1 Related Services: How Do Special Needs Education Relate to Your Child?
2 Family Driven Non-Profit 501(c)3 What makes FND unique is that the majority of our Board of Directors, all of our Management Staff and all of our Program Staff are parents or family members of persons with disabilities, or has a disability themselves. When family members call FND, they not only receive the expertise and knowledge of a professional, but also the compassion and empathy of someone who has walked (and continues to walk) in their shoes.
3 We do NOT: Act As Attorneys We DO: Provide Support Provide Information Help Identify Options Act as Attorneys: We don t represent families, and we don t give legal advice. Support: FND has been the statewide Parent to Parent since 1985, and the value of families getting support by networking with other families is built into everything we do. We often get calls from parents or other family members who just need to talk and we re there to listen. Information: Altogether, FND logs over 15,000 calls a year, most of them from parents, family members, or professionals who are looking for information. We have a large database of resources in Florida, and a library filled with disability-related information. Regardless of the question, our staff will go the extra mile to find an answer. Identify Options: Our philosophy at FND is that it is not our role to tell families what to do. It is our role, however, to inform families of what their options are and encourage them to make their own decisions about what is right for their family.
4 What are Related Services? IDEIA defines the term related services as: "transportation and such developmental, corrective, and other supportive services as are required to assist a child with a disability to benefit from special education..." [Section (a)].
5 Who is eligible for Related Services? Any child who is determined, by evaluation: - to have a disability as defined under IDEIA or Section 504 IDEIA requires that a child be assessed in all areas related to his or her suspected disability. This includes, if appropriate, evaluating the child's: - health, - vision, - hearing, - social and emotional status, - general intelligence, - academic performance, - communicative status, and - motor abilities. [Section (g)]
6 continued Who is eligible for Related Services? Any child who is determined, by evaluation: - to have a disability as defined under IDEIA or Section 504 Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended, that applies to IDEIAeligible students and in some cases may provide protections for a student who is ineligible for services under IDEIA. A student with a disability who does not need special education but who needs a related services may be eligible for that services under Section 504. Under Section 504 regulations, a person with a "disability" (referred to in the regulation as "handicapped person") is a person who has a physical or mental impairment which substantially limits one or more major life activities, (i.e. seeing, walking, talking, hearing, and learning) has a record of such an impairment, or is regarded as having such an impairment.
7 Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Civil Rights Law: Section 504 prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability Applies to any agency receiving federal funds No additional source of federal funding Provides procedural safeguards Section 504 is a Civil Rights Law that makes it illegal to discriminate against any class of people. It states that no individual with a disability shall be excluded from participation in any program or activity receiving federal funding. 504 Plan - Developed by a committee that includes parents, teachers, counselors, and a 504 coordinator. The student's disability and need for reasonable accommodation are identified and documented in the plan. A 504 plan also includes the specific accommodations which will be implemented by the school. Procedural safeguards under 504 includes notice, an opportunity for the parents or guardian to examine relevant records, an impartial hearing with opportunity for participation by the parents or guardian and representation by counsel, and a review procedure.
8 Free Appropriate Public Education Section 504 defines FAPE as: "regular or special education and related aids and services that... are designed to meet individual educational needs of handicapped persons as adequately as the needs of non-handicapped persons are met. EXAMPLE: At the end of the day, a teacher announces, to her class that there will be homework due the next day, and verbally gives the class instructions for completing the homework. All of the nondisabled children in the class have their needs met: they heard when the homework was due and they heard the instructions for completing the work. Susan, who is deaf would not have had her needs met. To meet her needs as adequately as her nondisabled peers, the teacher would write the assignment or use a sign language interpreter.
9 Individualized Education Plan/Program (IEP) Team determines the child s educational needs creates an educational plan develops measurable goals identifies supports & services Related services support the achievement of a goal. Related services are decided upon during an Individualized Education Plan (IEP) meeting. The IEP team is responsible for determining the child s educational needs and developing an educational program or plan. This plan will include measurable goals for the child to achieve. Once goals are developed, the team must determine what services or supports are needed to support the child s achievement of the goals.
10 504 Team determines the child s educational needs creates an educational plan identifies supports & services Related services allow the child to benefit as adequately as non-disabled peers. Under Section 504, Related services are decided upon during an 504 team meeting. The 504 team is responsible for determining the child s educational needs and developing an educational program or plan. Once the plan is developed, the team must determine what services or supports are needed (if any) to allow the child to benefit from an education as adequately as a nondisabled peer.
11 Appropriate Supports and Services - advance toward attaining goals - be involved and progress in the general curriculum - participate in extracurricular and other nonacademic activities - be educated and participate with all children in the LRE When attempting to identify appropriate supports and services under IDEA and/or Section 504, ask: Will it help the child: to advance appropriately toward attaining the annual goals? to be involved and progress in the general curriculum (that is, the curriculum used by non-disabled students)? to participate in extracurricular and other nonacademic activities? to be educated and participate with other children with disabilities and nondisabled children? [Section (a)(3)]
12 The IEP must specify: when each service will begin the anticipated amount location (where) duration (begin/end) The IEP is a written commitment for the delivery of services to meet a student's educational needs. A school district must ensure that all of the related services specified in the IEP, including the amount, so that the level of the agency s commitment of resources will be clear to parents and other IEP team members (Sec (a)(6)). Changes in the amount of services listed in the IEP cannot be made without holding another IEP meeting. However, if there is no change in the overall amount of service, some adjustments in the scheduling of services may be possible without the necessity of another IEP meeting.
13 Do parents have to pay for the related services their child receives? Do the parents have to pay for the related services the child receives? No, they do not. School districts may not charge parents of eligible students with disabilities for the costs of related services that have been included on the child's IEP. Just as special and regular education must be provided to an eligible student with a disability at no cost to the parent or guardian, so, too, must related services, when the IEP team has determined that such services are required in order for the child to receive a Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) and have included them in the student's IEP.
14 Assistive Technology Devices & Services Some Examples Include: Computers Adaptive Toys Devices to Improve Positioning & Mobility Communication Devices Electronic Aids An assistive technology device means "any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially off the shelf, modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilities of a child with a disability" Assistive technology devices may be used for personal care, sensory processing of information, communication, mobility, or leisure. For young children, assistive technology may involve adaptive toys or simple computer software games to stimulate eye-hand coordination. For other children, it may involve adaptive eating utensils, electronic communication devices, or a voice-activated word processing software program. An assistive technology service means "...any service that directly assists a child with a disability in the selection, acquisition, or use of an assistive technology device. School districts are responsible for helping individuals with disabilities select and acquire appropriate assistive technology devices and train them in their use, if doing so is necessary for them to receive FAPE.
15 Assistive Technology Devices & Services Who determines what AT devices will be provided? Can a school-purchased AT device be used at home? The IEP team determines the child s need for an assistive technology device or service, identifies those devices that will facilitate the student's education, and lists them in the IEP. The public agency must then provide them to the student at no cost to the parents. May a child use a school-purchased AT device in his or her home or other setting? According to the IDEA '97's final regulations, the answer to this question would be determined on a case-by-case basis. Such use in non-school settings would be "required if the child's IEP team determines that the child needs access to those devices in order to receive FAPE," for example, to complete homework.
16 Some Examples Include: identification Audiology determining the range, nature, and degree of hearing loss providing habilitative activities creating and administering programs for prevention of hearing loss The category of Audiology includes: identifying children with hearing loss; determining the range, nature, and degree of hearing loss, including referral for medical or other professional attention for the habilitation of hearing; providing habilitative activities, such as language habilitation, auditory training, speech reading (lip-reading), hearing evaluation, and speech conservation; creating and administering programs for prevention of hearing loss
17 Audiology Some Examples Include: counseling and guidance determining children's needs for group and individual amplification selecting and fitting an appropriate aid (continued) counseling and guidance of children, parents, and teachers regarding hearing loss; and determining children's needs for group and individual amplification, selecting and fitting an appropriate aid, and evaluating the effectiveness of amplification
18 Counseling Services Student Counseling Parent Counseling & Training Rehabilitation Counseling Counseling services focus on the needs, interests, and issues related to various stages of student growth. School counselors may help students with personal and social concerns such as developing self-knowledge, making effective decisions, learning health choices, and improving responsibility. Counselors may also help students with future planning related to setting and reaching academic goals, developing a positive attitude toward learning, and recognizing and utilizing academic strengths. Other counseling services may include parent counseling and training and rehabilitation counseling (that is, counseling specific to career development and employment preparation). Counseling services are services provided by qualified social workers, psychologists, guidance counselors, or other qualified personnel.
19 Medical Services Licensed Physician Diagnostic or Evaluation Purposes Medical services are considered a related service only under specific conditions. By definition, the term means services provided by a licensed physician to determine a child's medically related disability that results in the child's need for special education and related services. Thus, medical services are provided (a) by a licensed physician, and (b) for diagnostic or evaluation purposes only.
20 Occupational Therapy self-help skills or adaptive living functional mobility positioning sensory-motor processing fine motor and gross motor performance life skills training/vocational skills psychosocial adaptation Occupational therapy (OT) services can enhance a student's ability to function in an educational program. These services are "provided by a qualified occupational therapist" and include: -improving, developing, or restoring functions impaired or lost through illness, injury, or deprivation; - improving a child's ability to perform tasks for independent functioning if functions are impaired or lost; and preventing, through early intervention, initial or further impairment or loss of function. Examples: self-help skills or adaptive living - eating, dressing functional mobility - moving safely through school positioning - sitting appropriately in class sensory-motor processing - using the senses and muscles fine motor - writing, cutting gross motor performance - walking, athletic skills
21 Orientation & Mobility Services For students who are blind or visually impaired Spatial and environmental concepts Using a cane Understanding & using visual aids Orientation & Mobility Services are defined as "services provided to blind or visually impaired students by qualified personnel to enable those students to attain systematic orientation to and safe movement within their environments in school, home, and community." This includes teaching students the following, as appropriate: - spatial and environmental concepts and use of information received by the senses (such as sound, temperature, and vibrations) to establish, maintain, or regain orientation and line of travel (for example, using sound at a traffic light to cross the street); - to use the long cane to supplement visual travel skills or as a tool for safely negotiating the environment for students with no available travel vision; - to understand and use remaining visual and distance low vision aids; and - other concepts, techniques, and tools.
22 Parent Counseling & Training Assisting parents in understanding the special needs of their child Providing parents with information about child development; and Helping parents to acquire the necessary skills that will allow them to support the implementation of their child's IEP. Parent counseling and training is an important related service that can help parents enhance the vital role they play in the lives of their children. Parent counseling and training can include: Assisting parents in understanding the special needs of their child; - Providing parents with information about child development; and - Helping parents to acquire the necessary skills that will allow them to support the implementation of their child's IEP. IDEIA recognizes parents as very important participants in the education process for their children. Helping them gain the skills that will enable them to help their children meet the goals and objectives of their IEP will assist in furthering the education of their children and will aid the schools as it will create opportunities to build reinforcing relationships between each child's educational program and out-of-school learning.
23 Physical Therapy joint function, muscle strength, mobility, and endurance gross motor skills, physical movement and range of motion posture, gait, and body awareness function, fit, and proper use of mobility aids and devices Physical therapy generally addresses a child's posture, muscle strength, mobility, and organization of movement in educational environments. Physical therapy may be provided to prevent the onset or progression of impairment, functional limitation, disability, or changes in physical function or health resulting from injury, disease, or other causes.
24 Psychological Services administering tests interpreting test results interpreting information about a student's behavior consulting planning and managing assisting in developing positive behavioral intervention strategies. Psychological services are delivered as a related service when necessary to help eligible students with disabilities benefit from their special education. In some schools, these services are provided by a school psychologist, but some services are also appropriately provided by other trained personnel, including school social workers and counselors. Psychological services include: - administering psychological and educational tests and other assessment procedures; - interpreting assessment results. Obtaining, integrating, and interpreting information about a student's behavior and conditions relating to learning; - consulting with other staff members in planning school programs to meet the special needs of children as indicated by psychological tests, interviews, and behavioral evaluations; - planning and managing a program of psychological services, including psychological counseling for students and parents; and - assisting in developing positive behavioral intervention strategies.
25 Recreation Services assessment of leisure function therapeutic recreation services; recreation programs in schools and community agencies leisure education Recreation services generally are intended to help students with disabilities learn how to use their leisure and recreation time constructively. Through these services, students can learn appropriate and functional recreation and leisure skills. As part of providing this related service, persons qualified to provide recreation carry out activities such as: - assessing a student's leisure interests and preferences, capacities, functions, skills, and needs; - providing recreation therapeutic services and activities to develop a student's functional skills; - providing education in the skills, knowledge, and attitudes related to leisure involvement; - helping a student participate in recreation with assistance and/or adapted recreation equipment; - providing training to parents and educators about the role of recreation in enhancing educational outcomes; - identifying recreation resources and facilities in the community; and - providing recreation programs in schools and community agencies.
26 Rehabilitation Counseling Services assessment of a student's attitudes, abilities, and needs vocational counseling and guidance vocational training identifying job placements in individual or group sessions Rehabilitation counseling services are services provided by qualified personnel in individual or group sessions that focus specifically on career development, employment preparation, achieving independence, and integration in the workplace and community. The term also includes vocational rehabilitation services provided to a student with disabilities by vocational rehabilitation programs funded under the Rehabilitation Act of 1973.
27 School Health Services special feedings clean intermittent catheterization suctioning management of a tracheostomy dispensing medications safety preventing injury chronic disease management education and skills training School health services means "services provided by a qualified school nurse or other qualified person" These services may be necessary because some children and youths with disabilities would otherwise be unable to attend a day of school without supportive health care. School health services may include interpretation, interventions, administration of health procedures, the use of an assistive health device to compensate for the reduction or loss of a body function, and case management. Typically, school health services are provided by a qualified school nurse or other qualified trained person who is supervised by a qualified nurse. In some instances, if a school nurse is not employed by a school district, health services may be provided and/or coordinated by a public health nurse, a pediatric home care nurse, or a hospital- or community-based pediatric nurse practitioner or specialist.
28 Social Work Services in Schools preparing a social or developmental history group and individual counseling working with parents and others on problems that affect the child's adjustment in school mobilizing school and community resources assisting in developing positive behavioral intervention strategies Issues or problems at home or in the community can adversely affect a student's performance at school, as can a student's attitudes or behaviors in school. Social work services in schools may become necessary in order to help a student benefit from his or her educational program.
29 Speech-Language Pathology Services identification diagnosis and appraisal referral for medical or other professional attention provision of speech and language services counseling and guidance Speech-language pathology services are provided by speech-language professionals and speechlanguage assistants to address the needs of children and youth with communication disabilities. Under IDEA, these services include: - identification of children with speech or language impairments; - diagnosis and appraisal of specific speech or language impairments; - referral for medical or other professional attention necessary for the habilitation of speech or language impairments; - provision of speech and language services for the habilitation or prevention of communicative impairments; and - counseling and guidance of parents, children, and teachers regarding speech and language impairments.
30 Transportation Services travel to and from school and between schools; travel in and around school buildings specialized equipment (such as special or adapted buses, lifts, and ramps), if required A student's need for transportation as a related service and the type of transportation to be provided must be discussed and decided by the IEP team. Whether transportation goals and objectives are required in the IEP depends on the purpose of the transportation. If transportation is being provided solely to and from school, in and around school, and between schools, no goals or objectives are needed. If instruction is provided to a student to increase his or her independence or improve his or her behavior during transportation, then goals and objectives must be included in the student's IEP.
31 Travel Training Develop an awareness of the environment Learn the skills necessary to move effectively and safely from place to place within that environment Travel training means "providing instruction, as appropriate, to children with significant cognitive disabilities, and any other children with disabilities who require this instruction, to enable them to--- - Develop an awareness of the environment in which they live; and - Learn the skills necessary to move effectively and safely from place to place within that environment (for example, in school, in the home, at work, and in the community.
32 The list of related services is non exhaustive. An IEP team may include other developmental, corrective, or supportive services to assist a child with a disability to benefit from special education.
33 Every child is different. Each child with a disability may not require all of the available types of related services.
34 Introducing: FND University Absolutely free! Available 24 hours Interactive online distance learning system Trainings at your home at your convenience Transcript of all courses Certificates of completion Website:
35 For more information please contact: Family Network on Disabilities 2196 Main St, Suite K Dunedin, FL (800) (727) Please complete our evaluation Click here to continue The contents of this presentation were developed under a grant from the US Department of Education, #H328M and #H328M However, those contents do not necessarily represent the policy of the US Department of Education, and you should not assume endorsement by the Federal Government. Project Officer, Lisa Gorove. Portions of this workshop were taken from NICCHY publications. Family Network on Disabilities, Inc.
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