1 COMMUNITY HEALTH NETWORK COMP-027 NETWORK POLICY & PROCEDURE Page 1 of 13 TITLE: COMPLIANCE WITH LAWS AND REGULATIONS APPROVED FOR: COMMUNITY HEALTH NETWORK FOUNDATION, INC. COMMUNITY HEALTH NETWORK, INC. COMMUNITY HOME HEALTH SERVICES, INC. COMMUNITY HOSPITAL SOUTH, INC. COMMUNITY HOWARD REGIONAL HEALTH, INC. COMMUNITY PHYSICIAN NETWORK (A TRADE NAME OF COMMUNITY PHYSICIANS OF INDIANA, INC.) COMMUNITY WESTVIEW HOSPITAL (A TRADE NAME OF INDIANAPOLIS OSTEOPATHIC HOSPITAL. INC.) (EFFECTIVE 7/1/15 A FACILITY OF COMMUNITY HOSPITAL EAST) INDIANA PRO HEALTH NETWORK, LLC COMMUNITY HEART AND VASCULAR HOSPITAL (A TRADE NAME OF INDIANA HEART HOSPITAL) (EFFECTIVE 10/1/14 A FACILITY OF COMMUNITY HOSPITAL EAST) VISIONARY ENTERPRISES, INC. FORMULATED BY: Chief Risk & Compliance Officer EFFECTIVE/REVIEWED/REVISED: 9/1/15 Effective STATEMENT OF PURPOSE: This policy provides guidance on the federal and state laws, rules and regulations that apply to health care providers. Community Health Network (CHNw) is committed to compliance with these federal and state laws, rules, and regulations. POLICY: It is the policy and intent of CHNw to comply with all federal and state laws, rules and regulations that apply to health care providers. Such laws, rules and regulations include, but are not limited to, antitrust laws, the Anti-Kickback Statute, the False Claims Act, and the Stark law. DEFINITIONS: Anti-Kickback Statute A federal law that prohibits the exchange or offering to exchange anything of value in an effort to induce or reward the referral of federal health care program business. The objective of the Anti-Kickback Statute is to ensure that providers refer patients based on the patient s best medical interests, not because the providers will profit from referral. Individual states may also have separate Anti- Kickback laws. Antitrust Activities that involve unlawfully limiting competition, restraining trade, or other anti-competitive acts. Federal and state laws preserve competition by preventing companies from doing business in a way that allows them to demand artificially high
2 COMMUNITY HEALTH NETWORK COMP-027 NETWORK POLICY & PROCEDURE Page 2 of 13 TITLE: COMPLIANCE WITH LAWS AND REGULATIONS prices from their customers, pay artificially low prices to their suppliers, and pay artificially low wages to their employees. Exclusion The ability and authority of the government to exclude individuals and entities from participation in the federal and state health care programs. The primary effect of exclusion is that no payment will be provided for any items or services furnished, ordered or prescribed by an excluded individual or entity. False Claims Act A federal law that defines false claims and establishes the right of the Federal Government to assess fines and/or penalties and take action against those who defraud the Governmental programs (like Medicare and Medicaid) through the submission of false claims. It is the federal Government s primary tool in combating fraud against the government. Individual states may also have separate False Claims Acts that discourage fraud perpetrated against state governments and state run programs. Government Funds and Contracts The monies CHNw receives from the government, including research grants; Medicare, Medicaid, and TriCare payments for services; and contracts from school systems, cities and states. Kickback A kind of bribe; the illegal or unethical payment of something of value to a recipient as compensation or reward for providing favorable treatment to another party. Stark Law A federal law that limits certain physician referrals. It is sometimes referred to as the Self-Referral law and was designed to restrict physician referrals of Medicare and Medicaid patients to entities owned, in whole or in part, by the physician or immediate family member or to entities that compensate the physician or immediate family member. The Stark law prohibits physician referrals of designated health services for Medicare and Medicaid patients if the physician (or an immediate family member) has a financial relationship with that entity. A financial relationship includes ownership, investment interest, and compensation agreements. Whistleblower A person who informs on a person or organization engaged in an unlawful activity. Whistleblowers can be employees, suppliers, contractors, clients, physicians, patients, or any individual who becomes aware of unlawful activities taking place either through witnessing the behavior or being told about it. PROCEDURES: 1. Antitrust Laws CHNw shall comply with all applicable Antitrust laws. CHNw will not have discussions with or enter into agreements with competitors: A. With the intention of violating the Antitrust laws;
3 COMMUNITY HEALTH NETWORK COMP-027 NETWORK POLICY & PROCEDURE Page 3 of 13 TITLE: COMPLIANCE WITH LAWS AND REGULATIONS B. To set pricing for comparable products or services; or C. With the intention of limiting competition. 2. False Claims Act CHNw will not knowingly or intentionally submit claims that are considered false. Examples of false claims include: A. Claims for services that were not rendered; B. Claims for services that were rendered but are not appropriately supported by documentation in the patient health record; C. Claims for a service not covered by the governmental program; D. With some exceptions, claims for a service billed by a provider other than the provider who provided the service; E. Claims for services that are not medically necessary; F. Claims that do not meet governmental program billing guidelines; or G. Claims prepared and processed with the intent of getting a false claim paid or that use a false record or statement to conceal, avoid, or decrease an obligation to pay the government. Violation of the Federal False Claims Act can result in: A. Repayment of all monies improperly paid by the Governmental programs (Medicare, Medicaid, etc.); B. Penalties and fines up to $11,000 for each false claim plus 3 times the amount of the improper payment; C. A lawsuit filed by a whistleblower who can receive a percentage of any settlement amount or damages; and/or D. Exclusion from federal health care programs. Violation of the Indiana Whistleblower and False Claims Act can include a fine of at least $5,000 and up to 3 times the amount paid by the state of Indiana. 3. Stark Law CHNw employed physicians will not refer Medicare or Medicaid patients for designated health services in violation of the Stark law. These restrictions apply to the following designated health services: A. clinical laboratory; B. physical therapy; C. radiology; D. occupational therapy; E. radiation therapy and supplies; F. durable medical equipment and supplies; G. parenteral/enteral nutrients, equipment, and supplies; H. prosthetics, orthotics, and prosthetic devices & supplies; I. home health;
4 COMMUNITY HEALTH NETWORK COMP-027 NETWORK POLICY & PROCEDURE Page 4 of 13 TITLE: COMPLIANCE WITH LAWS AND REGULATIONS J. outpatient prescription drugs; and K. inpatient and outpatient hospital services. While there are specific exceptions to these restrictions, physician self-referral is a violation, which can result in substantial civil monetary penalties and exclusion from the Medicare and Medicaid programs for both the physician and the entity to which the patient was referred. Not knowing about the regulations is not a valid excuse or defense. Each of the exceptions noted in the regulations has numerous requirements, which must be met in full in order to avoid Stark s prohibitions. Key exceptions include: A. referral to another physician in the same group practice; B. use of in-office ancillary, medical and other health services; and C. hospital employment of the physician or immediate family member or a contract with the physician to provide administrative services. 4. Anti-Kickback Statute CHNw will not knowingly or willfully offer, receive or pay for anything of value to influence the referral of federal health care program business, including Medicare and Medicaid, in violation of the Anti-Kickback Statute. Violations of the Federal Anti-Kickback Statute are punishable by up to five years in prison, criminal fines up to $25,000, administrative civil monetary penalties of up to $50,000, and exclusion from participation in federal healthcare programs. The Department of Health and Human Services Office of Inspector General (OIG) has identified several practices that are not subject to the Anti-Kickback Statute (referred to as safe harbors) because they are unlikely to result in fraud or abuse. These safe harbors include, but are not limited to the following: A. investments in large publicly held healthcare companies; B. investments in small healthcare joint ventures; C. space rentals; D. equipment rentals; E. personal services and management contracts; F. employee compensation; G. group purchasing organizations; H. investments in ambulatory surgical centers; I. investments in group practices; J. referral arrangements for specialty services; K. cooperative hospital service organizations; and L. ambulance restocking arrangements.
5 COMMUNITY HEALTH NETWORK COMP-027 NETWORK POLICY & PROCEDURE Page 5 of 13 TITLE: COMPLIANCE WITH LAWS AND REGULATIONS The following areas have been identified by the OIG as areas that pose a risk of violating the Anti-Kickback Statute: A. joint venture arrangements; B. routine waiver of Medicare Part B co-payments and deductibles; C. hospital incentives to referring physicians; D. prescription drug marketing practices; and E. arrangements for the provision of clinical lab services. 5. Government Funds and Contracts CHNw will abide by all rules associated with government funds and contracts. CHNw will not: A. make false statements to a governmental official B. charge the government for anything that is not allowed under the applicable contract C. charge the government for services that were not rendered D. use the wrong codes or E. charge the government for services that are not covered under the Medicare, Medicaid or TriCare programs. 6. Questions and Reporting All CHNw workforce members, including employees, physicians, volunteers, contractors, etc. who have questions about the information provided in this policy or who become aware of an activity that may result in noncompliance with the various laws, rules and regulations outlined in this policy or that may be in effect in the future, shall report such activity through the Network Responsibility & Compliance Program, including, but not limited to: notifying a leader, a Compliance Liaison, the Chief Risk & Compliance Officer, Legal Department or AlertLine. Workforce members who report concerns in accordance with this policy shall not be retaliated against for reporting such concern. RELATED DOCUMENTS: COMP-002 Business Courtesies, Gifts, and Entertainment COMP-014 Network Responsibility & Compliance Program COMP-017 Non-Retaliation and Whistleblower COMP-021 Professional Courtesies and Insurance Only Billing COMP-022 Code of Conduct and Business Ethics Appendix A Medicare Do s and Don ts Appendix B Medicaid Do s and Don ts Appendix C Questions and Answers Code of Conduct and Business Ethics False Claims Act 31 U.S. Code 3729 Stark Law - 42 U.S.C. 1395nn
6 COMMUNITY HEALTH NETWORK COMP-027 NETWORK POLICY & PROCEDURE Page 6 of 13 TITLE: COMPLIANCE WITH LAWS AND REGULATIONS APPROVED BY: _[~ORIGINAL SIGNATURE ON FILE IN ADMINISTRATION~ ]_ Bryan A. Mills, President and CEO, Community Health Network
7 Appendix A Medicare: Do s and Don ts What is Medicare? Medicare is the federal health insurance program for persons 65 years of age and over and certain individuals with disabling conditions who are under 65 and qualify. The program is administered by the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). Benefits are divided into two parts: Basic hospital care (automatic at age 65, participant does not pay), typically referred to as Part A: covers hospital care, extended care, home health, and hospice care for terminally ill patients Physician care (voluntary - participant pays a monthly premium), typically referred to as Part B: covers physician fees, outpatient services, and other medical services. Medicare is funded by social security contributions, monthly premiums from participants for Part B coverage, and general revenues. Can we solicit Medicare patients? 1. You may not solicit Medicare patients. 2. You may not receive anything of value in exchange for the referral of Medicare patients. 3. You may not give or offer anything of value in exchange for the referral of Medicare patients What about billing and reimbursement? 1. You cannot bill a Medicare patient for services that are covered by Medicare. 2. You cannot bill Medicare for a service that is not covered by Medicare unless you are billing it in order to get a denial so that you can bill secondary insurance. There are specific codes that are required on the claim form when you do this. 3. You cannot bill a Medicare patient for a service that is not covered by Medicare unless you have presented the patient with an Advance Beneficiary Notice (ABN) that specifies that the service is not covered and the patient has agreed in writing to be financially responsible for payment. 4. You cannot have every Medicare patient sign an ABN just in case something may not be covered. You can only use an ABN when there is a service that is not covered and the ABN must be specific to that service and that visit. 5. You cannot bill Medicare for a service that was not provided to the patient. 6. You cannot bill Medicare for a service that you did not personally perform. There are a few exceptions. 7. You can bill Medicare patients for the applicable Medicare deductible and coinsurance amounts. 8. You cannot bill Medicare patients for charges above the maximum allowable charge set by Medicare (i.e., charges above the amount paid by Medicare plus the amount payable by the patient). 9. You cannot bill Medicare patients for deductible and co-payment amounts before you bill Medicare and receive the Medicare Explanation of Benefits. 10. You cannot routinely waive Medicare deductible and co-payment amounts. Such amounts may only be waived in the case of patient financial hardship, which must be assessed and documented on an individual basis.
8 Appendix A 11. You cannot contract or make an agreement with a Medicare patient for payment arrangements outside of the Medicare billing and reimbursement regulations. Can I refer Medicare patients to services in which I have an ownership? The Stark law was designed to restrict certain physician referrals of Medicare and Medicaid patients to entities owned, in whole or in part, by the physician or immediate family member. So, in many cases, you cannot refer Medicare patients to services in which you have an ownership interest. However, there are some exceptions. For specific questions about Stark compliance, contact the Legal department. I keep hearing about Fraud and Abuse. What is that? Fraud is purposeful tricking or cheating or intentional deception to cause a person or entity to give up property or some lawful right. Abuse includes any actions, which may result in unnecessary costs to the Medicare or Medicaid program, improper payment, payment for services which fail to meet professionally recognized standards of care or that are medically unnecessary. Abuse involves payments for items or services when there is no legal entitlement to that payment and the provider has not knowingly and/or intentionally misrepresented facts to obtain payment. Are there any penalties? Yes there are. The government can impose some or all of the following penalties on those who have been found guilty of fraud and/or abuse. Exclusion from the federal health care programs Repayment of money paid with a penalty multiplier Fines of $5,500 - $11,000 per claim Interest on overpayments Criminal indictment with possible monetary fines Imprisonment A governmentally imposed "compliance program" with monitoring by a fraud investigator.
9 Appendix B Medicaid: Dos and Don ts What is Medicaid? Title XIX of the Social Security Act established Medicaid in Funded jointly by Federal and State governments, this entitlement program pays for medical assistance for certain individuals and families with low incomes. Medicaid is administered by the states under broad national guidelines established by federal laws, rules and regulations. Federal law requires certain benefits while others are optional and may be offered at the discretion of the state. Indiana s program offers almost all of the optional services. In 1997 the Social Security Act was amended to add Title XXI, the Children s Health Insurance Program (CHIP). This program gave each state permission and funding to offer health insurance plans for children, up to age 19, who are not already insured. Families who earn too much to qualify for Medicaid may be able to qualify for CHIP. While this program is not an entitlement program, Indiana chose to administer this program through Medicaid. In Indiana the majority of Medicaid recipients and those insured by CHIP are enrolled in Health Maintenance Organizations (HMO) under contract to the state. Rules established by the HMOs and approved by the state must be followed in order to receive compensation for services rendered. In addition to the rules established by the HMOs, the following rules apply to recipients and enrollees in the Medicaid and CHIP programs. The Deficit Reduction Act of 2005 established a new program to increase the federal government s oversight of the Medicaid program. The Medicaid Integrity Program (MIP) was set up to detect and prevent fraud and abuse of state Medicaid programs. The MIP helps state Medicaid agencies identify, recover and prevent inappropriate Medicaid payments. Providers can expect increased scrutiny of Medicaid claims as a result of the MIP initiatives. Can we solicit Medicaid patients? 1. You may not solicit Medicaid patients. 2. You may not receive anything of value in exchange for the referral of Medicaid patient. 3. You may not give or offer anything of value in exchange for the referral of Medicaid patients. What about billing and reimbursement? 1. You cannot bill a Medicaid patient for services that are covered by Medicaid. 2. You cannot bill a Medicaid patient for a service that is not covered by Medicaid unless you have advised the patient in advance of delivering the service that the service is not covered and the patient has agreed to be financially responsible for payment. It is advisable to document the agreement. 3. You cannot bill Medicaid for a service that was not provided to the patient.
10 Appendix B 4. You cannot bill Medicaid for a service that you did not personally perform. There are a few exceptions. 5. You can bill Medicaid patients for the Medicaid deductible and co-payment amounts. 6. You cannot bill Medicaid patients for deductible and co-payment amounts before you bill Medicaid and receive the Medicaid Explanation of Benefits. 7. You cannot bill Medicaid patients for deductible, co-payment/co-insurance amounts payable by the patient under an insurance policy that is primary to Medicaid. You must bill these amounts to Medicaid and then act in accordance with the Medicaid Explanation of Benefits. 8. You cannot bill Medicaid patients for charges which are above the amount paid by Medicaid plus the amount payable by the patient, i.e. charges above the maximum allowable charge set by Medicaid. 9. You cannot routinely waive Medicaid deductible and co-payment amounts. Such amounts may only be waived in the case of patient financial hardship, which must be assessed and documented on an individual basis. 10. You cannot contract or make an agreement with a Medicaid patient for payment arrangements outside of the Medicaid billing and reimbursement regulations. Can I refer Medicaid patients to services in which I have an ownership? The Stark law was designed to restrict certain physician referrals of Medicaid patients to entities owned, in whole or in part, by the physician or immediate family member. So, in many cases, you cannot refer Medicaid patients to services in which you have an ownership interest. However, there are some exceptions. For specific questions about Stark compliance, contact the Legal department. I keep hearing about Fraud and Abuse. What is that? Fraud is purposeful tricking or cheating or intentional deception to cause a person or entity to give up property or some lawful right. Abuse includes any actions, which may, directly or indirectly, result in unnecessary costs to the Medicaid program, improper payment, or payment for services that fail to meet professionally recognized standards of care, or that are medically unnecessary. Abuse involves payments for items or services when there is no legal entitlement to that payment and the provider has not knowingly and/or intentionally misrepresented facts to obtain payment. Are there any penalties? Yes. The government can impose some or all of the following penalties on those who have been found guilty of Fraud and/or Abuse. Exclusion from the federal health care programs Repayment of money paid with a penalty multiplier Fines of $5,500 - $11,000 per claim Interest on overpayments Criminal indictment with possible monetary fines Imprisonment A governmentally imposed "compliance program" with monitoring by a fraud investigator
11 Appendix C Questions and Answers 1. My friend works at a competing hospital in a position similar to mine. We both have access to charges for services we perform. We don t want our patients to have to choose their hospital based on charges. Can we make sure our charges are the same? No. This is a direct violation of antitrust laws. This is referred to as price fixing. We shall not share our charges with our competitors in a coordinated effort to fix pricing. 2. I have responsibilities for developing new programs for the Network. I am negotiating a contract where we would be one of only two providers of certain services to the employees of a large company. The company we are contracting with wants to pay one price for these services, regardless of which provider is used. Can we work with the other provider to set one price, which would be beneficial to both providers, to be used under the contract with the employer? No. This also is price fixing. However, you can agree with the contracting company on the price they will pay us. The other provider can agree to the same price, but the discussions must be held separately, and each provider must decide on its own whether to accept or reject the prices offered by the company. 3. Our community has two competing hospitals, and we only need one MRI scanner between us to serve the population. Can we decide which hospital will purchase the scanner and provide the MRI services? No. This is considered market allocation. However, the two hospitals could form a joint venture that would offer these MRI services within the community. 4. The physicians on the medical staff don t like the prices a payer wants to pay them. So the physicians, as a group, have decided not to contract with that payer. Can we do this? No. This is considered a boycott. 5. I have an uninsured patient who needs some medical supplies but can t afford to buy them. I also have a Medicare patient who has the supplies and doesn t need them. Can I give the Medicare patient s supplies to the uninsured patient? No. Not only does this result in a false claim, it is also theft. 6. I am responsible for completing orders through the order system that sends charges to the patient's bill. I do not have time to complete orders daily. Can I do this weekly or as time permits? No. The computer system is set up with checks and balances to support compliance processes. Late charges circumvent these processes and can result in incorrect claims. Charges should be entered immediately on completion of the service. 7. I work in a doctor s office. Sometimes, we charge for services the patient received but which are not documented in the medical record. Is this a problem since the patient received the service? Yes. This is a false claim because the medical record does not support the claim.
12 Appendix C 8. Much of the care that my Medicare patients need is not covered by Medicare, based on the patient s diagnosis. I sometimes change the diagnosis so the service will be covered, and as a result, will be paid by Medicare. This way, the patient will not have to pay for these needed services. Is this a false claim? Yes. Not only is it a false claim, it could be considered fraud, subject to the penalties listed above. 9. I m new to the physician practice I work in. We do lots of finger sticks. I was instructed that when we do a finger stick on a commercial or self-pay patient, I am to charge a finger stick. However, when we do finger sticks on Medicare or Medicaid patients, I was told to charge a blood draw. When I asked, Why? I was told that Medicare and Medicaid don t pay for finger sticks so we need to charge a blood draw in order to get paid. This doesn t feel right. Is this a problem? Yes. Billing Medicare or Medicaid patients differently from commercial patients is a problem. Also, billing for a blood draw when a finger stick was performed (and there is a way to charge finger sticks) is fraud and should be reported to your supervisor or compliance representative. 10. I m a physician in private practice, and I own a 40 percent interest in a durable medical equipment company. Am I in violation of the law if I refer my patients to that company? Yes. You may face denial of payments and assessment of civil monetary penalties up to $15,000 for each referral and the submission of each prohibited claim. If the violation results from a scheme or arrangement, which you know or should have known has a principal purpose of ensuring referrals, both you and the durable medical equipment company may be subject to civil monetary penalties up to $100,000 and exclusion from the governmental health programs. 11. A hospital owns a medical office building that rents space to physicians for $20 per square foot. The hospital approaches an orthopedic surgeon who has an office elsewhere and offers space to the orthopedic surgeon in their office building for $12 per square foot instead of the $20 per square foot rate. However, in order to receive the $12 per square foot deal, the orthopedic surgeon needs to bring all of her total hip replacement patients to the hospital. Is this a problem? Yes. While space rentals is a safe harbor for the Anti-Kickback Statute, this could be considered a kickback and can result in civil and criminal penalties, imprisonment, and probation or exclusion from the federal health care programs. This scenario violates the Anti-Kickback Statute because the hospital is paying the physician for her referrals through discounted rental payments. 12. A for-profit imaging center wants to pay me $125 for each patient I refer. Is this ok? No. Not only does this raise an ethical issue, this practice violates the Anti-Kickback Statute if the patients are federal health care program beneficiaries. This arrangement is likely to induce the physician to order non-medically necessary imaging services for patients, and therefore may not be in the patient s best medical interest. 13. Our Medicare patients live on a fixed income, and the Part B co-insurance and deductible is expensive. Can t we just waive the deductible and co-insurance for all Medicare patients and accept what Medicare pays? No. The routine
13 Appendix C waiver of co-pays or deductibles is considered beneficiary inducement and poses a risk of violating the Anti-Kickback Statute. 14. Is there ever a time when we would pay for referrals or accept payments for referrals we make? No. The consequences of violating this law are serious for the Network and the individuals involved and could be severe. 15. I know we have contracts with Medicare, Medicaid and TriCare. I also understand that their payments to us for patient care services are government money. But aren t there risks beyond violating the terms of a contract when handling patient care money? Yes. We have to make sure we deliver and bill for services in a manner that does not violate laws like the Anti-Kickback Statute, the False Claims Act, and the Stark law. 16. I am working on a government funded research project and an internal project with a low budget. Can I charge some of my time on the internal project to the governmental project? No. Not only is this a violation of the contract, it also is theft.
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