# MATHCOUNTS TOOLBOX Facts, Formulas and Tricks

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1 MATHCOUNTS TOOLBOX Facts, Formulas and Tricks MATHCOUNTS Coaching Kit 40

2 I. PRIME NUMBERS from 1 through 100 (1 is not prime!) II. FRACTIONS DECIMALS PERCENTS 1 / % 1 / % 2 / % 1 / % 3 / % 1 / % 2 / % 3 / % 4 / % 1 / % 5 / % 1 / % 3 / % 5 / % 7 / % 1 / % 1 / % 1 / % 1 / % 1 / % 1 / % 1 / % 1 / % III. PERFECT SQUARES AND PERFECT CUBES 1 2 = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = 1000 MATHCOUNTS Coaching Kit 41

3 IV. SQUARE ROOTS 1 = = = V. FORMULAS Perimeter: Volume: Triangle p = a + b + c Cube V = s 3 Square p = 4s Rectangular Prism V = lwh. Rectangle p = 2l + 2w Cylinder V = πr 2 h Circle (circumference) c = 2πr Cone V = ( 1 / 3 )πr 2 h c = πd Sphere V = ( 4 / 3 )πr 3 Pyramid V = ( 1 / 3 )(area of base)h. Area: Rhombus A = (½)d 1 d 2 Circle A = πr 2 Square A = s 2 Triangle A = (½)bh.a Rectangle A = lw = bh Right Triangle A = (½)l 1 l 2 Parallelogram A = bh Equilateral Triangle A = (¼) s 2 3 Trapezoid A = (½)(b 1 + b 2 )h. Total Surface Area: Lateral Surface Area: Cube T = 6s 2 Rectangular Prism L = (2l + 2w)h Rectangular Prism T = 2lw + 2lh + 2wh Cylinder L = 2πrh Cylinder T = 2πr 2 + 2πrh Sphere T = 4πr 2 Distance = Rate Time Slope of a Line with Endpoints ( 1, y 1 ) and ( 2, y 2 ): slope = m = y y Distance Formula: distance between two points or length of segment with endpoints ( 1, y 1 ) and ( 2, y 2 ) D = + y y Midpoint Formula: midpoint of a line segment given two endpoints ( 1, y 1 ) and ( 2, y 2 ) + y y, Circles: Length of an arc = Area of a sector = π 2 πr r, where is the measure of the central angle of the arc, where is the measure of the central angle of the sector MATHCOUNTS Coaching Kit 42

4 Combinations (number of groupings when the order of the items in the groups does not matter): N! Number of combinations =, where N = # of total items and R = # of items being chosen R!( N R)! Permutations (number of groupings when the order of the items in the groups matters): N! Number of permutations =, where N = # of total items and R = # of items being chosen ( N R)! Length of a Diagonal of a Square = s 2 Length of a Diagonal of a Cube = s Length of a Diagonal of a Rectangular Solid = + y + z, with dimensions, y and z Number of Diagonals for a Conve Polygon with N Sides = N( N 3) 2 Sum of the Measures of the Interior Angles of a Regular Polygon with N Sides = (N 2)180 Heron s Formula: For any triangle with side lengths a, b and c, Area = s( s a)( s b)( s c), where s = ½(a + b + c) Pythagorean Theorem: (Can be used with all right triangles) a 2 + b 2 = c 2, where a and b are the lengths of the legs and c is the length of the hypotenuse Pythagorean Triples: Integer-length sides for right triangles form Pythagorean Triples the largest number must be on the hypotenuse. Memorizing the bold triples will also lead to other triples that are multiples of the original Special Right Triangles: 45 o 45 o 90 o 30 o 60 o 90 o hypotenuse = 2 (leg) = a 2 hypotenuse = 2(shorter leg) = 2b leg = hypotenuse c = 2 2 longer leg = 3 (shorter leg) = b 3 longer leg shorter leg = = hypotenuse 3 2 a 45 c a 45 a 30 c 60 b MATHCOUNTS Coaching Kit 43

5 Geometric Mean: a = therefore, 2 = ab and = ab b Regular Polygon: Measure of a central angle = 360, where n = number of sides of the polygon n 360 Measure of verte angle = 180, where n = number of sides of the polygon n Ratio of Two Similar Figures: If the ratio of the measures of corresponding side lengths is A:B, then the ratio of the perimeters is A:B, the ratio of the areas is A 2 : B 2 and the ratio of the volumes is A 3 : B Difference of Two Squares: a b = a b a+ b 2 2 Eample: 12 9 = = 3 21 = = 63 Determining the Greatest Common Factor (GCF): 5 Methods 1. Prime Factorization (Factor Tree) Collect all common factors 2. Listing all Factors 3. Multiply the two numbers and divide by the Least Common Multiple (LCM) Eample: to find the GCF of 15 and 20, multiply = 300, then divide by the LCM, 60. The GCF is Divide the smaller number into the larger number. If there is a remainder, divide the remainder into the divisor until there is no remainder left. The last divisor used is the GCF. Eample: is the GCF of 180 and Single Method for finding both the GCF and LCM Put both numbers in a lattice. On the left, put ANY divisor of the two numbers and put the quotients below the original numbers. Repeat until the quotients have no common factors ecept 1 (relatively prime). Draw a boot around the left-most column and the bottom row. Multiply the vertical divisors to get the GCF. Multiply the boot numbers (vertical divisors and last-row quotients) to get the LCM The GCF is 2 10 = The LCM is = 280 VI. DEFINITIONS Real Numbers: all rational and irrational numbers Rational Numbers: numbers that can be written as a ratio of two integers Irrational Numbers: non-repeating, non-terminating decimals; can t be written as a ratio of two integers (i.e. 7, π ) MATHCOUNTS Coaching Kit 44

6 Integers: {, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, } Whole Numbers: {0, 1, 2, 3, } Natural Numbers: {1, 2, 3, 4, } Common Fraction: a fraction in lowest terms (Refer to Forms of Answers in the MATHCOUNTS School Handbook for a complete definition.) Equation of a Line: Standard form: A + By = C with slope = A B Slope-intercept form: y = m + b with slope = m and y-intercept = b Regular Polygon: a conve polygon with all equal sides and all equal angles Negative Eponents: n = 1 1 and n = n n Systems of Equations: + y = y = 10 (8, 2) is the solution y = 6 y = 2 of the system 2 = 16 = 8 Mean = Arithmetic Mean = Average Mode = the number(s) occurring the most often; there may be more than one Median = the middle number when written from least to greatest If there is an even number of terms, the median is the average of the two middle terms. Range = the difference between the greatest and least values Measurements: 1 mile = 5280 feet 1 square foot = 144 square inches 1 square yard = 9 square feet 1 cubic yard = 27 cubic feet VII. PATTERNS Divisibility Rules: Number is divisible by 2: last digit is 0,2,4,6 or 8 3: sum of digits is divisible by 3 4: two-digit number formed by the last two digits is divisible by 4 5: last digit is 0 or 5 6: number is divisible by both 2 and 3 8: three-digit number formed by the last 3 digits is divisible by 8 9: sum of digits is divisible by 9 10: last digit is 0 MATHCOUNTS Coaching Kit 45

7 Sum of the First N Odd Natural Numbers = N 2 Sum of the First N Even Natural Numbers = N 2 + N = N(N + 1) Sum of an Arithmetic Sequence of Integers: N 2 (first term + last term), where N = amount of numbers/terms in the sequence Find the digit in the units place of a particular power of a particular integer Find the pattern of units digits: 7 1 ends in ends in 9 (pattern repeats 7 3 ends in 3 every 4 eponents) 7 4 ends in ends in 7 Divide 4 into the given eponent and compare the remainder with the first four eponents. (a remainder of 0 matches with the eponent of 4) Eample: What is the units digit of 7 22? 22 4 = 5 r. 2, so the units digit of 7 22 is the same as the units digit of 7 2, which is 9. VIII. FACTORIALS ( n! is read n factorial ) n! = (n) (n 1) (n 2) (2) (1) Eample: 5! = = 120 0! = 1 1! = 1 2! = 2 Notice 6! = = 30 3! = 6 4! ! = 24 5! = 120 6! = 720 7! = 5040 IX. PASCAL S TRIANGLE Pascal s Triangle Used for Probability: Remember that the first row is row zero (0). Row 4 is This can be used to determine the different outcomes when flipping four coins way to get ways to get ways to get ways to get way to get 4 heads 0 tails 3 heads 1 tail 2 heads 2 tails 1 head 3 tails 0 heads 4 tails For the Epansion of (a + b) n, use numbers in Pascal s Triangle as coefficients. 1 (a + b) 0 = (a + b) 1 = a + b (a + b) 2 = a 2 + 2ab + b (a + b) 3 = a 3 + 3a 2 b + 3ab 2 + b (a + b) 4 = a 4 + 4a 3 b + 6a 2 b 2 + 4ab 3 + b (a + b) 5 = a 5 + 5a 4 b + 10a 3 b a 2 b 3 + 5ab 4 + b 5 MATHCOUNTS Coaching Kit 46

8 For 2 n, add all the numbers in the n th row. (Remember the triangle starts with row 0.) = = = = = = = = = = = 32 X. SQUARING A NUMBER WITH A UNITS DIGIT OF 5 (n5) 2 = n (n + 1) 2 5, where n represents the block of digits before the units digit of 5 Eamples: (35) 2 = 3 (3+1) 2 5 (125) 2 = 12 (12+1) 2 5 = 3 (4) 2 5 = 12 (13) 2 5 = = = 1,225 = 15,625 XI. BASES Base 2 = binary only uses digits 0 1 Base 16 = headecimal only uses digits 0 9, A F (where A=10, B=11,, F=15) Changing from Base 10 to Another Base: What is the base 2 representation of 125 (or 125 base 10 or )? We know 125 = 1(10 2 ) + 2(10 1 ) + 5(10 0 ) = , but what is it equal to in base 2? =?(2 n ) +?(2 n-1 ) + +?(2 0 ) The largest power of 2 in 125 is 64 = 2 6, so we now know our base 2 number will be:?(2 6 ) +?(2 5 ) +?(2 4 ) +?(2 3 ) +?(2 2 ) +?(2 1 )+?(2 0 ) and it will have 7 digits of 1 s and/or 0 s. Since there is one 64, we have: 1(2 6 ) +?(2 5 ) +?(2 4 ) +?(2 3 ) +?(2 2 ) +?(2 1 )+?(2 0 ) We now have = 61 left over, which is one 32 = 2 5 and 29 left over, so we have: 1(2 6 ) + 1(2 5 ) +?(2 4 ) +?(2 3 ) +?(2 2 ) +?(2 1 )+?(2 0 ) In the left-over 29, there is one 16 = 2 4, with 13 left over, so we have: 1(2 6 ) + 1(2 5 ) + 1 (2 4 ) +?(2 3 ) +?(2 2 ) +?(2 1 )+?(2 0 ) In the left-over 13, there is one 8 = 2 3, with 5 left over, so we have: 1(2 6 ) + 1(2 5 ) + 1(2 4 ) + 1(2 3 ) +?(2 2 ) +?(2 1 )+?(2 0 ) In the left-over 5, there is one 4 = 2 2, with 1 left over, so we have: 1(2 6 ) + 1(2 5 ) + 1(2 4 ) + 1(2 3 ) + 1(2 2 ) +?(2 1 )+?(2 0 ) In the left-over 1, there is no 2 = 2 1, so we still have 1 left over, and our epression is: 1(2 6 ) + 1(2 5 ) + 1(2 4 ) + 1(2 3 ) + 1(2 2 ) + 0(2 1 )+?(2 0 ) The left-over 1 is one 2 0, so we finally have: 1(2 6 ) + 1(2 5 ) + 1(2 4 ) + 1(2 3 ) + 1(2 2 ) + 0(2 1 )+ 1(2 0 ) = MATHCOUNTS Coaching Kit 47

9 Now try What is the base 3 representation of 105? The largest power of 3 in 105 is 81 = 3 4, so we now know our base 3 number will be:?(3 4 ) +?(3 3 ) +?(3 2 ) +?(3 1 )+?(3 0 ) and will have 5 digits of 2 s, 1 s, and/or 0 s. Since there is one 81, we have: 1(3 4 ) +?(3 3 ) +?(3 2 ) +?(3 1 )+?(3 0 ) In the left-over = 24, there is no 27 = 3 3, so we still have 24 and the epression: 1(3 4 ) + 0(3 3 ) +?(3 2 ) +?(3 1 )+?(3 0 ) In the left-over 24, there are two 9 s (or 3 2 s), with 6 left over, so we have: 1(3 4 ) + 0(3 3 ) + 2(3 2 ) +?(3 1 )+?(3 0 ) In the left-over 6, there are two 3 s (or 3 1 s), with 0 left over, so we have: 1(3 4 ) + 0(3 3 ) + 2(3 2 ) + 2(3 1 )+?(3 0 ) Since there is nothing left over, we have no 1 s (or 3 0 s), so our final epression is: 1(3 4 ) + 0(3 3 ) + 2(3 2 ) + 2(3 1 )+ 0(3 0 ) = The following is another fun algorithm for converting base 10 numbers to other bases: =? =? =? 16 1 r.1 1 r.0 7 r.13(d) 23 r.1 33 r r r.2 215r r = 7D r Start here 2 62 r = = yz n = ( n 2 ) + (y n 1 ) + (z n 0 ) Notice: Everything in bold shows the first division operation. The first remainder will be the last digit in the base n representation, and the quotient is then divided again by the desired base. The process is repeated until a quotient is reached that is less than the desired base. At that time, the final quotient and remainders are read downward. XII. FACTORS Determining the Number of Factors of a Number: First find the prime factorization (include the 1 if a factor is to the first power). Increase each eponent by 1 and multiply these new numbers together. Eample: How many factors does 300 have? The prime factorization of 300 is Increase each of the eponents by 1 and multiply these new values: (2+1) (1+1) (2+1) = = 18. So 300 has 18 factors. Finding the Sum of the Factors of a Number: Eample: What is the sum of the factors of 10,500? (From the prime factorization , we know 10,500 has = 48 factors.) The sum of these 48 factors can be calculated from the prime factorization, too: ( )( )( )( ) = = 34,944. MATHCOUNTS Coaching Kit 48

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