Future Stars. Grade X Manual Chapter 1 Networking and Telecommunication. telecommunication. Telephones, telegrams, radios and televisions help

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1 Future Stars Grade X Manual Chapter 1 Networking and Telecommunication 1. Answer the following questions. a. What is telecommunication? Ans: The transfer of information at a far distance is known as telecommunication. Telephones, telegrams, radios and televisions help us transfer information over a long distance. b. What do you mean by data communication? Ans: Sending and receiving data in the form of text, picture or sound with the help of computers is known as data communication. c. What is computer network? Mention the advantages of the computer network. Ans: The interconnected system where computers from local or different places are connected with each other by means of wires or wireless media is referred to as a computer network. Its advantages are: - To share computer hardware like printer, scanner, etc - To share data, information and programs. - To send or receive message i.e. to communicate with each other. d. Mention the reasons of keeping computers on the network. Ans: Computers are kept connected to the network for following reasons:

2 - Hardware sharing - Data and software sharing - Access to remote database - Transferring and communication facilities - Security and reliability - Cost factor e. Computer network reduces expenses of an office. Justify this statement with suitable examples. Ans: Computer network allows hardwares, softwares and files sharing which is very useful for offices because these offices need to produce hard-copy outputs, scan documents and send faxes. Each computer at an office cannot have expensive hardwares like laser printers, scanner, fax machines, etc. for each computer. But instead, such devices are kept on network and can share these hardwares, thus reducing the expenses of an office to a great extent. For example, a laser printer kept on network can be accessed by all computers connected at that very network to print necessary files for the day to day purpose of the office. f. Computer network makes the world a small place. Justify this statement with reasons. Ans: Computers in a network can share texts, images pictures via softwares like Skype, Facebook, etc. Not only this, a person can buy and sell goods over the network, book air ticket for a trip anywhere in the world, reserve a room in hotel that is located miles away from his place, all with the help of a computer connected in a network. News from all around the world can be accessed in a computer screen within fractions of seconds if it is connected to a network. All these facilities provided in a computer network makes the world really a

3 small place. g. What are the essential components of a simple network? Ans: The essential components of a simple network are: - Server - Workstation - Network Interface Unit - Communication Channel or Transmission Media h. Mention the differences between Server and Workstation. Ans: Server: It has higher processing and storage capacity as compared to a workstation. It acts as the controller, storehouse and distributor for data, information and programs. It also provides facilities of hardware sharing to the workstations (clients) on the network. It uses operating systems like UNIX, Windows NT Server, Windows 2012 Server, etc. Workstation: It has lower processing and storage capacity as compared to a server. It is the consumer of the resources of a network provided by the server. It may be disk-less, i.e. without hard disk and rather can use hardwares provided by server called dummy workstations that accesses data and software directly from server. It uses operating systems like Windows XP, Windows 10, Red Hat Linux Workstation. i. Mention the differences between Dedicated Server and Non- Dedicated Server. Ans: Dedicated Server: Such servers controls and provides resources to client computers on the network but doesn't allow a user to use it as a workstation. It is reserved for performing only the jobs of a

4 server. They need to be powerful computers capable of handling huge workloads demanded of workstations. Huge networks have dedicated servers for printer serer, modem serer, file server, etc. Non-Dedicated Server: Such servers controls and provides resources to other computers on the network as well as allow a user to use it as a workstation. i.e. it can work as a client computer as well. It isn't reserved for a server computer purpose only but rather work as both server as well as client. They may have processing and storage speed similar to client computers as well. j. What is the communication channel? List its types. Ans: The path through which data, information and various form of files transfers on a network is known as Communication Channel or Transmission Media. Its types are: a. Bounded Transmission media, it is further divided into three subcategories: i. Twisted pair cable, it has two types: 1. Unshielded Twisted pair 2. Shielded Twisted pair ii. Co-axial cable iii. Fiber optic cable b. Unbounded Transmission media i. Microwave System ii. Infrared Transmission iii. Laser Transmission iv. Communication satellite k. Name the bounded transmission media used on a network. Ans: Wired networks uses bounded transmission media of following types:

5 i. Twisted-pair cable (Unshielded Twisted-pair and Shielded Twistedpair) ii. Co-axial cable iii. Fiber optic cable l. Mention the importance of modem in computer network. Ans: A modem connects computers on the network through telephone lines and its main purpose is to convert digital signals to analog signals and vice versa. A computer uses only digital signals for communication and cannot be transmitted via telephone lines. Using modem, sender computer converts digital signals into analog signals and transmits to a receiver computer where the modem of receiver computer converts analog signals back to digital signals. m. Name the different types of computer networks on the base of range. Ans: On the basis of range, a computer network is divided into following categories: - Local Area Network (LAN) : Range: room, building or campus, generally few kilometers. - Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) : Range: Bigger than LAN, smaller than WAN. It connects neighboring cities, or computers within a city. - Wide Area Network (MAN) : Range: Covers the entire geographic area, i.e. whole world. n. What is LAN? Explain it with diagram. Ans: A computer network that connects a large number of computers, terminals and other peripheral devices of a room, building or campus

6 is known as Local Area network (LAN). The computers in LAN are usually connected with cables and the data transmission speed is very high in LAN. The main purpose of LAN is to share expensive peripheral devices among computers and communicate with each other. Note: For diagram, refer to figure in page 10, Local Area Network o. What is MAN? Explain it with a diagram. Ans: The computer network bigger than LAN and smaller than WAN is Metropolitan Area Network (MAN). It interconnects computers within a city or in between neighboring cities. A MAN can comprise of many LANs. Big organizations, banks, offices, schools, etc. use MAN to connect their branch offices from one location to the other for communication and transferring data. The cable television (CATV) of a city is an example of MAN. Note: For diagram, refer to figure in page 11, Metropolitan Area Network p. What is WAN? Explain it with a diagram. Ans: Wide Area Network (WAN) covers the entire world. A network of computers within a country or continents is known as WAN. A WAN can have a lot of LANs and MANs connected on it. The transmission media normally used in WAN may be by telephone lines, microwave, radio wave or satellite links. Internet and Intranet are examples of WAN. q. Mention the differences between LAN and WAN. Ans: LAN: It covers small area such as a room, building or campus. LAN uses network cables to transmit data. Its data transmission rate is from 10 Mbps to 100 Mbps. It is preferred only within a specific

7 area, generally within a particular organization. Eg. Computer network of an office. WAN: it covers the entire world. It uses telephone lines, microwave, radio wave or satellite links to transmit data. Its data transmission rate is 10 Gbps. WANs can comprise a lot of LANs and MANs within it and is owned by multiple organizations. Eg. Internet and Intranet. r. A WAN is composed of LANs and MANs. Justify this statement. Ans: Since wan covers the whole world, it includes offices, business organizations, cities as well as countries networks. The composition of networks as such are built upon LANs (in offices, business organizations, schools) and MANs ( branch offices of organization, cities) that are included within a WAN. s. Mention the differences between Client-Server model and Peer to Peer model. Ans: Client-Server model: It is also known as Domain model as it has at least one server computer (Domain) and other computers act as workstation. It is best suitable for computers at same room, building or far apart. A specific operating system such as Windows 2012 Server. It is the server where the data, information and application programs are stored. Server controls and manages workstation computer on the network. Only authorized clients can get access to resources available at the server. Such model can be expanded to an size. It doesn t slow down with heavy use. It is relatively expensive than peer-to-peer model. Peer-to-peer model: It is also known as work-group model as it has only workstations interconnected over the network with no specific role

8 as client or server. It is suitable for small offices and organizations expanded in a room, building or compound. Any general operating system such as Windows 8 can be used on the computers. There is no computer that manages and controls other computers on the network and every computer has equal right. The resources each computer has can be shared to any of its peers connected within the same network. The expansion of network is limited. They are simple to design and maintain. It is relatively cheaper than client-server model. t. What is network topology? Name the basic types of network topologies. Ans: The different manners according to which computers on the LAN are physically connected, and how they communicate on the network with the help of network cables is known as network topology. It determines the data paths that may be used between any pair of nodes of the network. The basic types of network topologies are: bus topology, ring topology and star topology. u. What is BUS topology. Explain with diagram. Ans: The arrangement of computers in a linear format where all nodes are connected directly to the common cable with the help of connectors is called BUS topology. The common cable is called as network bus or trunk, which acts as the backbone to the network. Note: For diagram, refer to figure in page 15, Bus Topology (Linear Topology) v. Mention the advantages of Bus topology. w. What are the disadvantages of Bus topology? x. What type of topology is Ring topology? Explain it with a diagram.

9 y. What are the advantages and disadvantages of Ring topology? z. What is a hub? How does it differ from the switch? aa. What is Star topology? Explain it with a diagram. ab. What are the advantages and disadvantages of Star topology? ac. What is communication protocol? Name any four of them. 2. Write the full forms of the following. a. FTP - File Transfer Protocol b. SMTP - Simple Mail Transfer Protocol c. TCP/ IP - Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol d. ISP - Internet Service Provider e. POP - Post Office Protocol f. UTP - Unshielded Twisted Pair g. STP - Shielded Twisted Pair h. NetBEUI - NetBIOS Extended User Interface i. DARPA - Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency j. HTTP - Hyper Text Transfer Protocol k. MODEM - Modulator Demodulator l. WLAN - Wireless Local Area Network 3. Fill in the blanks. a. computer network b. server c. client d. Local Area Network (LAN) e. Wide Area Network (WAN) f. Internet

10 4. State true or false. a. False b. True c. False d. True e. True f. True g. True h. True 5. Write the technical terms for the following statements. a. Computer Network b. Workstation c. Wires/ cables d. Bandwidth e. Bandwidth f. Server g. Client h. Windows 2012 Server i. Non-Dedicated Server j. Dedicated Server k. Local Area Network l. LASER m. Wide Area Network n. Client-Server Model o. Peer-to-peer p. Local Area Network q. Metropolitan Area Network r. Modem s. Network Interface Card t. Wide Area Network u. Topology v. Star topology w. Communication Protocol x. Hub y. Bridge z. Hub aa. Gateway

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