1 Electricity Basics The information contained within this section has been provided by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), the US government s agency that collects data on all aspects of energy. Each category was compiled from various publications, reports and data that the EIA publishes either weekly, monthly or annually. Much of the basic information was pulled from the EIA s Energy 101 series. Where possible, Apache Corp. has updated several graphs, maps and statistics to reflect the most current data available from the EIA. If you would like further information regarding the EIA, please visit their website: A form of energy characterized by the presence and motion of elementary charged particles generated by friction, induction, or chemical change. Electricity is a secondary energy source which means that we get it from the conversion of other sources of energy, like coal, natural gas, oil, nuclear power and other natural sources, which are called primary sources. The energy sources we use to make electricity can be renewable or non-renewable, but electricity itself is neither renewable or non-renewable. HOW ELECTRICITY IS GENERATED An electric generator is a device for converting mechanical energy into electrical energy. The process is based on the relationship between magnetism and electricity. When a wire or any other electrically conductive material moves across a magnetic field, an electric current occurs in the wire. The large generators used by the electric utility industry have a stationary conductor. A magnet attached to the end of a rotating shaft is positioned inside a stationary conducting ring that is wrapped with a long, continuous piece of wire. When the magnet rotates, it induces a small electric current in each section of wire as it passes. Each section of wire constitutes a small, separate electric conductor. All the small currents of individual sections add up to one current of considerable size. This current is what is used for electric power. An electric utility power station uses either a turbine, engine, water wheel, or other similar machine to drive an electric generator or a device that converts mechanical or chemical energy to generate electricity. Steam turbines, internal-combustion engines, gas combustion turbines, water turbines, and wind turbines are the most common methods to generate electricity. Most power plants are about 35 percent efficient. That means that for every 100 units of energy that go into a plant, only 35 units are converted to usable electrical energy. Most of the electricity in the United States is produced in steam turbines. A turbine converts the kinetic energy of a moving fluid (liquid or gas) to mechanical energy. Steam turbines have a series of blades mounted on a shaft against which steam is forced, thus rotating the shaft connected to the generator. In a fossil-fueled steam turbine, the fuel is burned in a furnace to heat water in a boiler to produce steam. Coal, petroleum (oil), and natural gas are burned in large furnaces to heat water to make steam that in turn pushes on the blades of a turbine. Did you know that coal is the largest single primary source of energy used to generate electricity in the United States? In 2003, more than half (51%) of the country's 3.9 trillion kilowatthours of electricity used coal as its source of energy. Natural gas, in addition to being burned to heat water for steam, can also be burned to produce hot combustion gases that pass directly through a turbine, spinning the blades of the turbine to generate electricity. Gas turbines are commonly used when electricity utility usage is in high demand. In 2003, 16% of the nation's electricity was fueled by natural gas.
2 Petroleum can also be used to make steam to turn a turbine. Residual fuel oil, a product refined from crude oil, is often the petroleum product used in electric plants that use petroleum to make steam. Petroleum was used to generate about three percent (3%) of all electricity generated in U.S. electricity plants in Nuclear power is a method in which steam is produced by heating water through a process called nuclear fission. In a nuclear power plant, a reactor contains a core of nuclear fuel, primarily enriched uranium. When atoms of uranium fuel are hit by neutrons they fission (split), releasing heat and more neutrons. Under controlled conditions, these other neutrons can strike more uranium atoms, splitting more atoms, and so on. Thereby, continuous fission can take place, forming a chain reaction releasing heat. The heat is used to turn water into steam, that, in turn, spins a turbine that generates electricity. Nuclear power was used to generate 20% of all the country's electricity in Hydropower, the source for almost 7% of U.S. electricity generation in 2003, is a process in which flowing water is used to spin a turbine connected to a generator. There are two basic types of hydroelectric systems that produce electricity. In the first system, flowing water accumulates in reservoirs created by the use of dams. The water falls through a pipe called a penstock and applies pressure against the turbine blades to drive the generator to produce electricity. In the second system, called run-of-river, the force of the river current (rather than falling water) applies pressure to the turbine blades to produce electricity. Geothermal power comes from heat energy buried beneath the surface of the earth. In some areas of the country, enough heat rises close to the surface of the earth to heat underground water into steam, which can be tapped for use at steam-turbine plants. This energy source generated less than 1% of the electricity in the country in Solar power is derived from the energy of the sun. However, the sun's energy is not available full-time and it is widely scattered. The processes used to produce electricity using the sun's energy have historically been more expensive than using conventional fossil fuels. Photovoltaic conversion generates electric power directly from the light of the sun in a photovoltaic (solar) cell. Solar-thermal electric generators use the radiant energy from the sun to produce steam to drive turbines. In 2003, less than 1% of the nation's electricity was based on solar power. Wind power is derived from the conversion of the energy contained in wind into electricity. Wind power, less than 1% of the nation's electricity in 2003, is a rapidly growing source of electricity. A wind turbine is similar to a typical wind mill. Biomass includes wood, municipal solid waste (garbage), and agricultural waste, such as corn cobs and wheat straw. These are some other energy sources for producing electricity. These sources replace fossil fuels in the boiler. The combustion of wood and waste creates steam that is typically used in conventional steam-electric plants. Biomass accounts for about 2% of the electricity generated in the United States. THE TRANSFORMER - MOVING ELECTRICITY To solve the problem of sending electricity over long distances, George Westinghouse developed a device called a transformer. The transformer allowed electricity to be efficiently transmitted over long distances. This made it possible to supply electricity to homes and businesses located far from the electric generating plant. The electricity produced by a generator travels along cables to a transformer, which changes electricity from low voltage to high voltage. Electricity can be moved long distances more efficiently using high voltage. Transmission lines are used to carry the electricity to a substation. Substations have transformers that change the high voltage electricity into lower voltage electricity. From the substation, distribution lines carry the electricity to homes, offices and factories, which require low voltage electricity. MEASURING ELECTRICITY Electricity is measured in units of power called watts. It was named to honor James Watt, the inventor of the steam engine. One watt is a very small amount of power. It would require nearly 750 watts to equal one horsepower. A kilowatt represents 1,000 watts. A kilowatthour (kwh) is equal to the energy of 1,000 watts working for one hour. The amount of electricity a power plant generates or a customer uses over a period of time is measured in kilowatthours (kwh). Kilowatthours are determined by multiplying the number of kw's required by the number of hours of use. For
3 example, if you use a 40-watt light bulb 5 hours a day, you have used 200 watts of power, or 0.2 kilowatthours of electrical energy. Electric Power Industry Overview Electricity is an integral part of life in the United States. It is indispensable to factories, commercial establishments, homes, and even most recreational facilities. Lack of electricity causes not only inconvenience, but also economic loss due to reduced industrial production. Various aspects of the electric power industry are provided in this overview. Traditional Electric Utilities The more than 3,170 traditional electric utilities in the United States are responsible for ensuring an adequate and reliable source of electricity to all consumers in their service territories at a reasonable cost. Electric utilities include investorowned, publicly owned, cooperatives, and Federal utilities. Power marketers are also considered electric utilities--these entities buy and sell electricity, but usually do not own or operate generation, transmission, or distribution facilities. Utilities are regulated by local, State, and Federal authorities. Generally, interstate activities (those that cross State lines) are subject to Federal regulation, while intrastate activities are subject to State regulation. Wholesale rates (sales and purchases between electric utilities), licensing of hydroelectric facilities, questions of nuclear safety and high-level nuclear waste disposal, and environmental regulation are Federal concerns. Approval for most plant and transmission line construction and retail rate levels are State regulatory functions. State public service commissions have jurisdiction primarily over the large, vertically integrated, investor-owned electric utilities that own more than 75 percent of the Nation's generating and transmission capacity and serve about 75 percent of ultimate consumers. There are 239 investor-owned electric utilities, 2,009 publicly owned electric utilities, 912 consumer-owned rural electric cooperatives, and 10 Federal electric utilities. Approximately 20 States regulate cooperatives, and 7 States regulate municipal electric utilities; many State legislatures, however, defer this control to local municipal officials or cooperative members. Nonutility Power Producers The approximately 2,110 nonutility power producers in the United States include: facilities that qualify under the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA); cogeneration facilities that produce steam and electricity, but that are engaged in business activities other than the sale of electricity; independent power producers that produce and sell electricity on the wholesale market at nonregulated rates, but do not have franchised service territories; or exempt wholesale generators under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT).
4 The U.S. electric power industry is composed of traditional electric utilities, including power marketers, and nonutility power producers. Traditional Electric Utilities Consumer Sectors. Utility service territories are geographically distinct from one another. Each territory is usually composed of many different types of consumers. Electricity consumers are divided into classes of service or sectors (residential, commercial, industrial, and other) based on the type of service they receive. Sectorial classification of consumers is determined by each utility and is based on various criteria such as: demand levels, rate schedules, North American Industry Classification System (NAIC) Codes, distribution voltage, accounting methods, end-use applications, and other social and economic characteristics. Electric utilities use consumer classifications for planning (for example, load growth and peak demand) and for determining their sales and revenue requirements (costs of service) in order to derive their rates. Utilities typically employ a number of rate schedules for a single sector. The alternative rate schedules reflect consumers' varying consumption levels and patterns and the associated impact on the utility's costs of providing electrical service. Reclassification of consumers, usually between the commercial and industrial sectors, may occur from year to year due to changes in demand level, economic factors, or other factors. The residential sector includes private households and apartment buildings where energy is consumed primarily for: space heating, water heating, air conditioning, lighting, refrigeration, cooking, and clothes drying. The industrial sector includes: manufacturing, construction, mining, agriculture, fishing, and forestry establishments. An electric utility may classify commercial and industrial consumers based on either NAIC codes or demand and/or usage falling within specified limits, set by the electric utility based on different rate schedules. The commercial sector includes nonmanufacturing business establishments such as: hotels, motels, restaurants, wholesale businesses, retail stores, and health, social, and educational institutions. Sometimes the commercial sector includes small manufacturing facilities as well. The other sector includes: public street and highway lighting, railroads and railways, municipalities, divisions or agencies of State and Federal Governments under special contracts or agreements, and other utility departments, as defined by the pertinent regulatory agency and/or electric utility.
5 Revenue. The revenue associated with sales to ultimate consumers is the operating revenue reported by the utility. Operating revenue includes energy charges, demand charges, consumer service charges, environmental surcharges, fuel adjustments, and other miscellaneous charges. Among other costs of service, utility operating revenues include State and local taxes, Federal income taxes, and other taxes paid by the utility. State and local authorities tax the value of plants (property taxes), the amount of revenues (gross receipts taxes), purchases of materials and services (sales and use taxes), and a potentially long list of other items that vary extensively by taxing authority. Federal taxes are for the most part "payroll" taxes. Taxes deducted from employees' pay, such as Federal income taxes and employees' share of Social Security taxes are not a part of the utility's "tax costs," but are paid to the taxing authorities in the name of the employees. These taxes are included in the electric utility's costs of service (for example, revenue requirements) and are included in the amounts recovered from consumers in rates and reported in operating revenues. Electric utilities, like other business enterprises, are required by various taxing authorities to collect and remit taxes assessed on their consumers. In this regard, the utility serves as an agent for the taxing authority. Taxes assessed on consumers, such as sales taxes, are called "pass through" taxes. These taxes do not represent a cost to the utility and are not recorded in the operating revenues of the utility. However, taxing authorities differ on whether a specific tax is assessed to the utility or to the consumer, a difference that in turn determines whether or not the tax is included in the electric utility's operating revenues. Average Revenue per Kilowatthour (Price). Average revenue per kilowatthour is defined as the cost per unit of electricity sold (a reasonable proxy for price) and is calculated by dividing retail electric revenue by the corresponding sales of electricity. The average revenue per kilowatthour is calculated for all consumers and for each sector (residential, commercial, industrial, and other). The average revenue per kilowatthour discussed in this primer represents a weighted average of consumer revenue and sales within each sector and across sectors for all consumers. Average revenue per kilowatthour is affected by changes in the rate schedules used by the electric utilities and by changes in the volume of electricity sales. Because fixed charges remain constant regardless of the volume of sales, average revenue per kilowatthour decreases as the volume of sales increases. A change in average revenue per kilowatthour may occur when the volume of electricity sales changes (because of an increase/decrease in the use of electricity by individual consumers or an increase/decrease in the number of ultimate consumers) across all sectors or within a specific sector. Generally, the rate schedules used by electric utilities are designed so that as the volume of sales increases, the revenue increases at a slower rate, lowering the average revenue per kilowatthour. Average revenue per kilowatthour is also affected by class of utility ownership and by class of service (sector). Classes of Ownership. The electric utility industry in the United States includes 3,170 investor-owned, publicly owned, cooperative, and Federal electric utilities. Historically, investor-owned electric utilities have been most successful in serving large, consolidated markets where economies of scale afford the lowest prices. However, publicly owned, cooperative, and Federal electric utilities all have a role in producing, transmitting, and distributing electricity.
6 Investor-owned electric utilities are privately owned entities. They represent 8 percent of the total number of electric utilities and approximately 75 percent of electric utility generating capability, generation, sales, and revenue in the United States. Like all private businesses, investor-owned electric utilities have the fundamental objective of producing a return for their investors. These utilities either distribute profits to stockholders as dividends or reinvest the profits. Investor-owned electric utilities are granted service monopolies in certain geographic areas and are obliged to serve all consumers. As franchised monopolies, these utilities are regulated and required to charge reasonable prices, to charge comparable prices to similar classifications of consumers, and to give consumers access to services under similar conditions. Most investor-owned electric utilities are operating companies that provide basic services for the generation, transmission, and distribution of electricity. The majority of investor-owned utilities perform all three functions. They operate in all States except Nebraska, where electric utilities consist primarily of municipal systems and public power districts. Publicly owned electric utilities are nonprofit local government agencies established to provide service to their communities and nearby consumers at cost, returning excess funds to consumers in the form of community contributions, increased economies and efficiencies in operations, and reduced rates. Publicly owned electric utilities include: municipals, public power districts, State authorities, irrigation districts, and other State organizations. Most municipal electric utilities simply distribute power, although some large ones produce and transmit electricity as well. There are 2,009 publicly owned electric utilities in the United States. They represent about 63 percent of the number of electric utilities, supply approximately 10 percent of generation and generating capability, and account for about 15 percent of retail sales and 14 percent of revenue. They obtain their financing from municipal treasuries and from revenue bonds secured by proceeds from the sale of electricity. Public power districts and projects are concentrated in Nebraska, Washington, Oregon, Arizona, and California. Voters in a public utility district elect commissioners or directors to govern the district independent of any municipal government. State authorities, like the Power Authority of the State of New York or the South Carolina Public Service Authority, are agencies of their respective State governments. Irrigation districts may have other forms of organization. In the Salt River Project in Arizona, for example, votes for the board of directors are apportioned according to the size of landholdings. Cooperative electric utilities are owned by their members and established to provide electricity to those members. These electric utilities operate in rural areas with low concentrations of consumers because these areas historically have been viewed as uneconomical operations for investor-owned utilities. There are 912 cooperatives operating in 47 States; none operate in Connecticut, Hawaii, Rhode Island, or the District of Columbia. Cooperative electric utilities represent about 29 percent of U.S. electric utilities, 9 percent of sales and revenue, and around 4 percent of generation and generating capability. Cooperatives are incorporated under State laws and are usually directed by an elected board of directors, which in turn selects a manager. The Rural Utilities Service (formerly the Rural Electrification Administration), the National Rural Utilities Cooperative Finance Corporation, the Federal Financing Bank, and the Bank for Cooperatives are important sources of debt financing for cooperatives. The 10 Federal electric utilities in the United States are part of several agencies in the U.S. Government:
7 the Army Corps of Engineers in the Department of Defense, the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the Bureau of Reclamation in the Department of the Interior, the International Boundary and Water Commission in the Department of State, the Power Marketing Administrations in the Department of Energy (Bonneville, Southeastern, Southwestern, and Western Area), and the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). Three Federal agencies operate generating facilities: TVA, the largest Federal producer; the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers; and the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. The TVA markets its own power while generation by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (except for the North Central Division, for example, Saint Mary's Falls at Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan) and the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation is marketed by the Federal power marketing administrations: Bonneville, Southeastern, Southwestern, and Western Area. The four power marketing administrations also purchase energy for resale from other electric utilities in the United States and Canada. Alaska, the fifth power marketing administration, owned and operated two hydropower facilities (Eklutna and Snettisham). On November 28, 1995, President Clinton signed a bill authorizing the sale of these projects. Final transfer of title to the State of Alaska and three Alaskan utilities occurred August 1998 after which the Alaska Power Administration ceased to exist. Federal electric utilities represent less than 1 percent of all electric utilities, provide approximately 10 percent of all generating capability and generation, and account for about 1 percent of total sales to ultimate consumers and less than 1 percent of the associated revenue. Federal electric utility generation is primarily sold for resale to municipal and cooperative electric utilities and to other nonprofit preference consumers, as required by law. Federal power is sold not for profit, but to recover the costs of operations. Federal electric utilities operate approximately 180 power plants. Most of the power plants are Federal hydroelectric projects initially designed for flood control and irrigation purposes.
8 Nonutility Power Producers Qualifying Facilities. PURPA facilitated the emergence of a group of nonutility electricitygenerating companies called qualifying facilities or QFs. Under PURPA, small power producers and cogenerators receive status as a QF by meeting certain requirements for ownership, operating methods, and efficiency. Those requirements were established by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). Cogenerators. Facilities which produce electricity and another form of useful thermal energy through the sequential use of energy (usually heat or steam for industrial processes or heating/cooling purposes) are called cogenerators--many of which have status as QFs. Cogenerators
9 are primarily engaged in business activities (such as, agriculture, mining, manufacturing, transportation, education). The electricity that they do generate is mainly for their own use, but any excess is sold to the host utility. Independent Power Producers. These facilities (known as IPPs) must use renewable energy as a primary source for generation of electricity. IPPs operate within the franchised territories of host utilities. They do not possess transmission facilities or sell electricity on the retail market (that is, all their sales are wholesale or sales for resale). By definition, a facility that has QF status is not an IPP. Exempt Wholesale Generators. EPACT modified the Public Utility Holding Company Act (PUHCA) and created another class of nonutility power producers: exempt wholesale generators (EWGs). EPACT exempted EWGs from the corporate and geographic restrictions imposed by PUCHA. With this modification, public utility holding companies are allowed to develop and operate independent power projects anywhere in the world. Electric Power Versus Electric Energy Electric power is the rate at which electricity does work--measured at a point in time, that is, with no time dimension. The unit of measure for electric power is a watt. The maximum amount of electric power that a piece of electrical equipment can accommodate is the capacity or capability of that equipment. Electric energy is the amount of work that can be done by electricity. The unit of measure for electric energy is a watthour. Electric energy is measured over a period of time and has a time dimension as well an an energy dimension. The amount of electric energy produced or used during a specified period of time by a piece of electrical equipment is referred to as generation or consumption. Energy Sources Used To Generate Electricity Various sources of energy can be converted into electric energy or electricity. The major or dominant sources include fossil fuels, uranium, and water.
10 Fossil fuels supply about 70 percent of the energy sources for the generation requirements of the Nation. Coal, petroleum, and gas are currently the dominant fossil fuels used by the industry. Other sources of energy can also be converted into electricity, including: geothermal energy, solar thermal energy, photovoltaic energy, and biomass, includes o wood, o wood waste, o peat, o wood liquors, o railroad ties, o pitch, o wood sludge, o municipal solid waste, o agricultural waste, o straw, o tires, o landfill gases, o fish oils, and o other waste materials. Environmental Aspects When fossil fuels are burned to generate electricity, a variety of gases and particulates are formed. If these gases and particulates are not captured by some pollution control equipment, they are released into the atmosphere. This overview provides a brief summary of the gaseous emissions from U.S. electric utilities and the methods employed to reduce or eliminate their release into the atmosphere. Among the gases emitted during the burning of fossil fuels are sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and carbon dioxide (CO2). Electric Power Transactions & The Interconnected Networks Power Transactions An electric power system is a group of generation, transmission, distribution, communication, and other facilities that are physically connected and operated as a single unit under one control. The flow of electricity with the system is maintained and controlled by dispatch centers. It is the responsibility of the dispatch center to match the supply of electricity with the demand for it. In order to carry out its responsibilities, the dispatch center is authorized to buy and sell electricity based on system requirements. Authority for those transactions has been preapproved under interconnection agreements signed by all the electric utilities physically interconnected or with coordination agreements among utilities that are not connected. The Interconnected Networks The U.S. bulk power system has evolved into three major networks (power grids), which also include smaller groupings or power pools. The major networks consist of extra-high-voltage connections between individual utilities designed to permit the transfer of electrical energy from one part of the network to another. These transfers are restricted, on occasion, because of a lack of contractual arrangements or because of inadequate transmission capability. The three networks are: the Eastern Interconnected System, the Western Interconnected System, and the Texas Interconnected System.
11 The Texas Interconnected System is not interconnected with the other two networks (except by certain direct current lines). The other two networks have limited interconnections to each other. Both the Western and the Texas Interconnect are linked with different parts of Mexico. The Eastern and Western Interconnects are completely integrated with most of Canada or have links to the Quebec Province power grid. Virtually all U.S. utilities are interconnected with at least one other utility by these three major grids. The exceptions are in Alaska and Hawaii. The interconnected utilities within each power grid coordinate operations and buy and sell power among themselves. The bulk power system makes it possible for utilities to engage in wholesale (for resale) electric power trade. Wholesale trade has historically played an important role, allowing utilities to reduce power costs, increase power supply options, and improve reliability. Historically, almost all wholesale trade was within the National Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions, but utilities are expanding wholesale trade beyond those traditional boundaries. U.S. international trade is mostly imports. Normally, most imports are from Canada and the remainder are from Mexico. Overall reliability planning and coordination of the interconnected power systems are the responsibility of NERC, which was voluntarily formed in 1968 by the electric utility industry as a result of the 1965 power failure in the Northeast. NERC's nine regional councils cover the 48 contiguous States, part of Alaska, and portions of Canada and Mexico. The councils are responsible for overall coordination of bulk power policies that affect the reliability and adequacy of service in their areas. They also regularly exchange operating and planning information among their member utilities. The boundaries of the NERC regions follow the service areas of the electric utilities in the region, many of which do not follow State boundaries. At present, the industry is in transition. Steady progress toward competitive wholesale markets for electric power recently has been accelerated by FERC Order 888, which opens access to transmission lines and encourages greater wholesale trade.
12 The Changing Electric Power Industry The electric power industry is evolving from a highly regulated, monopolistic industry with traditionally structured electric utilities to a less regulated, competitive industry. PURPA opened up competition in the generation market with the creation of qualifying facilities. EPACT removed some constraints on ownership of electric generation facilities and encouraged increased competition in the wholesale electric power business. The EPACT amended the Federal Power Act (FPA) such that any electric utility can apply to the FERC for an order requiring another electric utility to provide transmission services (wheeling). Prior to EPACT, the FERC could not mandate that an electric utility provide wheeling services for wholesale electric trade. This change in the law permits owners of electric generating equipment to sell wholesale power (sales for resale) to noncontiguous utilities. In April 1996, the FERC issued two final rules, 888 and 889, implementing EPACT's provisions for open access to transmission lines. Rule 888 addresses equal access to the transmission grid for all wholesale buyers and sellers, transmission pricing, and the recovery of stranded costs. Stranded costs are investments, mostly in generation, made by utilities under the regulated environment that are presently recovered in cost-based rate structures and may not be recoverable in a competitive environment with market-based rates. Rule 889 requires jurisdictional utilities that own or operate transmission facilities to establish electronic systems to post information about their available transmission capacities. In response to these rulemakings, utilities are proposing to form Independent System Operators (ISOs) to operate the transmission grid, regional transmission groups, and open access same-time information systems (OASIS) to inform competitors of available capacity on their lines. The provision for open transmission access in EPACT has also facilitated the creation of new participants in the electric power industry, power marketers and power brokers. Power marketers are entities engaged in buying and selling wholesale electricity and fall under the jurisdiction of the FERC, since they take ownership of electricity and are engaged in interstate trade. Power brokers, who do not take ownership of electricity, are not regulated by the FERC. A growing number of power marketers have filed with the FERC and had rates approved. Power marketers generally do not own generation or transmission facilities or sell power to retail customers. However, continuing deregulation of the industry is allowing power marketers the possibility of entering retail electricity markets. Many State legislatures and the Congress are considering legislation that will allow competition in retail sales of electric power. In 1996, Rhode Island and California passed bills that will allow end-use customers in their States to choose among competitive generation suppliers. The plans allowed retail choice for some consumers as early as 1997, and will phase in retail choice for all consumers by Transmission and distribution will remain regulated functions with rules to assure open access to lines for all competitors. Pilot programs for retail wheeling are underway in New Hampshire and at major utilities in several States. This interest in retail competition points to an increasingly competitive electric power industry. Presently, electric rates are based on embedded historical costs. Future electric rates are likely to be dynamic, reflecting the current cost of providing service. In a competitive environment, unbundling of electric power services and pricing that reflects time-of-day and seasonal variations may become more common. Continuing deregulation at both Federal and State levels is transforming the historically monopolistic electric power industry into a competitive industry that will eventually increase competition in its generation and service components, and change the nature of the way electricity is priced, traded, and marketed in the United States.
Understanding and Measuring School Electronics MATERIALS NEEDED: 1. 6 energy monitoring devices (note: these can be obtained from a variety of sources, i.e., local hardware stores, internet [average cost
Measuring Electricity Class Activity Objective: To understand what energy is, how it impacts our daily lives, and how one can become an energy steward. Learning Outcomes: Students will: 1. Understand where
P a g e 1 Generating Current Electricity: Complete the following summary table for each way that electrical energy is generated. Generating Electrical Energy Using Moving Water: Hydro-Electric Generation
Electric Power Monthly with Data for May 2015 July 2015 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information
62-133.8. Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Portfolio Standard (REPS). (a) Definitions. As used in this section: (1) "Combined heat and power system" means a system that uses waste heat to produce
12.5: Generating Current Electricity pg. 518 Key Concepts: 1. Electrical energy is produced by energy transformations. 2. Electrical energy is produced from renewable and non-renewable resources. 4. Electrical
Energy Resources Stations Activity Page # 1 Station #1 Interpreting Infographs 1. Identify and explain each of the energy sources (5) illustrated in the infograph. 2. What do the white and black circles
Electric Power Annual 2014 February 2016 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration
Electric Power Annual 2013 March 2015 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration
CANADA S RESOURCES: CONVENTIONAL AND ALTERNATIVE ENERGY Introduction Canadians are among the highest energy consumers in the world. Why? (list 3 possible reasons) Northern climate/very cold temperatures
9.2 Conventional Energy Sources Key Question: What benefits and problems come with common sources of energy? Hints The word plant here is not the kind that grows out of the ground. In this section, plants
Plan 2005 T Study Plan MASTER IN (Energy Management) (Thesis Track) A. General Rules and Conditions: 1. This plan conforms to the regulations of the general frame of the programs of graduate studies. 2.
Electric Power Monthly with Data for October 2015 December 2015 This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department
1 Electric Utilities, Deregulation and Restructuring of U.S. Electricity Markets http://pnnl-utilityrestructuring.pnl.gov/publications/primer/primer.pdf 2 In The Early Days Initially utilities were not
Electricity: The Mysterious Force What exactly is the mysterious force we call electricity? It is simply moving electrons. And what exactly are electrons? They are tiny particles found in atoms. Everything
5-Minute Refresher: RENEWABLE ENERGY Renewable Energy Key Ideas Renewable energy is a source of energy that can be used and replenished naturally in a relatively short period of time. Non renewable energy
Introduction to Electricity 101 1 Introduction Is it a fact or have I dreamt it that, by means of electricity, the world of matter has become a great nerve, vibrating thousands of miles in a breathless
What is energy? In science, energy is the ability to do work. Work is done when a force causes an object to move in the direction of the force. Energy is expressed in units of joules (J). A joule is calculated
10 2 ELECTRICITY IN ONTARIO Ontario gets its electricity from a mix of energy sources. About half of our electricity comes from nuclear power. The remainder comes from a mix of hydroelectric, coal, natural
Environmental Science 101 Energy 1 Web-Based Course Lecture Outline: 5. RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES MODULE 5.1 Improving Energy Efficiency A. Improving Energy Efficiency MODULE 5.2 Geothermal, Hydro and
Competitive Electricity Prices: An Update by J. Alan Beamon Throughout the country, States are moving to make their electricity generation markets more competitive. Although the timing will surely vary,
www.waterplanetchallenge.org Lesson Plan Grades 9-12 Investigating How Electricity is Generated Electrically Speaking: How Does it Get From There to Here? Introduction Ask your students, What is the cost
Glossary of Terms Avoided Cost - The incremental cost Flint Energies would pay for the next kilowatt-hour of power in the open marketplace for energy. Flint Energies Board of Directors sets this Avoided
Introduction to Electricity 101 1 Introduction Is it a fact or have I dreamt it that, by means of electricity, the world of matter has become a great nerve, vibrating thousands of miles in a breathless
Appendix F Alternatives Estimating Energy Consumption This appendix is reprinted from the Annual Energy Review 200. EIA continues to review alternative options accounting energy consumption and related
The Electricity, Gas, Water and Waste Services Division comprises units engaged in the provision of electricity; gas through mains systems; water; drainage; and sewage services. This division also includes
Introduction The way of life that we Americans take for granted every day depends upon a stable and abundant supply of affordable energy. Energy shortages can quickly affect our everyday lives and harm
This publication explains issues relevant to the production of electricity for the state of Wisconsin. It addresses basic power plant technologies and fuels, how the state s demand for reliable electricity
Glossary of Energy Terms Know Your Power 2012 Towards a Participatory Approach for Sustainable Power Development in the Mekong Region List of terms Terms Page Terms Page Avoided cost 10 Installed capacity
Glossary Maryland Electric Basic Services: Services necessary for the physical delivery of service, including generation, transmission and distribution. The monthly customer charge and the temporary transition
ENERGY PRODUCING SYSTEMS SOLAR POWER INTRODUCTION Energy from the sun falls on our planet on a daily basis. The warmth of the sun creates conditions on earth conducive to life. The weather patterns that
Background Brief on September 2014 Inside this Brief Overview of Renewable Energy Renewable Portfolio Standard Energy Facility Siting Renewable Energy Legislation Staff and Agency Contacts State Capitol
1 MCQ - ENERGY and CLIMATE 1. The volume of a given mass of water at a temperature of T 1 is V 1. The volume increases to V 2 at temperature T 2. The coefficient of volume expansion of water may be calculated
Transforming America s Energy Future Kentucky Energy Statistics Developed by 2 2 Summary The first edition of Kentucky Energy Statistics is offered by the National Association for State Energy Officials
Electric Power Systems An Overview Y. Baghzouz Professor of Electrical Engineering University of Nevada, Las Vegas Overview Power Generation Conventional power generation Power generation from renewables
Australia has one of the world s longest alternating current (AC) systems, stretching from Port Douglas in Queensland to Port Lincoln in South Australia and across the Bass Strait to Tasmania a distance
Structuring the Deal: Funding Options and Financial Incentives for On-site Renewable Energy Projects Derek Price Program Manager Renewable Energy Solutions Johnson Controls, Inc. Introduction More public
How PURPA is driving utility scale solar in North Carolina By QF Solutions April 7, 2015 Overview 1. Utility Scale Solar in North Carolina 2. PURPA 101 What is PURPA? 3. How Avoided Costs are calculated
ELECTRICITY BILL COMPONENTS FIXED CHARGE: This is a cost that goes towards making the service available, including installation and maintenance of poles, power lines and equipment, and 24-hour customer
What s It All About? The Sun as a Power Source Instructor Guide Subject Area Unit Grade Time Science Earth Science K - 1st grade 45 minutes Overview This activity reinforces the concept that the sun supplies
(NEM) operates on one of the world s longest interconnected power systems, stretching from Port Douglas in Queensland to Port Lincoln in South Australia and across the Bass Strait to Tasmania a distance
www.waterplanetchallenge.org Lesson Plan Grades 6-8 Investigating How Electricity is Generated Electrically Speaking: How Does it Get From There to Here? Introduction Here are the facts. First, civilization
REC QUESTIONS & ANSWERS Q: What is a REC? A: A Renewable Energy Certificate (REC), also known as a Green Tag, Renewable Energy Credit, or Tradable Renewable Energy Certificate (TREC), is a tradable environmental
Eugene Water Electric Board Oregon Renewable Portfolio Standard 2015 Compliance Report June 1, 2016 EWEB 2015 RPS Compliance Report Page 1 Introduction In 2007 Oregon enacted Senate Bill 838, the Oregon
PURPOSE REQUIRED RESPONDENTS RESPONSE DUE DATE METHODS OF FILING RESPONSE Form EIA-826 collects information from electric utilities, energy service providers, and distribution companies that sell or deliver
Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Portfolio Standard in North Carolina Sam Watson, Senior Staff Attorney North Carolina Utilities Commission October 21, 2008 Outline Senate Bill 3 (Session Law 2007-397)
AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 2012 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 2 The Fremont School District uses oil to heat school buildings. Go Green! is a new project the district will implement. The superintendent has
INTRODUCTION In rich countries like Australia, our standard of living is dependent on easily available energy. Every time you catch a bus, turn on a light or watch television energy is being used up. Over
Electricity Electricity at a Glance, 2011 The Nature of Electricity Electricity is a little different from the other sources of energy that we talk about. Unlike coal, petroleum, or solar energy, electricity
T E A C H E R S N O T E S Focus: Students explore energy: its sources, forms, and transformations. Students also consider the benefits of energy-efficient technologies and energy conservation. Learning
Clean Energy Trends in North Carolina www.energync.org Agenda Background North Carolina Clean Energy Resources & Technologies North Carolina Clean Energy Policies North Carolina Clean Energy Trends Generation
Alternative Energy Resources Energy Resource Advantages Disadvantages What are some renewable energy resources? A nonrenewable resource cannot be replaced in a reasonable amount of time. Fossil fuels such
Energy and Society Professor Ani Aprahamian Wednesday, September 14th Nieuwland Science Hall 123; 6 pm - 7pm Dr. Peter Burns - "Nuclear Energy: Past Mistakes, Current Challenges, Future Prospects" Thursday,
ANALYZING ENERGY Lesson Concepts: Students will analyze the advantages and disadvantages of nine different energy sources. They will use their knowledge to predict what would happen if the world did not
3D EG REES WH ITE PAPER How to Earn the LEED Green Power Credit Using on-site and off-site renewable energy to mitigate the impact of greenhouse gas emissions associated with a LEED project s energy use
ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND RENEWABLE ENERGY TAX INCENTIVES FEDERAL AND STATE ENERGY TAX PROGRAMS JEROME L. GARCIANO JANUARY 2014 Renewable Energy and Green Building Tax Incentives Federal and State Energy Tax
MILLENNIUM PIPELINE NEW YORK S ENERGY BACKBONE Existing Benefits and Expansion Opportunities New York is the fourth largest natural gas consuming state in the nation... Overview New York State is highly
Exercises 9.1 Work (pages 145 146) 1. Circle the letter next to the correct mathematical equation for work. work = force distance work = distance force c. work = force distance d. work = force distance
GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF NORTH CAROLINA SESSION 2007 SESSION LAW 2007-397 SENATE BILL 3 AN ACT TO: (1) PROMOTE THE DEVELOPMENT OF RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN THE STATE THROUGH IMPLEMENTATION OF
RENEWABLE ENERGY DEVELOPMENT STATE TAX POLICIES AND INCENTIVES IMPACTING RENEWABLE ENERGY DEVELOPMENT PREPARED BY THE NATIONAL CONFERENCE OF STATE LEGISLATURES MARCH 2012 OREGON Contents State Taxes that
Chapter 4 Forms of energy Introduction This chapter compromises a set of activities that focuses on the energy sources and conversion. The activities illustrate The concept and forms of energy; The different
www.epsa.org email@example.com Electricity 101 How It s Generated As we learned at a young age, electricity is generated when a turbine is spun thus creating an electric current. There are a number of ways
AN ACT RELATING TO UTILITIES; ALLOWING RENEWABLE ENERGY CERTIFICATES TO BE ISSUED FOR THE USE OF THERMAL ENERGY PRODUCED BY GEOTHERMAL ENERGY SOURCES; SETTING STANDARDS FOR MEASUREMENT OF THERMAL ENERGY
Multiple Choice Multiple Choice Which of the following is a renewable source of energy? If you are using biomass as a source of energy you might be: A. Coal B. Hydropower C. Natural gas D. Petroleum A.
AN ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF DISTRIBUTED ELECTRICITY GENERATION TECHNOLOGIES ABSTRACT Alexander Mészáros Distributed generation, the small-scale production of electricity at or near customers' homes and businesses,
rising Electricity Costs: A Challenge For Consumers, Regulators, And Utilities Electricity is the lifeblood of the U.S. economy. It powers our homes, offices, and industries; provides communications, entertainment,
Attenzione: l'allievo ha risposto usando il colore rosso. Allievo: Francesco B. 1. Read 1. Energy basics Energy is in everything. We use energy for everything we do, from making a jump shot to baking cookies
F F A C T S H E E T June 2010 Summary of Major Energy Bill Provisions Of Importance to Public Power This document provides a summary of the major provisions of interest to public power electric utilities
ENERGY AND ENERGY TRANSFORMATIONS The scientific definition of energy is the ability to do work. The four most common forms of energy are: chemical - potential or stored energy stored in chemicals, released
Investment In Electric Energy Infrastructure: Regulatory Issues The audio will remain quiet until we begin. We will give periodic stand-bys until we are ready to begin at 1:00 p.m. (ET). Audio is available
10 Nuclear Power Reactors Figure 10.1 89 10.1 What is a Nuclear Power Station? The purpose of a power station is to generate electricity safely reliably and economically. Figure 10.1 is the schematic of
THE POTENTIAL MARKET FOR BIODIESEL AS A RENEWABLE ALTERNATIVE FUEL FOR THE GENERATION OF ELECTRICITY IN THE UNITED STATES BY LEROY WATSON, DIRECTOR OF REGULATORY MANAGEMENT NATIONAL BIODIESEL BOARD OCTOBER
Appendices Appendix A Average Electricity Costs Newfoundland and Labrador Appendix B Comparison of Average Electricity Costs, Newfoundland and Labrador and Other Canadian Jurisdictions Appendix C Petroleum
RENEWABLE ENERGY DEVELOPMENT STATE TAX POLICIES AND INCENTIVES IMPACTING RENEWABLE ENERGY DEVELOPMENT PREPARED BY THE NATIONAL CONFERENCE OF STATE LEGISLATURES MARCH 2012 SOUTH DAKOTA Contents State Taxes
Chapter 13 Quiz Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which of the following is the correct type of energy utilized to produce tidal power? a.
Chapter 5 Renewable Energy Introduction In FY 2012, 12.2% of the nation's electric power was generated via renewable resources. 26 The Administration s energy strategy encourages increased conventional
This paper is called Coal Facts because it provides factual information and data related to coal-based electricity. Most of the data are taken from independent third party sources, such as the Energy Information
Energy: renewable sources of energy Energy Sources 1 It is technically and economically feasible to phase out net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions almost entirely by 2050. A report by energy consulting firm
Renewable vs. non-renewable energy sources, forms and technologies prepared by. A.Gritsevskyi, IAEA Objective of this paper is to provide International Recommendations for Energy Statistics (IRES) with
SOLAR HYDROELECTRIC WIND ENERGY EFFICIENCY A CITIZEN S GUIDE North Carolina Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency Portfolio Standard Produced by the North Carolina Sustainable Energy Association BIOMASS
Energy Sources: The Pros and Cons A Reading A Z Level Z Leveled Book Word Count: 1,803 LEVELED BOOK Z Energy Sources: The Pros and Cons Written by David L. Dreier Visit www.readinga-z.com for thousands
$295.95 2015 Competitive Landscape for Wholesale Distribution: Electronics ANNUAL MARKET DATA, TRENDS AND ANALYSIS FOR THE NORTH AMERICAN WHOLESALE DISTRIBUTION INDUSTRY 2015 by Gale Media, Inc. All rights
Overview of the IESO-Administered Markets IESO Training Updated: January, 2014 Public Overview of the IESO-Administered Markets AN IESO TRAINING PUBLICATION This guide has been prepared to assist in the
MONITORING SCHOOL ENERGY CONSUMPTION Goal(s): The mains goal of the energy monitoring activity are: To make the pupils and all school staff aware of school energy consumption; and To show how changes in
Course CME 310 Solar Power For Africa ENERGY RESOURCES, ENERGY PRODUCTION AND ENERGY DISTRIBUTION by Prof. Margit Harting NanoSciences Innovation Centre Department of Physics University of Cape Town South
Energy Efficiency Building Energy Codes Utility Demand-Side-Management Energy Savings Targets/Energy Efficiency Resource Standards Residential: 2003 IECC, required in jurisdictions with a building code
Issue paper: Definition of primary and secondary energy Prepared as input to Chapter 3: Standard International Energy Classification (SIEC) in the International Recommendation on Energy Statistics (IRES)