# Maple: An Introduction for PMT

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1 Maple: An Introduction for PMT December, 00 ************************************************************ These notes are based on notes originally written by Dominik Gruntz, Kathrin Meier, and Michael Monagan of the Institute for Scientific Computation, ETH Zürich. They have been updated and modified for PHYCS 390 in January, 003, by Richard Price. ************************************************************ 1 Introduction This introductory article contains basic information for the new user of Maple. The goal of the article is to teach enough so that a new user will be able to use built-in resources to learn whatever furhter details are needed. The document covers how to use Maple as a calculator, recovering from errors, Maple s notation for arithmetic, mathematical constants and functions, how to get help, how to solve equations, do linear algebra, and how to define and plot mathematical functions in two and three dimensions. For each section there are several examples, and there are exercises at the end. These notes have been revised in December 00 to be compatible with Maple 8, the Physics Department s latest version of Maple, but the notes should apply with few exceptions to earlier versions, and probably to later versions. In the notes below Maple input, output, and such with be denoted with atypewriter font. Maple output will mostly be in the Character Notation for math. In your graphical interaction with Maple, your output will probably be in Maple s more sophisticated Typeset Notation. Getting Started The way of opening Maple will be somewhat different on a PMT PC running Windows or running Linux, or on a Physics Department Sun workstation. No matter how Maple is invoked you will find yourself looking at a Windows-like frame with menus and toolbars of icons along the top border. The menus and toolbars are context sensitive; that is, they 1

2 change depending on what you are doing. Keep that in mind when you try to follow the instructions here. If you are logging into a Physics workstation remotely via a modem, the graphical interface for Maple is too slow for convenience. In this case, you should use the command %maple, rather than %xmaple for a nongraphical Maple session. Much of the power of Maple is available without much inconvenience this way. There are two general help resources you should know about. One is Balloon Help. To activate this, to to Preferences in the File menu. Click on Balloon Help in the lower left corner, and click on Apply to Session. Just hold the cursor near one of the icons in the toolbar, and this feature will tell you its action. The second help feature you might want to try is Maple s own introduction to itself. Click on Help in the upper right hand corner of the Maple frame, and then click on Introduction. One of the choices there is a New User s Tour. Another is an Overview of Basic Features. In the window within the Maple frame, you will see a >, which is the prompt used in Maple, the way input is started. The next important thing to learn is how input is ended. ATTENTION : every Maple command must end with a semicolon ; or a colon : For now, we will only use semicolons. This is a grammatical requirement of the Maple language. The semicolon tells Maple that this is the end of the input. Type now 4/6; followed by a return. Maple answers with To refer to the latest result, one uses the percentage character. Try it now > %; /3 You can use the value of in an expression as if it were a variable, for example /3 > *%+1; 7/3 In order to save results, one assigns them to a variable, e.g. > R := %; R := 7/3 3 Arithmetic and Maple Notation The basic arithmetic operators and constants known to Maple are

3 Maple notation Meaning Mathematical notation x+y addition + -x and x-y negation and subtraction x and x y x*y multiplication xy x x/y division y x^y or x**y exponentiation x y k! factorial k! I or sqrt(-1) complex unit i or 1 Pi number π pi Greek letter pi π infinity infinity abs(x) absolute value x sqrt(x) or x^(1/) square root x exp(x) exponential function e x ln(x) or log(x) natural logarithm ln x sin(x) sine function sin x cos(x) cosine function cos x tan(x) tangent function tan x Notice that Maple does arithmetic with integers exactly. That is, exact arithmetic is used instead of decimal arithmetic. Use decimal numbers if you want decimal numbers. Examples > *3+/7; >.0*3.0+.0/7; This principle works for formulae too. Use the evalf (evaluate to floating point) function if you want a decimal approximation. > sin(pi/3); 1/ 1/ 3 > evalf(%); There is no limit on the length of integers in Maple. It is quite common to compute with integers several hundred digits long. It is also possible to do decimal arithmetic to more than the default 10 digits of precision. You can compute π to a 1000 digits if you want. This is done by assigning the variable Digits to the desired precision. Don t forget to reset Digits to 10 if you don t need more than 10 Digits. High precision operations take longer! Here are some examples > ^100; > Digits := 50:

4 > evalf( sin(pi/3) ); > Digits := 10: In the above examples we have used the colon to terminate a command. Use the colon : instead of a semicolon ; if you don t want to see the output. 4 Mistakes and Errors If you forget the semicolon don t panic! Maple will simply print another prompt indicating that it is still waiting for more input. Just type the semicolon and return and Maple will go ahead and compute the result. Note, this means that you can enter large expressions over one or more lines. Try to input a large expression like the following > f := 4*x^4+3*x^3*y+*x^*y^+ > 3*x*y^3+4*y^4; f := 4 x + 3 x y + x y + 3 x y + 4 y If you incorrectly input an expression, Maple will respond with a syntax error. A common error is to forget the semicolon and then to try to correct the problem by retyping the input. For example, if you type > *x+1 and a return, Maple will give you the message Error, missing operator or ; and a new prompt. Just type a semicolon, and Maple will continue. 5 On-Line Help If you need help for a Maple function, you can use the? command, which opens a separate help window. If, for example, you wanted help on the Maple command for cosine, you would type >?cos Note that there is no semicolon or colon at the end of the line. After typing the help request just do a return. Try this now, e.g., for the maple function max. Sometimes you will not be able to guess the right name of a Maple command. Suppose, for example, you did not know that Maple s maximum function had the name max. In that case you could use another Maple help feature. Click on the Help menu in the upper right hand side and then click on Full Text Search. Type in the word maximum in the dialog box that opens, then click on Search. A list of possibilities will be displayed. Click on one of them and click on Apply. The Maple Help will then open for the corresponding Maple function. 4

5 6 Simplification Commands The output from Maple is not always in the simplest form. There are a number of commands such as collect, combine, expand, factor and simplify which can be used to simplify or rearrange the output into the desired form. For example, given the polynomial > (x+y)*(x-y)-x^; (x + y) (x - y) - x if we multiply it out with the expand command the result is simpler > expand(%); - y Often factoring a polynomial yields a simpler result, e.g. > x^4+x^*y+*x^+*x^3+*x*y+*x+y+1; 4 3 x + x y + x + x + x y + x + y + 1 > factor(%); (x + 1) (x + y + 1) The simplify command can simplify general expressions, e.g. > simplify(exp(a+ln(b*exp(c)))); be (a+c) In this example the simplify command reduces a rational function > (x^3-y^3)/(x^+x*y+y^); 3 3 x - y x + x y + y > simplify(%); x - y 5

6 7 Calculus Commands Experiment with the integration, differentiation and summation commands. The Maple syntax for these functions and examples is as follows. Maple notation Meaning Mathematical notation d diff(f(x),x); Derivative dx f(x) d diff(f(x),x,x,x); Third derivative 3 dx f(x) 3 d diff(f(x),x\$3); Third derivative 3 dx f(x) 3 int(f(x),x); Indefinite integration f(x)dx sum(f(x),x); Indefinite summation n f(n) int(f(x),x=a..b); Definite integration b a f(x)dx sum(f(k),k=a..b); Definite summation bk=a f(k) > diff(ln(x),x); > diff(arcsin(a*x),x); > int(x*ln(x),x); > int(sqrt(1-x^),x); > int(ln(x),x=1..); > sum(n^,n); > sum(a^k,k=1..n); 1/x a / (1 - a x ) 1/ x ln(x) - 1/4 x 1/ 1/ x (1 - x ) + 1/ arcsin(x) ln() 3 1/3 n - 1/ n + 1/6 n (n + 1) a a a - 1 a - 1 6

7 In the case of indefinite integration, you can test whether Maple s answer is right by differentiating the integral and subtracting it from the integrand. The difference should be zero! But Maple may not recognize that the difference is zero immediately. You may have to help Maple simplify the difference to 0. You can make use of expand and simplify. Example: > f := (x^3+*x^-x)/(x^3-x^+x-1); 3 3 f := ( x + x - x)/(x - x + x - 1) > int(f,x); > diff(%,x); > simplify(%-f); x + ln(x - 1) + ln(x + 1) 1 x x - 1 x The Solve Commands You can solve single equations and systems of linear and non-linear equations exactly with the solve command. For approximate solutions, use the fsolve command. For ordinary differential equations use the dsolve command. And for recurrence equations use the rsolve command. These commands have the following syntax. For more detail, use?solve and so forth. solve(e, x) solve the equation e for the unknown x solve({e1,..., en}, {x1,..., xm}) solve the equations e 1,...,e n for x 1,...,x m fsolve(e, x) solve the equation e numerically for x fsolve({e1,..., en}, {x1,..., xm}) solve numerically e 1,...,e n for x 1,...,x m dsolve(e, y(x)) solve the ODE e for y(x) dsolve({e, i1,..., in}, y(x)) solve the ODE e and initial conditions i 1,...,i n for y(x) rsolve(e, f(n)) solve the recurrence equation e for f(n) rsolve({e, i1,..., in}, f(n)) solve the recurrence e given initial conditions i 1,...,i n for f(n) For example, to solve the equation x 3 6x = 5 for x > solve( x^3-6*x=5, x ); 1/ 1/ -1, 1/ + 1/ 1, 1/ - 1/ 1 7

8 To solve the ODE (ordinary differential equation) y(x) + y (x) = e x given initial conditions y(0) = 1 and y (0) = 0 > dsolve({y(x)+*diff(y(x),x\$)=exp(x), y(0)=1, D(y)(0)=0}, y(x)); y(x) = 1/3 exp(x) + /3 cos(1/ sqrt() x) - 1/3 sin(1/ sqrt() x) sqrt() Maple 8 has some ability to solve partial differential equations (see?pdsolve), but this is a rather advanced, and intricate application. 9 Other Commands and Functions Maple knows about the elementary functions ln, exp, sin, cos, tan, etc. Some other special functions that you might need are Maple notation Function Mathematical notation erf(x) Error function erf(x) ( binomial(n,k) Binomial function n ) k GAMMA(x) Gamma function Γ(x) LegendreP(n,x) Legendre function P n (x) Note that the command LegendreP(3,.7) will generate the numerical value of P 3 (.7), but it cannot be used to generate the form of the polynomial P 3 (x). To do this you need to open a Maple package. (For a list of Maple packages type>?packages. The package you need for Legendre polynomials is the orthopoly package. Try the following > with(orthopoly): > P(3,x); The output will be the n = 3 Legendre polynomial (5x 3 3x)/. 10 The Linear Algebra Package In Maple a vector is represented as a one-dimensional array, and a matrix is represented as a two-dimensional array. See?vector and?matrix for detailed help on vectors and matrices. In Maple there are many packages for special applications. The linalg package contains many functions from linear algebra for computing with vectors and matrices. In order to use a package, you must load the package using the with command, e.g. 8

9 > with(linalg): [BlockDiagonal, GramSchmidt, JordanBlock, LUdecomp, QRdecomp, Wronskian, addcol, addrow, adj, adjoint, angle, augment, backsub, band, basis, bezout, blockmatrix, charmat, charpoly, cholesky, col, coldim, colspace, colspan, companion, concat, cond, copyinto, crossprod, curl, definite, delcols, delrows, det, diag, diverge, dotprod, eigenvals, eigenvalues, eigenvectors, eigenvects, entermatrix, equal, exponential, extend, ffgausselim, fibonacci, forwardsub, frobenius, gausselim, gaussjord, geneqns, genmatrix, grad, hadamard, hermite, hessian, hilbert, htranspose, ihermite, indexfunc, innerprod, intbasis, inverse, ismith, issimilar, iszero, jacobian, jordan, kernel, laplacian, leastsqrs, linsolve, matadd, matrix, minor, minpoly, mulcol, mulrow, multiply, norm, normalize, nullspace, orthog, permanent, pivot, potential, randmatrix, randvector, rank, ratform, row, rowdim, rowspace, rowspan, rref, scalarmul, singularvals, smith, stackmatrix, submatrix, subvector, sumbasis, swapcol, swaprow, sylvester, toeplitz, trace, transpose, vandermonde, vecpotent, vectdim, vector, wronskian] You can now use any of the functions listed. The matrix command can be used to input a matrix. In the next example the inverse and determinant of a 3 by 3 matrix are computed. > A := matrix([[x-1,,3],[0,x-,],[,1,x-3]]); x 1 3 A := 0 x 1 x 3 > det(a); x 3 6x + 3x + 16 > inverse(a); x 5x+4 x 9 3x 10 x 3 6x +3x+16 x 3 6x +3x+16 x 3 6x +3x+16 4 x 4x 3 x x 3 6x +3x+16 x 3 6x +3x+16 x 3 6x +3x+16 x 4 x 5 (x 1)(x ) x 3 6x +3x+16 x 3 6x +3x+16 x 3 6x +3x Functions and Graphics Mathematical functions of one or more variables can be defined in Maple. The function can be evaluated at either numerical or symbolic expressions. For example > f:=x->sin(x)/x; > f(.0); sin(x) f := x -> x 9

10 > f(t); sin(t) t Functions can be graphed with the plot command which has the following syntax. plot( f, a..b ) That means, that the function f will be drawn on the interval a to b. Try this now > plot(f,-1..1); An example of a function in two variables > g:=(x,y)->(x^-y^)/(x^+y^); x - y g := (x,y) -> x + y > g(1,); -3/5 > g(1,x); 1 - x x Functions of two variables can be graphed with the plot3d command plot3d( f, a..b, c..d ) > plot3d(g, -1..1, -1..1); The examples above are plots of functions. The other possibility is to graph an expression. The syntax and examples for plotting expressions is plot( f(x), x=a..b ) plot3d( f(x,y), x=a..b, y=c..d ) > plot( sin(x)/x, x=-1..1 ); > plot3d( (x^-y^)/(x^+y^), x=-1..1, y=-1..1 ); 10

11 Exercises 1. Calculate the first and second derivative of sin(x)cos(x) with respect to x.. Given the polynomial y(x) = x 3 4x +4x 1 find the roots and any local minima and maxima of y(x). Check your solutions with a plot of the polynomial. 3. Given f = x 4 calculate the integral of f and 1 f with respect to x. Check that Maples answers are correct by differentiating the results. 4. Compute the following integrals 5. Compute the following sums 0 e t dt 1000 k=1 k and and 0 1/k k=1 e t dt 6. Compute a formula for the sum of the first n integers and also the sum of the squares of the first n integers. That is, compute and simplify the sums n k k=1 and n k k=1 7. Given the function h(x) = 1 x+sin(x), define the function in Maple and compute the value of the function h at x =.0 and then graph the function in the region [ 5,5]. 8. Input the following Matrix A into Maple A = a a 0 0 (a) Compute the characteristic polynomial of A. Hint: use the charmat and det commands in the linear algebra package linalg. (b) Compute the eigenvalues of A. Hint: use the solve or factor commands to find the roots of the characteristic polynomial. 9. Use the solve command to solve the linear system 4x 5y = 11 x + y = 9 11

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