An Arvum Group Company SEED TECHNOLOGY MAIZE GUIDE 2013 SUPPORTING FARM INCOME WITH BETTER VARIETIES

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1 SEED TECHNOLOGY MAIZE GUIDE 2013 SUPPORTING FARM INCOME WITH BETTER VARIETIES

2 WHY GROW MAIZE? Maize Silage is a high energy starch-rich and very palatable forage which is ideal for including in ruminant rations. It can be used to complement high protein forages like grass silage or grazing, or fed as the sole forage in rations balanced for protein, long fibre, minerals and vitamins. Maize silage is a reliable and consistent forage, which helps support high levels of animal performance. Cost Effective Forage The value of good quality maize in rations is significantly higher than the cost of producing it. Maize growing costs/ha are relatively fixed, leaving minimal scope to significantly reduce establishment or harvesting costs. Consequently, the aim should be to pay attention to variety choice, agronomy and crop nutrition, in order to maximise dry matter yield and forage quality. Cost Comparison of Forage Crops ( Tn/DM) DM % DM Costs/ /Tn YLD/Ha Ha DM Maize 30% Fodder Beet 22% WC Triticale (winter) 40% Grass Silage 20% Table 1. Comparing relative energy costs of different maize crops. DM ME Cost/ Tn Fresh /Tn Fresh /Ton Ton Comparative Ha Weight/Ha Weight DM DM/Ha Energy Cost Plastic 32% hi >30% % Plastic 25% Low <25% % Open 30% hi >28% % Open 25% Low <20% % Open % 20% % Plastic % 30% % Table 1. above shows firstly the variation in cost per ton of DM based on yields achieved. The table also shows the comparative energy costs of each scenario based on 230. The comparative energy cost of Open 2012 v's Plastic 2012 shows that they are equal at 70% so they still worked out at being 30% cheaper than barley at 230. It can also be concluded that even though the costs/tn of DM is cheaper in the open than under plastic the extra starch balanced the relative energy costs which would have just covered the extra cost of plastic when these 2 case studies were compared. Table 2. Comparing relative energy costs of maize crops versus purchased barley. DM ME Maize relative to 230/tn land charge included Maize relative to 230/tn own land Maize relative to 190/tn own land Plastic 32% hi >30% 12 62% 48% 58% Plastic 25% Low <25% % 83% 100% Open 30% hi >28% % 45% 55% Open 25% Low <20% % 83% 100% Table 2. compares the relative energy costs of maize versus purchased barley. It clearly shows that good crops of maize come in very cost competitively compared to purchased either 230 or 190 per ton (40% cheaper). It also shows that poor crops of maize are borderline with it being cheaper to purchase barley than grow maize especially on rented land. In cases like this other alternatives could be wholecrop or beet. Nutritional Characteristics The main characteristics of maize silage are relatively consistent from year to year. It is a low protein forage with energy derived from three primary sources: Sugar which is largely converted to lactic acid when ensiled Digestible cell wall material (fibre) TYPICAL COMPOSITION OF MAIZE SILAGE Typical Value Range Dry Matter % ME MJ/kg DM Crude Protein % NDF % SEED TECHNOLOGY MAIZE GUIDE 2013

3 Critical points to consider when growing a successful crop of Forage Maize South facing warm sheltered site is most ideal. Sowing maize in unsuitable sites is a costly exercise. Soil type dry free draining soil Soil ph Target 6.5 High soil fertility maize requires adequate applications of P and K Choose the correct variety match variety based on site and desired quality level Seedbed preparation Optimum sowing 25th Apr 10th of May Weed control Pest control Watch out for eyespot Harvest when crop is ready to harves Diseases of Maize Kabatiella Zea (Eyespot): This is the No. 1 disease threat in Ireland due mainly to our wet climate. The first symptoms are likely to be seen as small round or oval translucent spots with a light brown centre which is surrounded by a brown ring with a yellow halo. It is a disease that will over-winter in crop debris and the spores will transfer to crop via rain. It is usually seen late in crops in the months of August and September but when conditions are right such as warm wet weather periods, symptoms will be seen in the months of July. Prevention is the best form of control of this disease. The main options available for control include, good stubble hygiene, rotation and/or spraying with a suitable fungicide especially where a previous crop has been grown, or infected with the disease. Stalk Rot (Fusarium/Gibberella): This can be a big threat to crops in Ireland and is caused by the three species of Fusarium with Culmorum being the most prevalent. It will attack stem bases usually being visible during the months of August and September. Like Fusarium on wheats it will be seen as a pinkish mould on the stems causing the stems to become brittle and fall. Usually crops will have been harvested before any real serious damage occurs. SEED TECHNOLOGY MAIZE GUIDE

4 The Fertiliser Requirements of Maize The correct fertilisation of maize is vital to the success of the crop because it greatly influences not only the yield of the crop and its nutritional content but also growing costs. Growing maize is attractive because it offers a good opportunity for the use of slurry; 80-90% of all maize crops receive manure of some kind. Frequently the nutrient contribution of slurry and manure is not taken into account when determining the amount of fertiliser to apply. The Requirement for P and K to grow a 45tn/Ha Fresh or 13.5 tns DM/Ha Crop of Maize DM) Maintenance (M) (Kg/Ha) Index 1 Index 2 Index 3 N P 43 M + 30 M + 10 M K 203 M + 60 M + 35 M Slurry Available Nutrients in Organic Fertilisers (kg/tn) N P K Cattle Pig Layers litter (55% DM) Chemical Treatment for Maize 4.5 tns/ac = 1000 gals/acre PRODUCT APPLICATION RATE COMMENTS Cadou Star Stomp 0.85 kg/ha 3.75 l/ha The Cadou Star label recommends a tank mix with pendimethalin (stomp) if used under plastic Apply within five days of sowing but before the 4-leaf stage of the crop. Good on Orache, Black Nightshade, Knotgrass and Nettles. PRODUCT APPLICATION RATE COMMENTS Bromoxynil Calaris Dow Shield l/ha l/ha l/ha Apply at the 2-9 leaf stage of the crop. Optimum 3-4 leaves. When weeds have emerged up to 4 leaves - optimum 2 leaf stage. Higher use rates are often associated with split applications Apply at 2-8 leaf stage. Contact plus residual activity. Very good broad-leaved weed control spectrum plus annual meadow grass. Apply after 3-leaf stage. Latest time of application is six weeks before harvest. A second application may be needed for creeping thistle control. Fluroxypyr Depends on Product Use Apply before buttress root formation. Good on volunteer potatoes Titus & Agral 50 g/ha + 0.1% Titus & Bromoxynil g/ha l/ha Use for grass weeds and broad leaved weeds up to the 4-collar stage of the maize (6 leaves unfolded) Apply up to the 4-collar stage (6 leaves unfolded on maize) for control of broad-leave weeds. Do not add an adjuvant to this mixture. 4 SEED TECHNOLOGY MAIZE GUIDE 2013

5 BEETHOVEN BREEDER:- LIMAGRAIN, FRANCE 2013 UNCOVERED VARIETIES EARLY - MEDIUM MATURING HIGHEST YIELDING ON 2013 LIST Packed 50,000 seeds units (1.1 acres) Seed dressing:- TMTD and Measurol Exceptional tall plant with excellent lodging resistance Highest yielding variety on Rec. List achieving 115% of controls Excellent cob and size at harvest Proven to exhibit excellent early vigour Beethoven Acclaim Adept Source:- Recommended list 2013 ATRIUM BREEDER:- LIMAGRAIN, FRANCE EARLY - MEDIUM MATURING NEW TO 2013 LIST Packed 50,000 seeds units (1.1 acres) Seed dressing:- TMTD and Measurol New to the 2013 list with a provisional recommendation Joint second highest yielding variety 112% of controls Excellent starch achieving 106% of controls Suitable for growers on all mainstream sites Excellent stay green ability Atrium Adept Source:- Recommended list 2013 FERGUS BREEDER:- LIMAGRAIN, FRANCE EARLY - MEDIUM MATURING HIGH DIGESTIBILITY Packed 50,000 seeds units (1.1 acres) Seed dressing:- TMTD and Measurol High yielding variety 104% of controls with good starch content Fergus has excellent early vigour A very tall impressive looking plant in the field For optimum performance best sites are required High cell wall digestibility with high metabolisable energy levels Fergus Andante Adept Source:- Recommended list 2013 SEED TECHNOLOGY MAIZE GUIDE

6 KOUGAR BREEDER:- KWS, GERMANY 2013 UNCOVERED VARIETES EARLY MATURING HIGH STARCH Excellent combination of high yield (100%) and high starch (110%) Higher metabolisable energy levels, due to high starch levels Good standard power Excellent early vigour Kougar Andante Acclaim Source:- Recommended list 2013 KATY BREEDER:- KWS, GERMANY EARLY MATURING HIGH DIGESTIBILITY Packed 50,000 seeds units (1.1 acres) Seed dressing:- TMTD and Measurol Very good digestibility of whole plant Combines high yields with good dry matter content Excellent starch content Very tall impressive looking plant Katy Acclaim Andante Source:- Recommended list 2012 KASPIAN BREEDER:- KWS, GERMANY VERY EARLY MATURING ULTRA EARLY Exceptionally early maturing variety Early maturity promotes excellent cob fill Excellent early vigour High feed value 6 SEED TECHNOLOGY MAIZE GUIDE 2013

7 GROSSO BREEDER:- KWS, GERMANY 2013 COVERED VARIETES EARLY - MEDIUM MATURING NEW FOR 2013 Heavy yield potential Superb early vigour Large structured stay green hybrid Excellent standing power Produces a very large cob Completed 1 year in offical trials Variety Fresh Yield Mean = T/Ha Earliness of Emergence through Plastic Score (1-9) (9 = earliest, 1 = latest) Cob Maturity at Harvest Score (1-10) (1 = immature, 10 = mature) Grosso Award Tekni Source:- Seedtech 1 year trials results, harvest 2012 Variety Selection Guide for Forage Maize What are the growing conditions for the site? Very marginal Marginal Favourable Very favourable Only grow the earliest maturing varieties Only grow very early maturing varieties Early - medium maturing varieties can be grown Medium - later maturing varieties can be grown KASPIAN KASPIAN KOUGAR ATRIUM KATY KOUGAR FERGUS GROSSO (Plastic) BEETHOVEN FERGUS ATRIUM GROSSO (Plastic) SEED TECHNOLOGY MAIZE GUIDE

8 An Arvum G rou p Company Seed Technology Ltd., Ballymountain, Waterford Tel Fax Web. This QR code provides a link to the Seedtech Website via your smartphone For sales: Paul Flanagan Oliver Carter Aidan Moore

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