# Title: The Ins and Outs of Functions

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1 Title: The Ins and Outs of Functions Brief Overview: In these lessons, students will explore what a function is, how to determine if a relation is a function and different ways a function can be represented. Prior knowledge should include patterns, sequences and relations. NCTM Content Standard/National Science Education Standard: Grade/Level: Algebra -- understand patterns, relationships, and functions Grade 7/ 8; All learning levels Duration/Length: Three 50-minute periods Student Outcomes: Students will: Identify the rule for a function Define functions Calculate a value for a designated function Materials and Resources: Student resource pages 1-9 (SR) Teacher resource pages 1-11 (TR) Internet (optional)

2 Development/Procedures: Lesson 1 Patterns and Rules Pre-assessment Have the students independently complete What s Missing? (SR1). This activity will activate their prior knowledge of sequences and finding the next term in a pattern. Discuss with the students how they came up with the next term in each sequence. Also use the word series to describe each problem. Note that some students may come up with different patterns. Take the opportunity to discuss how each pattern may have more than one outcome. Launch Using the pre-assessment What s Missing? (SR1), discuss how each student came up with his or her rule for each sequence. Emphasize that each situation has a rule. Teacher Facilitation Give students two other examples of a sequence, and have them develop a rule for each situation. Present Snack Time (TR2) on overhead transparency and discuss what needs to go into the vending machine (coins only), what the rule is (the vending machine), and then what comes out (their snack). Make mention of the question, Is this a function? Do not answer the question until Lesson 2. Ask students what would come out for different coin amounts. Make connection that the vending machine is the function. Student Application Have the students complete Machines at Work (SR2). Students should begin to feel confident about identifying rules and finding the input and output for each function Embedded Assessment Have each student create his or her own machine. Instruct the students to model their machines after the completed Machines at Work (SR2) worksheet. When they have completed their machines, instruct the students to have a neighbor find the output or input using their machine. Circle around the classroom to make sure the students are not only creating their machines correctly, i.e. functions that have an individual output for each input, but are also finding the correct results for their neighbor s machine. Re-teaching/Extension Ask the students who understand the material to pair up with students who are still uncertain about the machines. Have the students who understand the material explain it to those who do not.

3 Lesson 2 Function Definitions Pre-assessment Have the students complete What s the Rule? (SR3). This activity will review and assess the information they learned in Lesson 1. Launch Discuss What s the Rule? (SR3) with the students. Have several students state the rule they chose for each table and compare it with the rules other students found. Then, discuss possibilities for future terms such as the 20 th, 50 th or 99 th term. Teacher Facilitation - Develop definitions for function, domain, range, input, output, and ordered pair from Snack Time (TR2) in lesson 1. Discuss input (domain) as the items going into the function and output (range) as the items coming out of the function. Discuss how a function may only have one output for each unique input. Further discuss the definitions using Snack Time (TR3) noting that this machine does not represent a function because if you put \$0.75 into the machine, you could get two different items back. Go back to Machines at Work (SR 2) from lesson 1 and discuss student examples. Have students identify and explain which student produced examples represent functions (#7). Discuss the properties that prohibit a machine from being a function. Student Application Have the students complete Function Criss-Cross (SR4). This will help students learn the definitions for the various terms. Math glossaries may be used at teachers discretion. Embedded Assessment Ask students to complete Ins and Outs of Functions (SR5). This will help them to start seeing functions in a table format for Lesson 3. Re-teaching/Extension Ask students to complete a journal prompt, The most important Thing about Functions (SR6). Encourage students to list as many things that they can remember from the prior two lessons as possible. This prompt will help students sort what they know and don t know about functions from the lessons. Allow appropriate time to complete prompt. After the prompt has been completed, randomly have student share things they know by reading one important thing from their list. After the majority of ideas have been shared, have students volunteer to share their prompt with the class. This allows students to hear important ideas that were discussed that they may have missed.

4 Lesson 3 Calculations with Functions Pre-assessment Have students complete Number Detective (SR7). This will allow a review and assessment of Lesson 2. Emphasize that the top row represents the entry number for each term in the bottom row. Also, the N value is the generalized function for the pattern in the bottom row. Launch Discuss Number Detective (SR7) with the students and introduce the algebraic form f(x) to represent the rule for each table using the N input value. Teacher Facilitation Have students take notes on their own notebook paper by going over multiple examples of completing f(x) tables, identifying range [ f ( x ) or (y)] and domain (x). Be sure to include how to take a y value and find the x value. Also, show them that they can pick their own convenient values (-1,0,1,2.. ) for x to complete a function table. Student Application The students will complete Function Tables (SR8). As an optional activity, students can explore on-line with The Function Machine. ( Embedded Assessment Function Tables (SR8) (same as above). This will help them practice function tables on their own. Students may complete entire worksheet or #1-5, then have #6-10 as optional challenge problems. Re-teaching/Extension To extend and re-teach this lesson, graph the ordered pairs from the lesson using the input as the x-value and the output as the y-value on overhead of graph paper (TR10). Seeing the relationship visually on a graph will help those students who are still uncertain about calculations with functions. Graphing the ordered pairs is also a great extension for those students who understand the material and are ready to proceed to the next level with functions. Summative Assessment: The students will complete Functions Quiz (SR9). They will apply their knowledge of sequences, patterns and functions by finding the missing elements in tables, identifying definitions and calculating algebraic functions. Authors: Aimee Conway Kingsview Middle School Montgomery County, Maryland Beth Massey Sligo Adventist School Montgomery County, Maryland

5 Teacher Resource 1 *Key* What s Missing? Find the missing entry for each example. 1) ) Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas 3) S M T W T F 4) 5) ) a b c d e f g h i 7) ) Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter 9) )

6 Teacher Resource 2 \$0.55 \$0.75 \$0.45 \$0.30 \$0.25 \$0.90 Money IN!! Change Only \$0.70 \$0.50 \$0.85 Get Your Snack OUT! Is this a Function??

7 Teacher Resource 3 \$0.75 \$0.75 \$0.45 \$0.30 \$0.25 \$0.90 Money IN!! Change Only \$0.50 \$0.50 \$0.85 Get Your Snack OUT! Is this a Function??

8 Teacher Resource 4 Name: KEY_Date: Machines at Work Use the example below to complete the following machines. EXAMPLE: Input Short The Opposite Tall Output 1. 3 sides 6 sides The shape name The shape name Triangle hexagon 2. Arizona The first letter of the state Florida The first letter of the state A F 3. Meow Animal that makes the noise Oink Animal that makes the noise _Cat_ Pig

9 Teacher Resource 4 4. Texas USA capital city Maryland USA capital city Austin_ Annapolis Add 4 to the number 5 Add 4 to the number Multiply the number by 4 4 Multiply the number by Make 2 different machines of your own below for a friend to complete. Answers will vary.

10 Teacher Resource 5 *KEY* What s the Rule? Please fill in the missing values and state the rule that relates each number in the top row to the entry below it Rule: Multiply the entry in the top row by Rule: Square each entry in the top row Rule: Subtract five from each entry in the top row Rule: Take the opposite of each number.

11 *KEY* FUNCTION CRISS-CROSS Teacher Resource 6 Across 1. The resulting value from the function (output) 7. A mathematical rule written using symbols (Equation) 9. A set of two numbers in which the order has an agreed upon meaning (Ordered Pair) 10. A device that performs a specific task (machine) Down 2. A repeated design or recurring sequence (Pattern) 3. Another word for input (domain) 4. A Mathematical relationship between two values where the second value depends on the first. (Function) 5. The value going into the function (input) 6. Another word for output (range) 8. A list of numbers that follows a certain pattern (Series) Word Bank Function Pattern Ordered Pair Equation Output Range Domain Series Machine Input

12 Name: KEY Date:_ Ins & Outs of Functions Fill in each table, then complete the rule, and a description of the domain & range. 1. In Out 4. In Out Apple A Banana B Kiwi K Orange O Grapes G Soccer Football Baseball Volleyball Basketball Teacher Resource 7 Rule: Take the first letter of each fruit Domain: Fruit names Range: The first letter 2. In Out Night Day Heavy Light Short Tall Big Little Skinny Fat Rule: Opposite Domain: Any word that has an opposite Range: The opposite of the word 3. In Out Valentines February Christmas Dec. Independence Day Labor Day Halloween July Sept. Oct. Rule: Month of the holiday Domain: A holiday that has a specified month Range: The month of the holiday Rule: The image of the ball Domain: A sport that uses a ball Range: The image of the ball used 5. In Out Rule: Subtract 6 from IN Domain: An integer Range: An integer 6. In Out Rule: Multiply each number by 4, then add 2 Domain: An integer Range: An integer

13 Teacher Resource 8 *KEY* Number Detective Please mentally identify the rule and then find the missing term N N N N N N N N N N

14 Teacher Resource 9 Name: KEY Date: Function Tables Directions: Complete the following tables. If the x value is given, evaluate the function to find y. If y is given, work backwards to find x. If there is no value for x or y, use your own value for x to find y. SHOW ALL WORK! 1. f () x = x+ 1 8 f (8) = f () x = 2x f () x = 3x f () x = 2x Answers will vary

15 x 5. f() x = Answers will vary 6. f () x = x = x + 1 x = 4 7. f () x = 3x Answers will vary Answers will vary 8. f () x = 2x 2 9. f () x = 8x+ 1 f x = 10. () Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary Answers will vary x Answers will vary Teacher Resource 9

16 Teacher Resource 10

17 Teacher Resource 11 Name: Date: _ Class/ Teacher: Period: Functions Quiz 1. Identify the rule for each function. a. X F(x) Rule: Multiply each number by 10. b. X F(x) Rule:Add 11 to each number. 2. Matching: Match each term with the appropriate definition. c d b e a Function Series Domain Output Ordered Pair a. A set of two numbers in which the order has an agreed upon meaning b. Another word for input c. A Mathematical relationship between two values where the second value depends on the first d. A list of numbers that follows a certain pattern e. The resulting value from the function

18 Teacher Resource Complete the following tables a. f(x) = 3x-2 b. f(x) = 5 + 2x x Work f(x) x Work f(x) -2 f (-2) = 3(-2) f (-30) = 5 + 2(-30) f (0) = 3(0) f(-2) = 5 + 2(-2) 1 5 f (5) = 3(5) f(0) = 5 + 2(0) 5 26 f (26) = 3(26) f(5) = 5 + 2(5) 15 Bonus: 4. List the ordered pairs created by the function in example 3(a). ( 5, 13 ) ( 0, -2 ) ( -2, -8 ) ( 26, 76 ) 5. List the ordered pairs created by the function in example 3(b). ( -2, 1 ) ( 0, 5 ) ( 5, 15 ) ( -30, -55 )

19 Student Resource 1 What s Missing? Find the missing entry for each example. 1) ) Alabama Alaska Arizona _ 3) S M T W T 4) 5) ) a b c d e f g h 7) ) Mercury Venus Earth Mars _ 9) )

20 Student Resource 2 Name: Date: Machines at Work Use the example below to complete the following machines. EXAMPLE: Input Short The Opposite Tall Output 1. 3 sides _ The shape name The shape name hexagon 2. Arizona The first letter of the state _ The first letter of the state F 3. Meow Animal that makes the noise Animal that makes the noise Pig

21 Student Resource 2 4. Texas USA capital city USA capital city Annapolis Add 4 to the number Add 4 to the number Multiply the number by 4 Multiply the number by Make 2 different machines of your own below for a friend to complete.

22 Student Resource 3 What s the Rule? Please fill in the missing values and state the rule that relates each number in the top row to the entry below it Rule: Rule: Rule: Rule:

23 FUNCTION CRISS-CROSS Student Resource 4 Across 1. The resulting value from the function 7. A mathematical rule written using symbols 9. A set of two numbers in which the order has an agreed upon meaning 10. A device that performs a specific task Down 2. A repeated design or recurring sequence 3. Another word for input 4. A Mathematical relationship between two values where the second value depends on the first. 5. The value going into the function 6. Another word for output 8. A list of numbers that follows a certain pattern Word Bank Function Pattern Ordered Pair Equation Output Range Domain Series Machine Input

24 Name: Date: Ins & Outs of Functions Fill in each table, then complete the rule, and a description of the domain & range. 1. In Out 4. In Out Apple A Soccer Rule: Domain: Range: Banana Kiwi Orange Grapes Baseball Basketball Rule: Domain: Range: Student Resource 5 2. In Night Heavy Short Skinny Rule: Domain: Range: Out Day Little 5. Rule: Domain: Range: In Out 3. In Valentines Christmas Independence Day Labor Day Halloween Out February 6. In Out Rule: Domain: Range: Rule: Multiply each number by 4, then add 2 Domain: Range:

25 Student Resource 6 Name: Date: The Most Important Thing about FUNCTIONS! List below the important things that we have studied about functions. Now, write the MOST important thing you think that we have studied and why you picked it as the most important. _

26 Student Resource 7 Number Detective Please mentally identify the rule and then find the missing term N N N N N

27 Student Resource 8 Name: Date: Function Tables Directions: Complete the following tables. If the x value is given, evaluate the function to find y. If y is given, work backwards to find x. If there is no value for x or y, use your own value for x to find y. SHOW ALL WORK! 1. f () x = x f () x = 2x f () x = 3x f () x = 2x

28 x 5. f() x = f () x = 2x 2 Student Resource f () x = x f () x = 8x f () x = 3x f x = 10. () x

29 Student Resource 9 Name: Date: _ Class/ Teacher: Period: Functions Quiz 1. Identify the rule for each function. a. X F(x) Rule: b. X F(x) Rule: 2. Matching: Match each term with the appropriate definition. Function Series Domain Output Ordered Pair a. A set of two numbers in which the order has an agreed upon meaning b. Another word for input c. A Mathematical relationship between two values where the second value depends on the first d. A list of numbers that follows a certain pattern e. The resulting value from the function

30 Student Resource 9 3. Complete the following tables a. f(x) = 3x-2 b. f(x) = 5 + 2x x Work f(x) x Work f(x) Bonus: 4. List the ordered pairs created by the function in example 3(a). (, ) (, ) (, ) (, ) 5. List the ordered pairs created by the function in example 3(b). (, ) (, ) (, ) (, )

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