreign tourists visiting the place is less than 2 percent. This is mainly because of the lack of quality accommodation facilities, lack appropriate food suiting to the visitor, lack of infrastructure facilities like road and transport and also the lack of maintenance of heritage sites. The awareness campaigns in view of promoting Chanderi based 1-17

19 City Development Plan of Various Urban Local Bodies of Madhya Pradesh A STUDY ON HERITAGE AND TOURISM, CHANDERI tourism is yet to be revamped. There is acute shortage of trained tourist guides and at present there is only one authorized guide functioning at the local level. 41. Signboards and indication boards regarding various heritage monuments and places are lacking in Chanderi. The lack of these basic facilities has downward effect on the future tourism growth. 1.9 SWOT ANALYSIS 42. Heritage is one of the most important strengths for economic development of Chanderi. It has given the town its identity. However, the negligence of maintenance of heritage structures is evident from the present condition in the town. It is important that heritage in all its forms (natural, cultural, architectural) are recognized, protected and given a new lease of life. These can then lead to economic development in the town. Table 1-10 presents the SWOT assessment for heritage in Chanderi. Table 1-10: SWOT for Heritage and Tourism Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats Rich urban, General Development Improving the Permanent collapse and architectural, Control Regulations on Heritage monuments final loss of valuable natural, and heritage is not being can strengthen the cultural treasures due to living heritage properly followed and as a image, economy, and poor upkeep, especially monuments of result few buildings or areas quality of life of in budhi Chanderi. architectural are not covered under these Chanderi. value. guidelines. Muslin Industries No proper water and sewerage system. Insufficient power supply for the industry. Importing raw material from China. Raw material supply for hand-woven saris may improve the output of the industry. Imparting marketing strategies to local weavers may cause local weavers to gain additional profits for their work. Shortage of raw materials may cause weavers to migrate to other activities thus resulting in the loss of a very important cultural heritage STRATEGY AND ACTION PLAN FOR HERITAGE, CONSERVATION, AND TOURISM 43. The strategies are in accordance with the conclusions drawn in the infrastructure analysis report and as per the suggestions of the citizens, elected representatives and other stakeholders involved in the preparation of City Development Plan (Table 1-11). Table 1-11: Strategy and Action Plan for Heritage Conservation and Tourism Issues Strategy Action Plan Need for preservation and protection of heritage sites. Lack of proper connectivity to heritage sites. Infrastructure for banking facilities that is necessary for the tourists. Lack of appropriate tourist promotion strategies. Improve coordination with the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), the state archaeology department, the tourism department and the forest department for maintenance of monuments. Explore private sector participation for maintenance of all monuments and tourism promotion Provision of infrastructure within all heritage precincts. Restoration of Fort Wall. Restoration and Conservation of heritage buildings. Adaptive reuse of havelis and abandoned heritage properties. Continuous monitoring of heritage areas and updation of information such as structural stability. Usage of heritage areas and precincts to be assessed for demand and feasibility on a regular basis. Continuous up-gradation of basic services especially water, sanitation, solid waste and 1-18

20 City Development Plan of Various Urban Local Bodies of Madhya Pradesh A STUDY ON HERITAGE AND TOURISM, CHANDERI Issues Strategy Action Plan drainage. Density regulations within the walled town. Develop Heritage & Tourism corridor. Environmental improvement of water bodies of the town. Develop adequate infrastructure for tourists such as hotels and resting facilities. Update action plans for tourism promotion and include activities such as development of sound and light show, heritage walk, development of water bodies, avenue and ornamental plantation, tourist bus services, and construction of gateways. 1-19

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