CMPT 165: The Internet, Part 3

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1 CMPT 165: The Internet, Part 3 Tamara Smyth, School of Computing Science, Simon Fraser University September 15,

2 Basic Communication Technology Packet Switching (sharing a tranmission path). Routers CMPT 165: Introduction to the Internet and the WWW: The Internet, Part 3 2

3 Sharing In a network, there isn t a single wire connecting each communicating computer. Transmission paths must be shared. Example: A store is divided into 2 sections, a showroom and a warehouse, with a conveyor belt connecting the two. When a customer places an order, the order is sent to the warehouse to be filled. The items are placed onto the belt in the warehouse, and deliverd back to the showroom. What happens when both customers orders are small? What happens when one customer s order is very large? Granting one party exclusive access of a shared transport path can delay all other parties. CMPT 165: Introduction to the Internet and the WWW: The Internet, Part 3 3

4 Sharing Wires In a computer network, the transmission path between two computers consists of wires. Only one data transfer can occur on a given wire at a time. How do we prevent delays and long wait times? Channels: use signal modulation on multiple channels, mix them, and transmit across a cable (e.g. cable company). Disadvantages: overhead in setting up channels, single point of failure causing disruption in communications. Taking Turns: allow one computer access to the network at a time and limit the amount of data that a computer can transfer on each turn. Though it is possible to used both, most network technologies use the second idea, called packet switching. CMPT 165: Introduction to the Internet and the WWW: The Internet, Part 3 4

5 Packets The unit of data that can be trasfered at one time over a network is called a packet. Each computer on a network is assigned a unique number called its address (more on this later). The packet header includes the origin and destination address, as well as the position of the packet in the message (so it can be reassembled at the destination in the correct order). The packet size is limited, though it may contain any amount of data up to the limit. FILE F I L E PACKETS ORIGIN: computer A DESTINATION: computer B PLACE IN FILE: first Figure 1: All data is transfer across the Internet in packets. A sender devides a message or document into packets. CMPT 165: Introduction to the Internet and the WWW: The Internet, Part 3 5

6 Packet Transmission Packet transfer is fast (approx large packets/sec). and automatic (sharing begins as soon as a computer needs to use the network). When the network interface detects a packet destined for its machine, it captures the packet, places a copy in the computer s memory, and informs the computer that a packet has arrived. CMPT 165: Introduction to the Internet and the WWW: The Internet, Part 3 6

7 Packet Switching Computer A packet: A C 1 origin destination place in file Computer C Computer B C D C D C Computer D shared network system Figure 2: Computer A is sharing a tranmission path with Computer B by taking turns sending packets. A message is divided into as many packets as are needed to accommodate the message size. a long message is divided into many packets a short message may fit into a few (or a single) packet(s). One computer will not have to wait for another computer s entire message to be transmitted before it has the opportunity to send packets. Packet switching allows many communications to proceed simultaneously without requiring an application to wait for all other communcation to complete. CMPT 165: Introduction to the Internet and the WWW: The Internet, Part 3 7

8 Who uses package switching? Pacekt Switching can be used by many devices: printers, scanners, video cameras, etc. Both LANs and WANs use packet switching. The Internet is a packet switching system packets from many machines traverse the Internet at the same time. A receiver reassembles the original message from the packets that arrive. VIDEO: PBS video on packet switching. CMPT 165: Introduction to the Internet and the WWW: The Internet, Part 3 8

9 Extending a connection to a network Though a cable between a computer and a LAN is usually short, it can be extended in three ways: 1. two modems with wires connecting them 2. two modems that communicate across the voice telephone system 3. two optical modems connected by glass fiber: good for distance because it is flexible, and uses light so there s less signal deterioration see Figure 13.1 p. 105 CMPT 165: Introduction to the Internet and the WWW: The Internet, Part 3 9

10 Interconnecting networks Routers What about extending or interconnecting networks themselves? Several packet switching technologies exist and they all are not compatible cannot simply connect wires. However, a computer can have multiple circuit boards connecting it to several networks (and network technologies) simultaneously. The Internet uses special-purpose computers to internconnect networks called routers. Routers have specialized software that is started automatically and remains operating at all times. CMPT 165: Introduction to the Internet and the WWW: The Internet, Part 3 10

11 Routing and Packet Forwarding The router has one major task: forward packets from one network to the other. Software determines to which network each computer connects so it can determine where to send packets, a process called routing. The router receives a packet sent to it across one network, and sends the packet on to its destination across another network, a process called packet forwarding Network 1 D E F Router A B C Network 2 Figure 3: A computer on Network 1 can send packets to a computer on a Network 2 via a router. The networks need not be the same type. CMPT 165: Introduction to the Internet and the WWW: The Internet, Part 3 11

12 The Internet: a network of networks The Internet is not a conventional network it consists of thousands of computer networks, interconnected by routers. When a computer on one network communicates with a computer on another network, it sends packets through a router. Because a router can interconnect diverse technologies, it can interconnect a LAN and a WAN. Thus, the Internet can contain multiple types of networks. Routing is a fundamental Internet technology. Before it appeared, a company needed to choose network technology for all computers, or have several independent networks. Backbone network is a term used to describe a major WAN to which other networks attach. A router at each backbone site connects the backbone WAN to a LAN. CMPT 165: Introduction to the Internet and the WWW: The Internet, Part 3 12

13 How do individuals connect to the Internet? Routers allow multiple networks to connect to the Internet, but how do individual computers connect? A company that provides Internet access if known as an Internet Service Provider (ISP). They will charge for 1. using the internet 2. a physical connection to the Internet (a seperate dedictaed connection between a site and an ISP). ISPs face conflicting goals: trying to create a technology that performs well (so customers don t have to wait) but at low cost. Last Mile Problem: the final leg of delivering connectivity from an ISP to a customer. It is typically seen as expensive because fanning out wires and cable is a considerable physical undertaking. CMPT 165: Introduction to the Internet and the WWW: The Internet, Part 3 13

14 Two types of Internet Connections leased circuit: Until mid-1990s, the only available technology offering a dedicated connection to the Internet was a leased digital circuit. though very expensive, offers availability and control (the only traffic is that of the customer) dial-up: access through the telephone system: a computer uses a modem (and software) to connect and sofware instructs the modem to place a telephone call to the number provided by the ISP. though overhead involved in making a connection, it was cheaper and available to the individual FIX: Figure p. 113 CMPT 165: Introduction to the Internet and the WWW: The Internet, Part 3 14

15 Continuous connectivity A dedicated (leased) circuit offered huge advantages: 1. higher speed data delivery 2. instantaneous access and continuous availability (no waiting for the telephone to be free before using the Internet). Continuous connectivity has effected the way people use the Internet. Access is no longer a time-consuming activity. CMPT 165: Introduction to the Internet and the WWW: The Internet, Part 3 15

16 Continuous Connectivity to Individuals During 1990s, ISPs began offering: 1. Cable modem: uses the same wiring as cable television cable modified for digital bi-directional signals shared wiring could reduce user s bandwidth 2. DSL: Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) uses the same wiring as a conventional telephone bandwidth not shared as with cable modem distance limitations: difficult to reach rural areas 3. Wireless access: use radio transmission (like cell phone systems) helps solve the last mile problem: a transmitter is deployed in a geographic region (often on a utility pole) and in the customer s home All designed so that data transmission does not interfere with simultaneous television/cable signals. All provide speed, continuous and instantaneous connectivity, affordability, and use of existing wiring. CMPT 165: Introduction to the Internet and the WWW: The Internet, Part 3 16

17 Protocol As with humans, for two computers to communicate they must share a common language. A communcication protocol is an agreement that specifies a common language two computers use to exchange messages. Communication is defined by specifying: the format and meaning of a computer s message conditions under which a computer should send a message how a computer should respond when a message arrives. CMPT 165: Introduction to the Internet and the WWW: The Internet, Part 3 17

18 Internet Protocol (IP) Internet Protocol (IP) is the key communication protocol used in the Internet specifying: the rules that define how computers communicate/connect. how a packet must be formatted how a router must forward each packet toward its destination CMPT 165: Introduction to the Internet and the WWW: The Internet, Part 3 18

19 IP Software Computer hardware does not understand IP it requires IP software. Because IP is fundamental, each computer usually has a single copy of IP software that all applications share. IP Datagrams: Each packet sent across the Internet must follow the format specified by the IP and are called IP datagrams (to distinguish from packets for other networks). IP Datagrams are not limited to the packed format used by the underlying (nor any particular) network technology Any computer connected to the Internet with IP software can create an IP datagram and send it to any other computer on the Internet. CMPT 165: Introduction to the Internet and the WWW: The Internet, Part 3 19

20 The Internet: A network of networks IP transforms a collection of networks and routers into a seamless communication system by making the Internet function like a single, large network. Figure 4: Computers connect to a seemingly single large network. Users remain unaware of the Internet s networks and routers, just as telephone subscribers remain oblivious to the wires and switches that comprise the telephone system. CMPT 165: Introduction to the Internet and the WWW: The Internet, Part 3 20

21 The Internet Reality The Internet actually contains a complex internal phyiscal structure that users never see. A B C F D E Figure 5: Datagrams travelling between computers uses a physical path: either a network, or through a router to another network. A datagram travelling across the Internet must follow a phyiscal path from one computer to another Each network technology defines its own packet format and does not understand IP datagrams. CMPT 165: Introduction to the Internet and the WWW: The Internet, Part 3 21

22 Handling IP Datagrams The internet sends an IP datagram across a single network by placing it inside a network packet, making it appear as just data. When the network packet arrives at the next computer, the computer opens the packet and extracts the datagram to determine how to process it. When a router determines that the datagram must be sent across another network, the router creates a new network packet. CMPT 165: Introduction to the Internet and the WWW: The Internet, Part 3 22

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