Unit 4 Lesson 8 The Qin and Han Dynasties

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1 Unit 4 Lesson 8 The Qin and Han Dynasties

2 Directions Read the False statements below. Replace each underlined word with one from the word bank that makes each sentence True. Word Bank Ying Zheng army copper strong invasions 1. The first Qin emperor created a weak government. 2. The Qin rose to power by building a strong school and by defeating rival states in battle. 3. Confucius succeeded in unifying China and gave himself the title Shi Huangdi which means first emperor. 4. Shi Huangdi set up a new money system in which standardized gold and silver coins became the currency used in all China. 5. The Great Wall was built to protect China from peasants. Directions Read each sentence. Fill in the blank with the word pair that best completes the sentence. 6. Under Emperor, Confucianism became China s official government policy. (Wu-ti/Liu Bang) 7. was born a peasant, but he became emperor after his army won control of China after the fall of the Qin dynasty. (Wu-ti/Liu Bang) 8. A is a device that measures the strength of an earthquake. (seismograph/sundial) 9. Under the dynasty, the Chinese made several advances in art, literature, medicine, and science. (Qin/Han) 10. The dynasty rose after the collapse of the dynasty. (Qin/Han) : (Qin/Han)

3 Generalization: Leaders impact both their own people and others Big Idea The Qin dynasty unified China with a strong government and a system of standardization while the Han dynasty created a new form of government that valued family, art and learning.

4 The Qin emerge from the Warring State Period as one of the strongest kingdoms Shi Huangdi - King Ying Zheng unites China in 221 BC - takes the title Shi Huangdi meaning first emperor - follower of legalism - strict laws and punishments - everyone had to follow his policies - destroyed any writings that did not agree with legalism - even burned people who opposed this - expanded the empire - conquered cities lost their walls and their weapons

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6 Where was the Great Wall located during the Qin Dynasty?

7 Qin Policies - emperor had all the power - took land from the nobles and forced them to move to the capital to keep control of them - commoners forced to build government projects - Great Wall and his Tomb - divided China into districts and counties, each ruled by appointed officials - aided in tax system - enforced strict chain of command - set up uniform system of laws - standardized the written language - improved communication between regions - built sense of shared culture and common identity - standardized money system - standardized weights and measures - trade became easier - road system that connected to the capital - canals to connect rivers and move goods - new irrigation systems to increase farming

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12 The Great Wall of China - Built to keep out invaders - Took 2,000 years to build - About 30 feet height and runs 1,500 miles long - In 221 BC Shi Huang Ti combined the walls into one - finished by the Qin Dynasty around 204 BC - The wall we see today is a product of the Ming Dynasty ( ) and stretched 4,500 miles long

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14 Rank By table group decide what order you would put rank these achievements of Shi Huangdi based on effectiveness and how it impacted his policies in unifying China a. Road System connected the capital to all parts of the empire, made travel easier b. Canals taking goods from north and south, made travel easier and faster c. Great Wall kept out invaders

15 -recall- why was the Great Wall built? To stop invaders from the north summarizing- how did Shi Huangdi strengthen the government? -- after successfully unifying China and taking the title first emperor Shi Huangdi claimed that the Qin dynasty would survive for 10,000 generations. Instead, after his death, rival families defeated the Qin. The Qin dynasty had ruled all of China for fewer than 20 years. He took all the power, kept control of nobles, divided china into districts ruled by appointed officials, and organized a tax system

16 The Fall of the Qin - while uniting China, policies also created resentment - Shi Huangdi too powerful to take down though - Fell apart when he died in 210 BC - rebel groups began fighting for control - each claiming the Mandate from Heaven - Capital was destroyed and new emperor surrendered - civil war - eventually Liu Bang was able to seize control - started the Han Dynasty - lasted over 400 years Shi Huangdi s tomb In March 1974 famers near the Chinese city of Xian were digging for a water well. What they uncovered was one of the most famous archaeological discoveries of the twentieth century. Measuring some 20 square miles, the tomb complex of Qin ruler Shi Huangdi is best known for the thousands of life-like terracotta soldiers that guard the tomb along with horses and chariots. While the inside of Shi Huangdi s actual tomb has yet to be excavated, historians believe it took some 700,000 workers over 36 years to complete

17 Liu Bang Wudi - peasant who became emperor because of the Mandate of Heaven - well liked by all social groups - set up new government style - moved away from legalism eased punishments - lowered taxes - gave supports large tracts of land - educated officials helped him rule - became emperor in 140 BC - wanted to create a stronger central government - raised taxes - took land back from the nobles - placed grain supply under government control - started civil service exams but noble families still stayed in power - appointed officials who were paid salaries - Confucianism became China s official philosophy -elaborate- would you rather have lived under the rule of Liu Bang or Wudi? Why?

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19 The Han Dynasty 202 BC to AD Increased the size of China - Paid officials and held public exams to find people - law, math, writings of Confucius - anyone could take the test opportunity for the poor to advance - Trade routes developed between east and west mainly because of silk - became known as the Silk Road - Polytheistic culture - nature gods with a leader Shang Ti - scarifies of food, wine and animals - on important occasions human sacrificed - those who died went to live with Shang Ti and could influence him - practiced ancestor worship

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21 Social Order - became more rigid - divided into 4 classes - Upper Class emperor, his court, scholar who worked for the govt. - Second Class peasants largest group - Third Class artisans - Lowest Class Merchants they did not produce anything - military was not a class, but considered part of the government - class system was about social rank not wealth and power -analyze- why were wealthy merchants in the lowest class? Did not produce anything of their own, only bought and sold goods made by others -elaborate how were Han social classes different than most social divisions? They were not based on wealth or power

22 Family Life - based on teaching of Confucius - Children to honor their parents - disobeying one s parents was a crime - father was the head of the family - had absolute power - women must obey husband - children must obey father - Children expected to honor dead parents with ceremonies and offerings, as well as care for burial sties ancestor worship - sons more important than daughters - sons carried on the family name and line as well as cared for the parents when they got old -describe- what was the son s role in the family? To obey his parents, carry on the family line, and take care of his parents

23 Government Officials practiced Confucianism and had to pass an exam on Confucian teachings; some men gained government jobs based on respect for parents Confucianism Family Children were taught to respect their parents and obey their father

24 Critical Thinking Analyzing Cost-Benefit Think about the Actions of Shi Huangdi Actions Benefits Costs

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