1 Introduction to Metabolism If the ΔG' of the reaction A B is 40 kj/mol, under standard conditions the reaction: A) is at equilibrium. B) will never reach equilibrium. C) will not occur spontaneously. D) will proceed at a rapid rate. E) will proceed spontaneously from left to right. For the reaction A B, ΔG' = 60 kj/mol. The reaction is started with 10 mmol of A; no B is initially present. After 24 hours, analysis reveals the presence of 2 mmol of B, 8 mmol of A. Which is the most likely explanation? A) A and B have reached equilibrium concentrations. B) An enzyme has shifted the equilibrium toward A. C) B formation is kinetically slow; equilibrium has not been reached by 24 hours. D) Formation of B is thermodynamically unfavorable. E) The result described is impossible, given the fact that ΔG' is 60 kj/mol. When a mixture of 3-phosphoglycerate and 2-phosphoglycerate is incubated at 25 C with phosphoglycerate mutase until equilibrium is reached, the final mixture contains six times as much 2-phosphoglycerate as 3-phosphoglycerate. Which one of the following statements is most nearly correct, when applied to the reaction as written? (R = J/mol K; T = 298 K) 3-Phosphoglycerate 2-phosphoglycerate A) ΔG' is 4.44 kj/mol. B) ΔG' is zero. C) ΔG' is kj/mol. D) ΔG' is incalculably large and positive. E) ΔG' cannot be calculated from the information given. When a mixture of glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate is incubated with the enzyme phosphohexose isomerase (which catalyzes the interconversion of these two compounds) until equilibrium is reached, the final mixture contains twice as much glucose 6-phosphate as fructose 6-phosphate. Which one of the following statements is best applied to this reaction outlined below? (R = J/mol K; T = 298 K) Glucose 6-phosphate fructose 6-phosphate A) ΔG' is incalculably large and negative. B) ΔG' is 1.72 kj/mol. C) ΔG' is zero. D) ΔG' is kj/mol. E) ΔG' is incalculably large and positive.
2 The reaction ATP ADP + P i is an example of a(n) A) homolytic cleavage B) internal rearrangement C) free radical D) group transfer E) oxidation/reduction reaction. All of the following contribute to the large, negative, free-energy change upon hydrolysis of high-energy compounds except: A) electrostatic repulsion in the reactant. B) low activation energy of forward reaction. C) stabilization of products by extra resonance forms. D) stabilization of products by ionization. E) stabilization of products by solvation. The hydrolysis of ATP has a large negative ΔG' ; nevertheless it is stable in solution due to: A) entropy stabilization. B) ionization of the phosphates. C) resonance stabilization. D) the hydrolysis reaction being endergonic. E) the hydrolysis reaction having a large activation energy. The hydrolysis of phosphoenolpyruvate proceeds with a ΔG' of about 62 kj/mol. The greatest contributing factors to this reaction are the destabilization of the reactants by electrostatic repulsion and stabilization of the product pyruvate by: A) electrostatic attraction. B) ionization. C) polarization. D) resonance. E) tautomerization. Biological oxidation-reduction reactions never involve: A) transfer of e - from one molecule to another. B) formation of free e -. C) transfer of H + (or H 3 O + ) from one molecule to another. D) formation of free H + (or H 3 O + ). E) None of the above. The structure of NAD + does not include: A) a flavin nucleotide. B) a pyrophosphate bond. C) an adenine nucleotide. D) nicotinamide. E) two ribose residues.
3 Short Answer Questions Consider the reaction: A + B C + D. If the equilibrium constant for this reaction is a large number (say, 10,000), what do we get/know about the standard free-energy change (ΔG' ) for the reaction? Describe the relationship between Keq' and ΔG'. What is the difference between ΔG and ΔG' of a chemical reaction? Describe, quantitatively, the relationship between them. Classify each of the *-marked atoms as an electrophile or an nucleophile: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) H O * O * N * * CH 3 CH 3 N * CH 3
4 Glycolysis, Gluconeogenesis, and the Pentose Phosphate Pathway Glycolysis is the name given to a metabolic pathway occurring in many different cell types. When it consists of 11 enzymatic steps it converts glucose to lactic acid. It is an example of: A) aerobic metabolism. B) anabolic metabolism. C) a net reductive process. D) anaerobic metabolism. E) oxidative phosphorylation. The anaerobic conversion of 1 mol of glucose to 2 mol of lactate by fermentation is accompanied by a net gain of: A) 1 mol of ATP. B) 1 mol of NADH. C) 2 mol of ATP. D) 2 mol of NADH. E) none of the above. The conversion of 1 mol of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate to 2 mol of pyruvate by the glycolytic pathway results in a net formation of: A) 1 mol of NAD+ and 2 mol of ATP. B) 1 mol of NADH and 1 mol of ATP. C) 2 mol of NAD+ and 4 mol of ATP. D) 2 mol of NADH and 2 mol of ATP. E) 2 mol of NADH and 4 mol of ATP. Which of the following statements is not true concerning glycolysis in anaerobic muscle? A) Fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase is one of the enzymes of the pathway. B) It is an endergonic process. C) It results in net synthesis of ATP. D) It results in synthesis of NADH. E) Its rate is slowed by a high [ATP]/[ADP] ratio. When a muscle is stimulated to contract aerobically, less lactic acid is formed than when it contracts anaerobically because: A) glycolysis does not occur to significant extent under aerobic conditions. B) muscle is metabolically less active under aerobic than anaerobic conditions. C) the lactic acid generated is rapidly incorporated into lipids under aerobic conditions. D) under aerobic conditions in muscle, the major energy-yielding pathway is the pentose phosphate pathway, which does not produce lactate. E) under aerobic conditions, most of the pyruvate generated as a result of glycolysis is oxidized by the citric acid cycle rather than reduced to lactate. Glycolysis in the erythrocyte produces pyruvate that is further metabolized to: A) CO 2. B) ethanol. C) glucose. D) hemoglobin. E) lactate.
5 Which of these cofactors participates directly in most of the oxidation-reduction reactions in the fermentation of glucose to lactate? A) ADP B) ATP C) FAD/FADH 2 D) Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate E) NAD+/NADH In comparison with the resting state, actively contracting human muscle tissue has a: A) higher concentration of ATP. B) higher rate of lactate formation. C) lower consumption of glucose. D) lower rate of consumption of oxygen E) lower ratio of NADH to NAD +. The steps of glycolysis between glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and 3-phosphoglycerate involve all of the following except: A) ATP synthesis. B) catalysis by phosphoglycerate kinase. C) oxidation of NADH to NAD +. D) the formation of 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate. E) utilization of Pi. The first reaction in glycolysis that results in the formation of an energy-rich compound (in other words, a compound whose hydrolysis has a highly negative ΔG' ) is catalyzed by: A) glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase. B) hexokinase. C) phosphofructokinase-1. D) phosphoglycerate kinase. E) triose phosphate isomerase. Which of the following statements is incorrect? A) Aerobically, oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate forms acetate that enters the citric acid cycle. B) In anaerobic muscle, pyruvate is converted to lactate. C) In yeast growing anaerobically, pyruvate is converted to ethanol. D) Reduction of pyruvate to lactate regenerates a cofactor essential for glycolysis. E) Under anaerobic conditions, pyruvate does not form because glycolysis does not occur. The ultimate electron acceptor in the fermentation of glucose to ethanol is: A) acetaldehyde. B) acetate. C) ethanol. D) NAD +. E) pyruvate.
6 Which of the following compounds cannot serve as the starting material for the synthesis of glucose via gluconeogenesis? A) acetate B) glycerol C) lactate D) oxaloacetate E) α-ketoglutarate Which one of the following statements about gluconeogenesis is false? A) For starting materials, it can use carbon skeletons derived from certain amino acids. B) It consists entirely of the reactions of glycolysis, operating in the reverse direction. C) It employs the enzyme glucose 6-phosphatase. D) It is one of the ways that mammals maintain normal blood glucose levels between meals. E) It requires metabolic energy (ATP or GTP). In humans, gluconeogenesis: A) can result in the conversion of protein into blood glucose. B) helps to reduce blood glucose after a carbohydrate-rich meal. C) is activated by the hormone insulin D) is essential in the conversion of fatty acids to glucose. E) requires the enzyme hexokinase. Which of the following substrates cannot contribute to net gluconeogenesis in mammalian liver? A) alanine B) glutamate C) palmitate D) pyruvate E) α-ketoglutarate Which of the following statements about the pentose phosphate pathway is correct? A) It generates 36 mol of ATP per mole of glucose consumed. B) It generates 6 moles of CO 2 for each mole of glucose consumed. C) It is a reductive pathway; it consumes NADH. D) It is present in plants, but not in animals. E) It provides precursors for the synthesis of nucleotides. The main function of the pentose phosphate pathway is to: A) give the cell an alternative pathway should glycolysis fail. B) provide a mechanism for the utilization of the carbon skeletons of excess amino acids. C) supply energy. D) supply NADH. E) supply pentoses and NADPH. The metabolic function of the pentose phosphate pathway is to: A) act as a source of ADP biosynthesis. B) generate NADPH and pentoses for the biosynthesis of fatty acids and nucleic acids. C) participate in oxidation-reduction reactions during the formation of H 2 O. D) provide intermediates for the citric acid cycle. E) synthesize phosphorus pentoxide.
7 Which of the following statements about the pentose phosphate pathway is incorrect? A) It generates CO 2 from C-1 of glucose. B) It involves the conversion of an aldohexose to an aldopentose. C) It is prominent in lactating mammary glands. D) It is principally directed toward the generation of NADPH. E) It requires the participation of molecular oxygen. Glucose breakdown in certain mammalian and bacterial cells can occur by mechanisms other than classic glycolysis. In most of these, glucose 6-phosphate is oxidized to 6-phosphogluconate, which is then further metabolized by: A) an aldolase-type split to form glyceric acid and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. B) an aldolase-type split to form glycolic acid and erythrose 4-phosphate. C) conversion to 1,6-bisphosphogluconate. D) decarboxylation to produce keto- and aldopentoses. E) oxidation to a six-carbon dicarboxylic acid. Which of the following enzymes acts in the pentose phosphate pathway? A) 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase B) Aldolase C) Glycogen phosphorylase D) Phosphofructokinase-1 E) Pyruvate kinase The oxidation of 3 mol of glucose by the pentose phosphate pathway may result in the production of: A) 2 mol of pentose, 4 mol of NADPH, and 8 mol of CO 2. B) 3 mol of pentose, 4 mol of NADPH, and 3 mol of CO 2. C) 3 mol of pentose, 6 mol of NADPH, and 3 mol of CO 2. D) 4 mol of pentose, 3 mol of NADPH, and 3 mol of CO 2. E) 4 mol of pentose, 6 mol of NADPH, and 6 mol of CO 2. In a tissue that metabolizes glucose via the pentose phosphate pathway, C-1 of glucose would be expected to end up principally in: A) carbon dioxide. B) glycogen. C) phosphoglycerate. D) pyruvate. E) ribulose 5-phosphate. Short Answer Questions In glycolysis there are two reactions that require one ATP each and two reactions that produce one ATP each. How can glycolysis lead to the net production of two ATP molecules per glucose? Briefly describe the possible metabolic fates (there are more than one) of pyruvate produced by glycolysis in humans, and explain the circumstances that favor each.
8 The yeast used in brewing the alcoholic beverage beer can break down glucose either aerobically or anaerobically. Explain why beer is brewed under anaerobic conditions. All of the intermediated in the glycolytic pathway are phosphorylated. Give two reasons why this might be advantageous to the cell. Describe the part preparatory pathway of glycolysis showing structures of intermediates, enzyme names, and indicate where cofactors participate. Describe the part pay-off pathway of glycolysis showing structures of intermediates, enzyme names, and indicate where cofactors participate. Rat liver is able to metabolize glucose by both the glycolytic and the pentose phosphate pathways. Indicate in the blanks if the following are properties of glycolytic (G), pentose phosphate (P), both (G + P), or neither (0): NAD+ is involved. CO 2 is liberated. Phosphate esters are intermediates. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate is an intermediate. Fructose 6-phosphate is an intermediate. At which point in glycolysis do C-3 and C-4 of glucose become chemically equivalent? What is gluconeogenesis, and what useful purposes does it serve in people? What are the biological functions of the pentose phosphate pathway?
9 The Citric Acid Cycle Which of the below is not required for the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to form acetyl- CoA? A) ATP B) CoA-SH C) FAD D) Lipoic acid E) NAD+ Which combination of cofactors is involved in the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-coa? A) Biotin, FAD, and TPP B) Biotin, NAD +, and FAD C) NAD +, biotin, and TPP D) Pyridoxal phosphate, FAD, and lipoic acid E) TPP, lipoic acid, and NAD + Which of the following is not an intermediate of the citric acid cycle? A) Acetyl-CoA B) Citrate C) Oxaloacetate D) Succinyl-CoA E) α-ketoglutarate In mammals, each of the following occurs during the citric acid cycle except: A) formation of α-ketoglutarate. B) generation of NADH and FADH 2. C) metabolism of acetate to carbon dioxide and water. D) net synthesis of oxaloacetate from acetyl-coa. E) oxidation of acetyl-coa. Conversion of 1 mol of acetyl-coa to 2 mol of CO 2 and CoA via the citric acid cycle results in the net production of: A) 1 mol of citrate. B) 1 mol of FADH 2. C) 1 mol of NADH. D) 1 mol of oxaloacetate. E) 7 mol of ATP. The oxidative decarboxylation of α-ketoglutarate proceeds by means of multistep reactions. Which of the following cofactors is not required in this reaction? A) ATP B) Coenzyme A C) Lipoic acid D) NAD + E) Thiamine pyrophosphate
10 The reaction of the citric acid cycle that is most similar to the pyruvate dehydrogenase complexcatalyzed conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-coa is the conversion of: A) citrate to isocitrate. B) fumarate to malate. C) malate to oxaloacetate. D) succinyl-coa to succinate. E) α-ketoglutarate to succinyl-coa. The reaction of the citric acid cycle that produces an ATP equivalent (in the form of GTP) by substrate level phosphorylation is the conversion of: A) citrate to isocitrate. B) fumarate to malate. C) malate to oxaloacetate. D) succinate to fumarate. E) succinyl-coa to succinate. All of the oxidative steps of the citric acid cycle are linked to the reduction of NAD + except the reaction catalyzed by: A) isocitrate dehydrogenase. B) malate dehydrogenase. C) pyruvate dehydrogenase. D) succinate dehydrogenase. E) the α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. Which of the following cofactors is required for the conversion of succinate to fumarate in the citric acid cycle? A) ATP B) Biotin C) FAD D) NAD + E) NADP + In the citric acid cycle, a flavin coenzyme is required for: A) condensation of acetyl-coa and oxaloacetate. B) oxidation of fumarate. C) oxidation of isocitrate. D) oxidation of malate. E) oxidation of succinate. Anaplerotic reactions. A) produce oxaloacetate and malate to maintain constant levels of citric acid cycle intermediates. B) produce biotin needed by pyruvate carboxylase. C) recycle pantothenate used to make CoA. D) produce pyruvate and citrate to maintain constant levels of citric acid cycle intermediates. E) All of the above.
11 The conversion of 1 mol of pyruvate to 3 mol of CO 2 via pyruvate dehydrogenase and the citric acid cycle also yields mol of NADH, mol of FADH 2, and mol of ATP (or GTP). A) 2; 2; 2 B) 3; 1; 1 C) 3; 2; 0 D) 4; 1; 1 E) 4; 2; 1 During seed germination, the glyoxylate pathway is important to plants because it enables them: A) carry out the net synthesis of glucose from acetyl-coa. B) form acetyl-coa from malate. C) get rid of isocitrate formed from the aconitase reaction. D) obtain glyoxylate for cholesterol biosynthesis. E) obtain glyoxylate for pyrimidine synthesis. The glyoxylate cycle is: A) a means of using acetate for both energy and biosynthetic precursors. B) an alternative path of glucose metabolism in cells that do not have enough O 2. C) defective in people with phenylketonuria. D) is not active in a mammalian liver. E) the most direct way of providing the precursors for synthesis of nucleic acids (for example, ribose). Short Answer Questions The citric acid cycle begins with the condensation of acetyl-coa with oxaloacetate. Describe at least two of three possible sources for the acetyl-coa. Briefly describe the relationship of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex reaction to glycolysis and the citric acid cycle. What is the function of FAD in the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex? How is it regenerated?
12 Match the cofactors below with their roles in the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex reaction: Cofactors: A. Coenzyme A (CoA-SH) B. NAD + C. Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) D. FAD E. Lipoic acid in oxidized form Roles: Attacks and attaches to the central carbon in pyruvate. Oxidizes FADH 2. Accepts the acetyl group from reduced lipoic acid. Oxidizes the reduced form of lipoic acid. Initial electron acceptor in oxidation of pyruvate. Draw the citric acid cycle from isocitrate to fumarate only, showing and naming each intermediate. Show where high-energy phosphate compounds or reduced electron carriers are produced or consumed, and name the enzyme that catalyzes each step. Show the reactions by which α-ketoglutarate is converted to malate in the citric acid cycle. Show the steps of the citric acid cycle in which a six-carbon compound is converted into the first four-carbon intermediate in the path. For each step, show structures of substrate and product, name the enzyme responsible. Show the steps of the citric acid cycle from oxaloacetate to succinyl-coa only. For each step, show structures of substrate and product, name the enzyme responsible, and show where cofactors participate. In the citric acid cycle, a five-carbon compound is decarboxylated to yield an activated fourcarbon compound. Draw the reaction with proper formulas of substrate, product. In which reaction of the citric acid cycle does substrate-level phosphorylation occur? Draw the reaction with proper formulas.
13 Oxidative Phosphorylation and Photophosphorylation Almost all of the oxygen (O 2 ) one consumes in breathing is converted to: A) acetyl-coa. B) carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). C) carbon monoxide and then to carbon dioxide. D) none of the above. E) water. Antimycin A blocks electron transfer between cytochromes b and c1. If intact mitochondria were incubated with antimycin A in an excess of NADH and an adequate supply of O 2, which of the following compounds would be found in the oxidized state? A) Coenzyme Q B) Cytochrome a3 C) Cytochrome b D) Cytochrome e E) Cytochrome f In the reoxidation of QH 2 by purified ubiquinone-cytochrome c reductase (Complex III) from heart muscle, the overall stoichiometry of the reaction requires 2 mol of cytochrome c per mole of QH 2 because: A) cytochrome c is a one-electron acceptor, whereas QH 2 is a two-electron donor. B) cytochrome c is a two-electron acceptor, whereas QH 2 is a one-electron donor. C) cytochrome c is water soluble and operates between the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes D) heart muscle has a high rate of oxidative metabolism, and therefore requires twice as much cytochrome c as QH 2 for electron transfer to proceed normally. E) two molecules of cytochrome c must first combine physically before they are catalytically active. If electron transfer in mitochondria is blocked (with antimycin A) between cytochrome b and cytochrome c1, then: A) all ATP synthesis will stop. B) ATP synthesis will continue, but the P/O ratio will drop to one. C) electron transfer from NADH will cease, but O 2 uptake will continue. D) electron transfer from succinate to O 2 will continue unabated. E) energy diverted from the cytochromes will be used to make ATP, and the P/O ratio will rise. Which of the following statements about the chemiosmotic theory is correct? A) Electron transfer in mitochondria is accompanied by an asymmetric release of protons on one side of the inner mitochondrial membrane. B) It predicts that oxidative phosphorylation can occur even in the absence of an intact inner mitochondrial membrance. C) The effect of inhibitors is a consequence of their ability to carry electrons through membranes. D) The membrane ATP synthase has no significant role in the chemiosmotic theory. E) All of the above are correct.
14 Oxidative phosphorylation and photophosphorylation share all of the following except: A) chlorophyll. B) involvement of cytochromes. C) participation of quinones. D) proton pumping across a membrane to create electrochemical potential. E) use of iron-sulfur proteins. Short Answer Questions As you read and answer this question, you are (presumably) consuming oxygen. What is the reaction that consumes most of your oxygen and where would you locate it? Two compounds of mitochondrial respiratory chain Q and O 2 has a standard reduction potential (E' ) of 0.82 V and V. Which value belongs to each compound and why do you think so? Diagram the path of electron flow from NADH to the final electron acceptor during electron transport in mitochondria. Name each electron carrier, indicate whether only electrons, or both electrons and protons, are accepted/donated by that carrier. Diagram the path of electron flow from FADH 2 to the final electron acceptor during electron transport in mitochondria. Name each electron carrier, indicate whether only electrons, or both electrons and protons, are accepted/donated by that carrier.
15 Fatty Acid Metabolism Lipoprotein lipase acts in: A) hydrolysis of triacylglycerols of plasma lipoproteins to supply fatty acids to various tissues. B) intestinal uptake of dietary fat. C) intracellular lipid breakdown of lipoproteins. D) lipoprotein breakdown to supply needed amino acids. E) none of the above. Free fatty acids in the bloodstream are: A) bound to hemoglobin. B) carried by the protein serum albumin. C) freely soluble in the aqueous phase of the blood. D) nonexistent; the blood does not contain free fatty acids. E) present at levels that are independent of epinephrine. The glycerol produced from the hydrolysis of triacylglycerides enters glycolysis as: A) glucose. B) glucose-6-phosphate. C) glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. D) pyruvate. E) glyceryl CoA. Transport of fatty acids from the cytoplasm to the mitochondrial matrix requires: A) ATP, carnitine, and coenzyme A. B) ATP, carnitine, and pyruvate dehydrogenase. C) ATP, coenzyme A, and hexokinase. D) ATP, coenzyme A, and pyruvate dehydrogenase. E) carnitine, coenzyme A, and hexokinase. Fatty acids are activated to acyl-coas, the acyl group is further transferred to carnitine because: A) acyl-carnitines can cross the mitochondrial inner membrane, but acyl-coas do not. B) acyl-coas easily cross the mitochondrial membrane, but the fatty acids themselves will not. C) carnitine is required to oxidize NAD + to NADH. D) fatty acids cannot be oxidized by FAD unless they are in the acyl-carnitine form. E) None of the above is true. Carnitine is: A) a 15-carbon fatty acid. B) an essential cofactor for the citric acid cycle. C) essential for intracellular transport of fatty acids. D) one of the amino acids commonly found in protein. E) present only in carnivorous animals.
16 Which of these is able to cross the inner mitochondrial membrane? A) Acetyl CoA B) Fatty acyl carnitine C) Fatty acyl CoA D) Malonyl CoA E) None of the above can cross. What is the correct order of function of the following enzymes of β oxidation? 1. β-hydroxyacyl-coa dehydrogenase 2. Thiolase 3. Enoyl-CoA hydratase 4. Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase A) 1, 2, 3, 4 B) 3, 1, 4, 2 C) 4, 3, 1, 2 D) 1, 4, 3, 2 E) 4, 2, 3, 1 If the 16-carbon saturated fatty acid palmitate is oxidized completely to carbon dioxide and water (via the β-oxidation pathway and the citric acid cycle), and all of the energy-conserving products are used to drive ATP synthesis in the mitochondrion, the net yield of ATP per molecule of palmitate is: A) 3. B) 10. C) 25. D) 108. E) 1,000. Complete oxidation of 1 mole of which fatty acid would yield the most ATP? A) 16-carbon saturated fatty acid B) 18-carbon mono-unsaturated fatty acid C) 16-carbon mono-unsaturated fatty acid D) 16-carbon poly-unsaturated fatty acid E) 14-carbon saturated fatty acid Which of the following statements concerning the β oxidation of fatty acids is true? A) About 1,200 ATP molecules are ultimately produced per 20-carbon fatty acid oxidized. B) One FADH 2 and two NADH are produced for each acetyl-coa. C) The free fatty acid must be carboxylated in the β position by a biotin-dependent reaction before the process of β oxidation commences. D) The free fatty acid must be converted to a thioester before the process of β oxidation starts. E) Two NADH are produced for each acetyl-coa. Which compound is an intermediate of the β oxidation of fatty acids? A) CH 3 (CH 2 ) 20 CO COOH B) CH 3 CH 2 CO CH 2 CO OPO 3 2 C) CH 3 CH 2 CO CH 2 OH D) CH 3 CH 2 CO CO S CoA E) CH 3 CO CH 2 CO S CoA
17 The conversion of palmitoyl-coa (16:0) to myristoyl-coa (14:0) and 1 mol of acetyl-coa by the β-oxidation pathway results in the net formation of: A) 1 FADH 2 and 1 NADH. B) 1 FADH 2 and 1 NADPH. C) 1 FADH 2, 1 NADH, and 1 ATP. D) 2 FADH 2 and 2 NADH. E) 2 FADH 2, 2 NADH, and 1 ATP. If an aerobic organism were fed with each of the following three compounds as a source of energy, the energy yield per mole from these molecules would be in the order: A) alanine > glucose > palmitate (16:0). B) glucose > alanine > palmitate. C) glucose > palmitate > alanine. D) palmitate > alanine > glucose. E) palmitate > glucose > alanine. Ketone bodies are formed in the liver and transported to the extrahepatic tissues mainly as: A) acetoacetyl-coa. B) acetone. C) beta-hydroxybutyric acid. D) beta-hydroxybutyryl-coa. E) lactic acid. The major site of formation of acetoacetate from fatty acids is the: A) adipose tissue. B) intestinal mucosa. C) kidney. D) liver. E) muscle. Which of the following is not required in the synthesis of fatty acids? A) Acetyl-CoA B) Biotin C) HCO 3 (CO2 ) D) Malonyl-CoA E) NADH Which of the following is not true of the reaction producing malonyl-coa during fatty acid synthesis? A) It is stimulated by citrate. B) It requires acyl carrier protein (ACP). C) It requires CO 2 (or bicarbonate). D) One mole of ATP is converted to ADP + P i for each malonyl-coa synthesized. E) The cofactor is biotin.
18 Which of the following is not true of the fatty acid synthase and the fatty acid β-oxidation systems? A) A derivative of the vitamin pantothenic acid is involved. B) Acyl-CoA derivatives are intermediates. C) Double bonds are oxidized or reduced by pyridine nucleotide coenzymes. D) The processes occur in different cellular compartments. E) The processes occur in the mitochondrial matrix. Which of these can be synthesized by plants but not by humans? A) Linoleate [18:2(Δ 9,12 )] B) Palmitate (16:0) C) Phosphatidylcholine D) Pyruvate E) Stearate (18:0) Short Answer Questions The oxidation of acetyl-coa added to isolated, intact mitochondria is stimulated strongly by carnitine. Why? What are the first two steps of β oxidation of fatty acids after transport into the mitochondria? Show structures and indicate where any cofactors participate. Draw the four basic steps in the oxidation of a saturated fatty acid (the β-oxidation pathway). Show structures, name enzymes, and indicate where any cofactors participate. Show the last step in the sequence of the four reactions in the β-oxidation pathway for fatty acid degradation. Include the structures of reactant and product, the enzyme name, and indicate where any cofactors participate. One of the steps in fatty acid oxidation in mitochondria involves the addition of water across a double bond. What is the next step in the process? Show structures and indicate where any cofactor(s) participate(s).
19 In the citric acid cycle, a double bond is introduced into a four-carbon compound containing the CH2 CH2 group, producing fumarate. Show a similar reaction that occurs in the β- oxidation pathway. Write a balanced equation for the β oxidation of palmitoyl-coa, a 16-carbon, fully saturated fatty acid, and indicate how much of each product is formed. The total degradation of a fatty acid with an odd number of carbons yields acetyl-coa and another compound, X. Show the structure of X, and describe into what intermediate of citric acid cycle it is converted. Draw the structure of one ketone body, and describe circumstances under which you would expect to find high concentrations of this compound in an organism. What are ketone bodies and why do they form during diet? The reaction sequence that leads to fatty acid synthesis includes (1) condensation, (2) first reduction reaction, (3) dehydration, and (4) second reduction. Show the first reduction reaction, with any required cofactors. The reaction sequence that leads to fatty acid synthesis includes (1) condensation, (2) first reduction reaction, (3) dehydration, and (4) second reduction. Show the second reduction reaction, with any required cofactors.
20 Amino Acid Metabolism Which of these is not a protease that acts in the small intestine? A) Chymotrypsin B) Pepsin C) Enteropeptidase D) Secretin E) Trypsin In amino acid catabolism, the first reaction for many amino acids is a(n): A) decarboxylation requiring thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP). B) hydroxylation requiring NADPH and O 2. C) oxidative deamination requiring NAD +. D) reduction requiring pyridoxal phosphate (PLP). E) transamination requiring pyridoxal phosphate (PLP). The coenzyme involved in a transaminase reaction is: A) biotin phosphate. B) lipoic acid. C) nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP + ). D) pyridoxal phosphate (PLP). E) thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP). Pyridoxal phosphate is a cofactor in this class of reactions: A) acetylation. B) desulfuration. C) methylation. D) reduction. E) transamination. Glutamate is metabolically converted to α-ketoglutarate and NH 4 + by a process described as: A) deamination. B) hydrolysis. C) oxidative deamination. D) reductive deamination. E) transamination. The conversion of glutamate to an α-ketoacid and NH 4 + : A) does not require any cofactors. B) is a reductive deamination. C) is accompanied by ATP hydrolysis catalyzed by the same enzyme. D) is catalyzed by glutamate dehydrogenase. E) requires ATP. Urea synthesis in mammals takes place primarily in tissues of the: A) brain. B) kidney. C) liver. D) skeletal muscle. E) small intestine.
21 Which substance is not involved in the production of urea from NH 4 + via the urea cycle? A) Aspartate B) ATP C) Carbamoyl phosphate D) Malate E) Ornithine Which of these directly donates a nitrogen atom for the formation of urea during the urea cycle? A) Adenine B) Aspartate C) Creatine D) Glutamate E) Ornithine Conversion of ornithine to citrulline is a step in the synthesis of: A) aspartate. B) carnitine. C) pyruvate. D) tyrosine. E) urea. In the urea cycle, ornithine transcarbamoylase catalyzes: A) cleavage of urea to ammonia. B) formation of citrulline from ornithine and another reactant. C) formation of ornithine from citrulline and another reactant. D) formation of urea from arginine. E) transamination of arginine. Which of the following amino acids are essential for humans? A) alanine B) aspartic acid C) asparagine D) serine E) threonine If a person's urine contains unusually high concentrations of urea, which one of the following diets has he or she probably been eating recently? A) High carbohydrate, very low protein B) Very high carbohydrate, no protein, no fat C) Very, very high fat, high carbohydrate, no protein D) Very high fat, very low protein E) Very low carbohydrate, very high protein Which of these amino acids can be directly converted into a citric acid cycle intermediate by transamination? A) glutamic acid B) serine C) threonine D) tyrosine E) proline
22 Which of these amino acids are both ketogenic and glucogenic? 1. Isoleucine 2. Valine 3. Histidine 4. Arginine 5. Tyrosine A) 1 and 5 B) 1, 3, and 5 C) 2 and 4 D) 2, 3, and 4 E) 2, 4, and 5 The amino acids serine, alanine, and cysteine can be catabolized to yield: A) fumarate. B) pyruvate. C) succinate. D) α-ketoglutarate. E) none of the above. Serine or cysteine may enter the citric acid cycle as acetyl-coa after conversion to: A) oxaloacetate. B) propionate. C) pyruvate. D) succinate. E) succinyl-coa. Nonessential amino acids: A) are amino acids other than those required for protein synthesis. B) are not utilized in mammalian proteins. C) are synthesized by plants and bacteria, but not by humans. D) can be synthesized in humans. E) may be substituted with other amino acids in proteins. An amino acid that does not derive its carbon skeleton, at least in part, from α-ketoglutarate is: A) arginine. B) glutamate. C) glutamine. D) proline. E) threonine. An amino acid that does not derive its carbon skeleton, at least in part, from oxaloacetate is: A) aspartate. B) lysine. C) methionine. D) proline. E) threonine.
23 Short Answer Questions Draw the structures of reactants and products in the transamination in which glutamate and pyruvate are the starting materials. What cofactor is required for this reaction? Give the name and draw the structure of the α-keto acid resulting from the following amino acids that undergo transamination with α-ketoglutarate: (a) aspartate; (b) alanine. Show the reaction in which ammonia is formed from glutamate; include any required cofactors. Describe the reactions and the role of the glucose-alanine cycle. Describe the three general mechanisms for disposing of excess nitrogen obtained in the diet. Which organisms use each mechanism? During starvation, more urea production occurs. Explain this observation (in 20 words or less). Name at least three amino acids that can be converted directly (in one step) into pyruvate or any citric acid cycle intermediate, and name that intermediate formed from each. Degradation of amino acids yields compounds that are common intermediates in the major metabolic pathways. Explain the distinction between glucogenic and ketogenic amino acids in terms of their metabolic fates.
Chapter 16 The Citric Acid Cycle Multiple Choice Questions 1. Which of the following is not true of the reaction catalyzed by the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex? A) Biotin participates in the decarboxylation.
Chapter 16 The Citric Acid Cycle Multiple Choice Questions 1. Production of acetyl-coa (activated acetate) Page: 603 Difficulty: 2 Ans: A Which of the following is not true of the reaction catalyzed by
Section 10 Multiple Choice 1- Fatty acids are activated to acyl-coas and the acyl group is further transferred to carnitine because: A) acyl-carnitines readily cross the mitochondrial inner membrane, but
AP BIOLOGY CHAPTER 7 Cellular Respiration Outline I. How cells get energy. A. Cellular Respiration 1. Cellular respiration includes the various metabolic pathways that break down carbohydrates and other
CELLULAR RESPIRATION Chapter 19 & 20 Biochemistry by Campbell and Farell (7 th Edition) By Prof M A Mogale 1. Cellular respiration (energy capture) The enzymatic breakdown of food stuffs in the presence
Energy Production In A Cell (Chapter 25 Metabolism) Large food molecules contain a lot of potential energy in the form of chemical bonds but it requires a lot of work to liberate the energy. Cells need
Regulation of the itric Acid ycle I. hanges in Free Energy February 17, 2003 Bryant Miles kj/mol 40 20 0 20 40 60 80 Reaction DGo' DG TA Free Energy hanges 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1.) itrate Synthase 2.) Aconitase
LECTURE PRESENTATIONS For CAMPBELL BIOLOGY, NINTH EDITION Jane B. Reece, Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, Robert B. Jackson Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration and Fermentation
AP Bio Photosynthesis & Respiration Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. What is the term used for the metabolic pathway in which
I. Central Themes of Metabolism 1. ATP is the universal energy carrier. Integration of Metabolism Bryant Miles 2. ATP is generated by the oxidation of metabolic fuels Glucose Fatty Acids Amino Acids 3.
Chapter 19a Oxidative Phosphorylation and Photophosphorylation Multiple Choice Questions 1. Electron-transfer reactions in mitochondria Page: 707 Difficulty: 1 Ans: E Almost all of the oxygen (O 2 ) one
Ch23_PT MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) All of the following statements concerning digestion are correct except A) The major physical
ITRI AID (KREB S, TA) YLE Date: September 2, 2005 * Time: 10:40 am 11:30 am * Room: G202 Biomolecular Building Lecturer: Steve haney 515A Mary Ellen Jones Building email@example.com 9663286 *Please
Citric Acid Cycle Cycle Overview Metabolic Sources of Acetyl-Coenzyme A Enzymes of the Citric Acid Cycle Regulation of the Citric Acid Cycle The Amphibolic Nature of the Citric Acid Cycle Cycle Overview
Chapter 14 Glycolysis Requires mitochondria and O 2 Glucose glycolysis anaerobic respiration 2 Pyruvate 2 Lactate (sent to liver to be converted back to glucose) pyruvate dehydrogenase acetyl-coa TCA Cycle
1. An autotroph is an organism that a. extracts energy from organic sources b. converts energy from sunlight into chemical energy c. relies on the energy produced by other organisms as an energy source
Phases of aerobic cellular respiration 1. Glycolysis 2. Transition or Acetyl-CoA reaction 3. Krebs cycle 4. Electron transport system Chapter 7 Cellular Respiration These phases are nothing more than metabolic
Name: AP Biology Mr. Croft Chapter 7 Active Reading Guide Cellular Respiration and Fermentation Overview: Before getting involved with the details of cellular respiration and photosynthesis, take a second
Chapter 5: Microbial Metabolism Microbial Metabolism Metabolism refers to all chemical reactions that occur within a living a living organism. These chemical reactions are generally of two types: Catabolic:
008 Chapter 8 Student: 1. Some bacteria are strict aerobes and others are strict anaerobes. Some bacteria, however, are facultative anaerobes and can live with or without oxygen. If given the choice of
Bioenergetics Energy is the capacity or ability to do work All organisms need a constant supply of energy for functions such as motion, transport across membrane barriers, synthesis of biomolecules, information
: Harvesting Chemical Energy Name Period Overview: Before getting involved with the details of cellular respiration and photosynthesis, take a second to look at the big picture. Photosynthesis and cellular
The itric Acid ycle February 14, 2003 Bryant Miles I. itrate Synthase + 3 SoA The first reaction of the citric acid cycle is the condensation of acetyloa and oxaloacetate to form citrate and oas. The enzyme
Amino acid breakdown Amino acids comprise one of the three major energy sources for animals. They are an especially important energy source for carnivorous animals, and for all animals during early starvation
23.2 Glucose Metabolism: An Overview When glucose enters a cell from the bloodstream, it is immediately converted to glucose 6- phosphate. Once this phosphate is formed, glucose is trapped within the cell
Glycolysis Glucose is a valuable molecule. It can be used to generate energy (in red blood cells and in brain under normal conditions, glucose is the sole energy source), and it can be used to generate
1. What classes of reactions do Lyases catalyse? a) Bond formation coupled with ATP hydrolysis b) Isomerizations c) Group elimination to form double bonds d) Transfer of functional groups e) Hydrolysis
Lactic Acid Dehydrogenase Pyruvic Acid Dehydrogenase Complex Pyruvate to ACETYL coa CC CoA + CO 2 Mitochondria 3 carbon Pyruvate to 2 carbon ACETYL Coenzyme A Pyruvate Acetyl CoA + CO 2 + NADH + H + CO2
The Aerobic Fate of yruvate February 12, 2003 Bryant Miles I could tell that some of you were not impressed by the mere 2 ATs produced per glucose by glycolysis. The 2 AT s produced are only a small fraction
Chem 306 Chapter 21 Bioenergetics Lecture Outline III I. HOW IS ATP GENERATED IN THE FINAL STAGE CATABOLISM? A. OVERVIEW 1. At the end of the citric acid cycle, all six carbons of glucose have been oxidized
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. Most components of energy conversion systems evolved very early; thus, the most fundamental aspects of energy metabolism tend to be: A. quite different among a diverse group
PRATIE SET 6 A. Questions on Lipid Metabolism and Glyoxylate ycle 1. The hydroxy acid given below can be completely oxidized to acetyl-oa by betaoxidation. Write the series of individual reactions that
Regulation of carbohydrate metabolism Intracellular metabolic regulators Each of the control point steps in the carbohydrate metabolic pathways in effect regulates itself by responding to molecules that
BCOR 011 Exam 2, 2004 Name: Section: MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. According to the first law of thermodynamics, A. the universe
How Cells Release Chemical Energy Cellular Respiration Overview of Carbohydrate Breakdown Pathways Photoautotrophs make ATP during photosynthesis and use it to synthesize glucose and other carbohydrates
PRACTICE SET 1 Free energy changes and equilibrium constants 1. Calculate the standard free-energy changes of the following metabolically important enzyme-catalyzed reactions at 25 C and ph 7.0 from the
The vital role of A This is the energy-rich compound that is the source of energy for all living things. It is a nucleotide, comprising a 5C sugar (ribose); an organic base (adenosine); and 3 phosphate
Photosynthesis takes place in three stages: Light-dependent reactions Light-independent reactions The Calvin cycle 1. Capturing energy from sunlight 2. Using energy to make ATP and NADPH 3. Using ATP and
SOME Important Points About Cellular Energetics by Dr. Ty C.M. Hoffman An Introduction to Metabolism Most biochemical processes occur as biochemical pathways, each individual reaction of which is catalyzed
Biology 1406 Exam 2 - Metabolism Chs. 5, 6 and 7 energy - capacity to do work 5.10 kinetic energy - energy of motion : light, electrical, thermal, mechanical potential energy - energy of position or stored
Electron Transport System May 16, 2014 Hagop Atamian firstname.lastname@example.org What did We learn so far? Glucose is converted to pyruvate in glycolysis. The process generates two ATPs. Pyruvate is taken into
Harvesting Energy: Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration Chapter 8 Overview of Glucose Breakdown The overall equation for the complete breakdown of glucose is: C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + ATP The
Unsaturated and dd-hain Fatty Acid atabolism March 24, 2003 Bryant Miles The complete oxidation of saturated fatty acids containing an even number of carbon atoms is accomplished by the β-oxidation pathway.
AP bio fall 2014 final exam prep Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. According to the first law of thermodynamics, a. the energy of a system
Chapter 8: Energy and Metabolism 1. Discuss energy conversions and the 1 st and 2 nd law of thermodynamics. Be sure to use the terms work, potential energy, kinetic energy, and entropy. 2. What are Joules
Biology 20 Laboratory ENZYMES & CELLULAR RESPIRATION OBJECTIVE To be able to list the general characteristics of enzymes. To study the effects of enzymes on the rate of chemical reactions. To demonstrate
The Glycolytic pathway describes the oxidation of glucose to pyruvate with the generation of ATP and NADH It is also called as the Embden-Meyerhof Pathway is a universal pathway; present in all organisms:
Electron transport chain, oxidative phosphorylation & mitochondrial transport systems Joško Ivica Electron transport chain & oxidative phosphorylation collects e - & -H Oxidation of foodstuffs oxidizes
= substances that... biological reactions 1. Provide an alternative reaction route which has a lower... energy 2. Reactions catalysed by enzymes occur under mild conditions + good yield + fast 3. Enzymes
Chapter 25: Metabolism and Nutrition Chapter Objectives INTRODUCTION 1. Generalize the way in which nutrients are processed through the three major metabolic fates in order to perform various energetic
Chapter 9 Mitochondrial Structure and Function 1 2 3 Structure and function Oxidative phosphorylation and ATP Synthesis Peroxisome Overview 2 Mitochondria have characteristic morphologies despite variable
Bryan Krantz: University of California, Berkeley MCB 102, Spring 2008, Metabolism Lecture 7 Reading: Ch. 15 of Principles of Biochemistry, Principles of Metabolic Regulation, Illustrated with Glucose and
Chapter 5: Microbial Metabolism 1. Enzymes 2. ATP Production 3. Autotrophic Processes 1. Enzymes Biochemical Reactions All living cells depend on biochemical reactions to maintain homeostasis. All of the
1. A. Name each enzyme present in the citric acid cycle and specify which of the following describes the reaction that is catalyzed when the cycle functions in the physiological direction: carbon-carbon
Biology 20 Cellular Respiration Review NG Know the process of Cellular Respiration (use this picture if it helps): 1) How many ATP molecules are produced for each glucose molecule used in fermentation?
Amino Acid Metabolism (Chapter 20) Lecture 8: Nitrogen Fixation (20.7); Nitrite Assimilation (not in text?); Protein Digestion in the Gut (5.3b, 11.5, 20.2); Amino Acid Degradation in Cells (20.2); Next:
Oxidative Phosphorylation NADH from Glycolysis must be transported into the mitochondrion to be oxidized by the respiratory electron transport chain. Only the electrons from NADH are transported, these
Energy & Enzymes Life requires energy for maintenance of order, growth, and reproduction. The energy living things use is chemical energy. 1 Energy exists in two forms - potential and kinetic. Potential
1. The diagram below represents a biological process 5. The chart below indicates the elements contained in four different molecules and the number of atoms of each element in those molecules. Which set
Caloric value of fatty acids Dietary triglycerides and lipases Lipoproteins (overview) Fatty acid β-oxidation *activation *transport to mitochondrial matrix *Four-reaction pathway and repeated cycles *β-oxidation
RESPIRATION AND FERMENTATION: AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC OXIDATION OF ORGANIC MOLECULES Bio 171 Week 6 Procedure Label test tubes well, including group name 1) Add solutions listed to small test tubes 2) For
Metabolic Fate of Glucose Each class of biomolecule has alternative fates depending on the metabolic state of the body. Glucose: The intracellular form of glucose is glucose-6- phosphate. Only liver cells
Cellular Respiration Stage 4: Electron Transport Chain 2006-2007 Cellular respiration What s the point? The point is to make ATP! ATP ATP accounting so far Glycolysis 2 ATP Kreb s cycle 2 ATP Life takes
CHAPTER 14 - TRICARBOXYLIC ACID CYCLE AND PENTOSE PHOSPHATE PATHWAY We have now gotten to the point in glucose metabolism where one glucose molecule has been cleaved into two molecules of pyruvate, with
Cellular respiration - how cells make energy - Oxygen is needed for cellular respiration [OVERHEAD, fig. 6.2, p. 90 / 4th: 6.1] - ATP - this is provided by the lungs - lungs provide oxygen to blood, blood
Chapter 8: An Introduction to Metabolism Name Period Concept 8.1 An organism s metabolism transforms matter and energy, subject to the laws of thermodynamics 1. Define metabolism. The totality of an organism
Work and Energy in Muscles Why can't I sprint forever? I'll start this section with that silly question. What lies behind the undisputable observation that we must reduce speed if we want to run longer
1 of 5 11/9/2011 8:11 PM Name: Hour: Chapter 9 Review Worksheet Cellular Respiration Energy in General 1. Differentiate an autotroph from a hetertroph as it relates to obtaining energy and the processes
1 Regulation of enzyme activity Regulation of enzyme activity is important to coordinate the different metabolic processes. It is also important for homeostasis i.e. to maintain the internal environment
Amino Acid Degradation April 14, 2003 Bryant Miles The carbon skeletons of amino acids are broken down into metabolites that can either be oxidized into 2 and H 2 to generate ATP, or can be used for gluconeogenesis.
THE ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN Oxidative phosphorylation Overview of Metabolism Mitochondria Structure -Schematic Mitochondria Structure -Photomicrograph Overview of ETC Impermiable to ions Permiable via
Lipid Metabolism 1. What has a higher stored energy potential per gram, glycogen or triglycerides? Explain. 2. How can excess acetyl CoA trapped in the mitochondria, be utilized as a substrate for fatty
Enzymes and Metabolic Pathways Enzyme characteristics Made of protein Catalysts: reactions occur 1,000,000 times faster with enzymes Not part of reaction Not changed or affected by reaction Used over and
CHM333 LECTURES 37 & 38: 4/27 29/13 SPRING 2013 Professor Christine Hrycyna Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation Final stages of aerobic oxidation of biomolecules in eukaryotes occur in the
Inhibitors & Uncouplers February 24, 2003 Bryant Miles The electron transport chain was determined by studying the effects of particular inhibitors. 2 3 3 Rotenone 3 Rotenone is a common insecticide that
accounting so far The final stage of cellular respiration: ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN & CHEMIOSMOSIS Glycolysis 2 Kreb s cycle 2 Life takes a lot of energy to run, need to extract more energy than 4! There
Chapter 7. "Coenzymes and Vitamins" Reading Assignment: pp. 192-202, 207-208, 212-214 Problem Assignment: 3, 4, & 7 I. Introduction Many complex metabolic reactions cannot be carried out using only the
Name Period Chapter 10: Photosynthesis This chapter is as challenging as the one you just finished on cellular respiration. However, conceptually it will be a little easier because the concepts learned
Chapt. 8 Enzymes as catalysts Ch. 8 Enzymes as catalysts Student Learning Outcomes: Explain general features of enzymes as catalysts: Substrate -> Product Describe nature of catalytic sites general mechanisms
Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology, 5e (Martini/Nath) Chapter 17 Nutrition and Metabolism Multiple-Choice Questions 1) The sum of all of the biochemical processes going on within the human body at any
Cellular Respiration Worksheet 1 1. What are the 3 phases of the cellular respiration process? Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, Electron Transport Chain. 2. Where in the cell does the glycolysis part of cellular
How ells Harvest Energy hapter 7 & 8 Evolution of Metabolism A hypothetical timeline for the evolution of metabolism - all in prokaryotic cells!: 1. ability to store chemical energy in ATP 2. evolution