# 1.1 Some General Relations (for the no dividend case)

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1 1 American Options Most traded stock options and futures options are of American-type while most index options are of European-type. The central issue is when to exercise? From the holder point of view, the goal is to maximize holder s profit (Notethathere the writer has no choice!) 1.1 Some General Relations (for the no dividend case) The Call Option: 1. C A (0) (S (0) K) + Proof: (1) C A (0) 0 (optionality); (2) If C A (0) <S(0) K (assuming S (0) >K) buy the option at C A (0) then, exercise immediately. This leads to profit: S (0) K and the net profit: S (0) K C A (0) > 0 which gives rise to an arbitrage opportunity. Hence, the no-arbitrage argument yields C A (0) (S (0) K) 2. S (0) C A (0) Proof: If S (0) <C A (0), buy S (0) and sell C A (0) yielding a net profit > 0 at t =0. Because the possession of the stock can always allow the deliverance of the stock to cover the exercise if exercised, then we are guaranteed to have a positive future profit. Hence, an arbitrage opportunity. 1

2 3. C A (0) C E (0) withthesamematurityt and strike K. cf. C E (0) (S (0) KB (0,T)) +, C A (0) (S (0) KB (0,T)) + 4. If the stock has no dividend payment, and the risk-free interest rate is positive, i.e., B (0,T) < 1 T >0, then one should never prematurely exercise the American call, i.e., C A (0) = C E (0) Proof: (1) C A (0) C E (0) (S (0) KB (0,T)) + i.e., the call is "alive" (2) If exercised now = the profit S (0) K i.e., the call is "dead" Note that S (0) KB (0,T) {z } alive >S(0) K {z } dead Note that therefore, it is worth more "alive" than "dead" (a) Question: Should one exercise the call if S (0) >Kand if he believes the stock will go down below K? No! If exercise, (profit) 1 = S (0) K If sell the option, Since (profit) 2 = C A (0) C A (0) (S (0) K) + one should sell the option rather than exercise it! (b) With dividend, early exercise may be optimal 2

3 (c) Intuition consider paying K to get a stock now vs. paying K to get a stock later, one gets the interest on K,therefore, the difference is Ke rt K if wait 5. For two American call options, C A (t, K, T 1 ) and C A (t, K, T 2 ),with the same strike K on the same stock but with different maturities T 1 and T 2, then we have if T 1 T 2. The Put Option: 1. P A (0) (K S (0)) + cf. P E (0) (KB (0,T) S (0)) + Proof: C A (0,K,T 1 ) C A (0,K,T 2 ) If P A (0) <K S (0), buy P A and exercise immediately, yielding, then, the total cash flow: P A (0) {z } buy put giving rise to an arbitrage opportunity. 2. P A (0) K +(K S (0)) > 0 {z } exercise 3. P A (0) P E (0) Note that: For a put, the profit isboundedbyk. This fact limits the benefit from waiting to exercise and its financial consequence is that one may exercise early if S (0) is very small. 3

4 4. Put-call parity for American options: S (0) K C A P A S 0 Ke rt Put-call parity for American options on an non-dividend-paying stock: (a) P A (0) + S (0) KB (0,T) C A (0) ; (b) C A (0) P A (0) + S (0) K i.e., S (0) K C A (0) P A (0) S 0 KB (0,T) Proof: (1) P A (0) P E (0) = C E (0) S (0) + KB (0,T) C E (0) = C A (0) = P A (0) C A (0) S (0) + KB (0,T) 4

5 (2) Consider portfolio: long one call short one put short the stock hold K dollars in cash i.e., C A (0) {z } Never exercised early P A (0) {z } Can be exercised early S (0) + K If the put is exercised early at t, our position is C A (t ) [K S (t )] S (t )+KB (0,t ) 1 = C A (t )+K(B (0,t ) 1 1) 0 = liquidated with net positive profit (note that the above inequality holds > strictly if S (t ) > 0 and t =0) If not exercised earlier, at maturity t = T, we have (i) If S (T ) K, profit =0 [K S (T )] S (T )+KB (0,T) 1 = K B (0,T) 1 1 > 0 (ii) If S (T ) >K, profit =(S (T ) K) 0 S (T )+KB (0,T) 1 = K B (0,T) 1 1 > 0 therefore, the payoff of the portfolio is positive or zero, = the present value of the portfolio 0, i.e., C A (0) P A (0) S (0) + K 0 Combining (1) and (2) = S (0) K C A (0) P A (0) S 0 KB (0,T) QED Note that: If the stock is dividend-paying, for European options, we have C E (0) P E (0) = P.V. [S (T )] KB (0,T) 5

6 where P.V. [S (T )] is the present value of the stock whose price at T is S (T ), e.g., If there is a dividend D (t 1 ) at t 1, then for American options, we have P.V. [S (T )] = S (0) D (t 1 ) B (0,t 1 ) C A (0) P A (0) S 0 KB (0,T) which is unchanged by dividend, however, in general P.V. [S (T )] K C A (0) P A (0) S 0 KB (0,T) 1.2 American Calls Time Value Consider American calls on no-dividend-paying stocks: Consider the following strategy: Exercise it at maturity no matter what (obviously, suboptimal if K>S(T )), the present value of the American call under this strategy is: which is equivalent to a forward. P.V. [S (T ) K] =S (0) KB (0,T) The time value of an American call on a stock without dividends is T.V.(0) = C A (0) [S (0) KB (0,T)] Note that T.V.(0) 0 this is because C A (0) C E (0) (S (0) KB (0,T)) + T.V.(0) 0 6

7 If S (0) K, then T.V. is high If S (0) À K, then there is a high probability of expiring in-the-money, therefore, C A (0) & S (0) KB (0,T) i.e., T.V Dividends Result: Given interest rate r>0, it is never optimal to exercise an American call between ex-dividends dates or prior to maturity. Proof: Strategy 1: Exercise immediately, (the value) 1 = S (0) K Strategy 2: Wait till just before the ex-dividend date, and exercise for sure (even if out-of-money) (the value) 2 = S c (t) K where S c (t) is the cum stock price just before going ex-dividend. Therefore, the present value is S (0) KB (0,t) Since B (0,t) < 1, the value of Strategy 2 > the value of Strategy 1 therefore, it is best to wait. Next question: to exercise at anytime after the exdividend date and prior to maturity? The same argument leads to the same conclusion: best to wait. 7

8 Question: To exercise or not to exercise? If exercised just prior to the ex-dividend date, If not exercised, the value = S (t) K = S e (t)+d t K the value = C (t) (based on the ex-div stock price) C (t) = S e (t) KB (t, T )+T.V.(t) {z } Time value at time t Since it should be exercised if and only if the exercised value > the value not exercised, i.e., S e (t)+d t K>S e (t) KB (t, T )+T.V.(t) = D t >K(1 B (t, T )) + T.V.(t) > 0 (1) therefore, exercise is optimal at date t iff the dividend is greater than the interest lost on the strike price K (1 B (t, T )) plus the time-value of the call evaluated using the ex-dividend stock price. Note that 1. If D t =0 (i.e., no dividend), Eq. (1) does not hold. Hence, never exercise early. 2. Exercise is optimal iff the dividend is large enough (> interest loss + T.V.), therefore, if the dividend is small, time-to-maturity is large, it is unlikely to exercise early. 1.3 American Puts Time Value (if no dividend) T.V.(0) = P A (0) [KB (0,T) S (0)] {z } the present value of exercising the American put for sure at maturity 0 P A (0) P E (0) (KB (0,T) S (0)) + 8

9 If S (0) À K, then T.V. is large, best to wait If S (0) K, then T.V. is small Dividend: Suppose D t is the dividend per share at time t. The present value of exercising the American put for sure at maturity is P.V. [K S (T )] = KB (0,T) [S (0) D t B (0,t)] Note that the dividend leads to a stock price drop, hence, added value for the put. The time-value of the put is To exercise or not to exercise? T.V.(0) = P A (0) {KB (0,T) [S (0) D t B (0,t)]} 1. if exercise: the value is K S (0) 2. if not exercise, P A (0) = KB (0,T) [S (0) D t B (0,t)] + T.V.(0) It is optimal to exercise if and only if K S (0) >P A (0) i.e., or K S (0) >KB(0,T) [S (0) D t B (0,t)] + T.V.(0) K (1 B (0,T)) {z } Interest earned due to early exercise > D t B (0,t) {z } Dividend lost due to exercise + T.V.(0) (2) Results: 9

10 1. It may be optimal to exercise prematurely even if the stock pays no dividends. Proof: If D t =0, Eq. (2) becomes K (1 B (0,T)) >T.V.(0) if T.V.(0) is small, then, early exercise. 2. Dividends tend to delay early exercise. Proof: As D t increases, K (1 B (0,T)) >D t B (0,t)+T.V.(0) may not hold. Hence, to wait. 3. It never pays to exercise just prior to an ex-dividend date. Proof: Consider the following two strategies: (a) Strategy 1: Exercise just before the ex-dividend date, (value) 1 = K [S e (t)+d t ] Strategy 2: Exercise just after the ex-dividend date, (value) 2 = K S e (t) Since (value) 2 > (value) 1 one should exercise after the ex-dividend date. 1.4 Valuation Using a Binomial Tree Consider an American option with payoff f (S T ): 10

11 u = e d = e ³r σ2 δt+σ δt 2 ³r σ2 δt σ δt At the S 0 u-node, ½ exercise: f (S0 u), dead Theoptionisworth not exercise: e rδt (qf (S 0 u 2 )+(1 q) f (S 0 ud)), alive Compare these two values, choose the larger one, i.e., the value is V + =max f (S 0 u),e rδt qf S 0 u 2 +(1 q) f (S 0 ud) ª Similarly, at the S 0 d-node, At t =0, V =max f (S 0d) {z } exercised at t=δt Note that, for an American call, 1. If no dividend, 2. If there are dividends, 2,e rδt qf (S 0 ud)+(1 q) f S 0 d 2 {z } not exercise at t=δt V 0 =max f (S {z 0) },e rδt (qv + +(1 q) V ) {z } exercised at t=0 not exercise at t=0 C A (0) = C E (0) 11

12 3. Computational complexity: N.B. The adaptive mesh methods: a high resolution (small t) treeisgrafted onto a low resolution (large t) tree. This yields numerical efficiency over regular binomial or trinomial trees. In particular, for American options, there is a need for high resolution close to strike price and to maturity. 1.5 Valuation Using PDE Consider an American option with an arbitrary payoff f (S T ).V(S, t) denotes its value at time t. Portfolio: therefore, then dπ rπdt {z } profit in excess of the risk-free rate Choose dπ rπdt = One American option shares of the stock Π = V S µ = V t σ2 S 2 V SS r (V S) dt +(V S ) ds = = V S µ V t σ2 S 2 V SS r (V V S S) dt µ V t σ2 S 2 V SS + rsv S rv dt L BS Vdt 12

13 For a European option: dπ rπdt =0 this is due to no arbitrage, regardless whether it is a long position or a short position. For an American option, there is an asymmetry between a long and a short position since the holder of the right who controls the early-exercise feature. 1. If V is the value of a long position in the American option, the earning is no more than the risk-free rate on our portfolio, i.e., V t σ2 S 2 V SS + rsv S rv 0 Why is so? There are 3 possibilities: if not exercise: V t σ2 S 2 V SS + rsv S rv =0 L BS V > 0 = Arbitrage =0 = i.e., hold, no arbitrage < 0 Whyitispossibletohave L BS V<0? This is because we always maximize the holder s profit. If he is not smart enough not exercise optimally, then, he loses money, the write can make more than risk-free rate. Therefore, L BS V<0 = one should exercise already! 2. If the payoff for early exercise is f (S, t), an no-arbitrage argument leads to V (S, t) f (S, t) and at maturity, which is the final condition. V (S, t) =f (S, t) 13

14 1.5.1 Specializing to an American put P (S, t) : At S = S f (t), there are 3 possibilities: Exercise boundary : S = S f (t) S < S f (t) exercise S > S f (t) not exercise P S < 1 (1) P S > 1 (2) P S = 1 (3) Note that, if exercised, the slope of the payoff function is 1 for S<K. Let s discuss these 3 possibilities: 1. P S < 1 2. P S > 1 Why suboptimal? Consider the strategy adopted by the holder. There are 2 aspects: 14

15 (a) day-to-day arbitrage-based hedging, which leads to the BS equation, i.e., "=" holds, L BS V =0 (b) Exercise strategy: The boundary condition is P (S f (t),t)=k S f (f) the value of the option near S = S f (f) can be increased by choosing a smaller value for S f, therefore As P increases, P S decreases = P S = 1 at S = S f (t) which can be better justified using stochastic control theory, optimal stopping problems or game theory. Note that the payoff is a solution: i.e., L BS P 0 when P = K S for S<K. This can be seen by substituting P = K S into P t σ2 S 2 P SS + rsp S rp = rs ( 1) r (K S) = rk < 0 L BS P 0 for P = K S Now the solution is specified as follows. Dividing S into 2 distinct regions: 15

16 1. 0 S<S f (t) : where an early exercise is optimal: P = K S L BS P < 0 2. S f <S< : where an early exercise is not optimal: P > K S L BS P = 0 3. At S = S f (t), P (S f (f),t) = (K S f (t)) + P S (S f (t),t) = 1 Note that, the second condition is not from the fact that P (S f (t),t)=k S f (t) since there is no a priori known S f (t). 4. Final condition: P =(K S) + at t = T American options are nonlinear Note that 1. ThepricingofAmericanoptionsisanonlinearproblemduetofreeboundaries. e.g., Consider the perpetual American straddle on a dividend-paying stock: 16

17 If this is a single contract, then the exercise gives the payoff: (S K) + +(K S) + = S K It is not the same as the sum of the perpetual American put and the perpetual American call. Note that (a) the single contract has only one exercise; (b) The two option contracts have one exercise per option Hence, the nonlinearity. 2. European-style options are linear. 3. For perpetual American straddles, there are more than one (optimal) free boundary, i.e., when the stock price is too low or too high, one should exercise. 1.6 The Perpetual American Put 1. Payoff: (K S) + 2. No expiry (we will see that this makes its valuation easier because of time-homogeneity) Note that: 1. The value of a perpetual American put is time-independent, i.e., V = V (S) this is due to time-homogeneity it can be shown that it satisfies time-indepdent BS PDE. 17

18 2. Like any American put, V (K S) + If not, then V<(K S) +. We can simply buy the option for price of V and immediately exercise, delivering the stock and receiving K dollars with a net profit Hence, an arbitrage opportunity. K S V>0 Therefore, the price V is determined by the following mathematical problem: 1 2 σ2 S 2 d2 V dv + rs ds2 ds the general solution of which is rv =0 As S, the put value 0. Therefore, Questioin: How to determine B? 1. If S is high (e.g, S>K), not exercise; V (S) =AS + BS 2r σ 2 A =0 2. If S is too low, we should immediately exercise. Suppose the critical value for this is S = S i.e., as soon as S reaches S from above, we exercise. When S = S, V (S )=K S Note that V (S ) <K S leads to arbitrage while V (S ) >K S leads to no-exercise. By continuity of V, we have therefore, V (S )=B (S ) 2r σ 2 µ 2r 1 B = (K S σ ) 2 S V (S) =(K S ) 18 = K S µ 2r S σ 2 S

19 Choose S such that V is maximized at any time before exercise, i.e., maximizing our worth (since we can exercise anytime): " µ 2r # S (K S σ ) 2 = 1 µ 2r µ S σ 2 S + 2r S S S S σ (K 2 S ) =0 Therefore, S = K 1+ σ2 2r Note that this choice maximizes V (S) for S >S. Therefore, Note that Ã V (S) = σ2 2r K 1+ σ2 2r! 1+ 2r σ 2 S 2r σ 2. = dv =1=the slope of the payoff ds S which is the so-called hight-contact or smooth-pasting condition. This is generally true that the American option value is maximized by an exercise strategy that makes the option value and option Delta continuous, leading to exercise the option as soon as the asset price reaches the level at which the option price and payoff meet. Note that 1. S is the optimal exercise point

20 Perpetual American Put with Dividend Assumption: Dividend is continuously paid and has a constant dividend yield on the asset (e.g. the asset is a foreign currency) Since it is a perpetual option, we have stationarity: V t =0 therefore, 1 2 σ2 S 2 d2 V dv +(r D) S rv =0 ds2 ds The general solution has the form: where Note that AS α+ + BS α " α ± = 1 r # µ ± µ r σ 2 µ = 2r µr D 12 σ 2 σ2 α < 0 <α + A similar analysis gives the followings results: the perpetual American put has value BS α with B = 1 µ 1+α K α 1 1 α and the optimal exercise point is at S = K 1 1 α. 20

21 1.8 Perpetual American Call Thesolutionhastheform it is optimal to exercise at from below. Note that AS α+ A = 1 α + S = µ K 1 1 α + K 1 1 α + 1+α + D = 0 = V = S just like a stock and S = i.e, never optimal to exercise the American perpetual call when there is no dividend (how curious, when do we exercise then? ) 1.9 Other American Options The feature of the option: 1. Payoff Λ (S) or Λ (S, t). 2. Constant dividend yield. µ L BS V = t σ2 S 2 2 +(r D)S S2 S r V 0 21

22 when exercise is optimal: V (S, t) = Λ (S) L BS V < 0 with the strict inequality < otherwise, V (S, t) > Λ (S) L BS V = 0 At the free-boundary, At maturity, V and V S are continuous V (S, T )=Λ (S) One-touch options: Recall the European binary option, e.g., binary call: Payoff = \$1 if S T >K The corresponding American style of this is the so-called one-touch options: which can be exercised anytime for a fixed amount, \$1, if S t >K. Note that, there is no benefit in holding the option once the level K is reached, leading to immediate exercise as soon as the level is reached first time hence, the term one-touch. Reminder: An American option should maximize its value to the holder! The mathematical feature of the one-touch option is that, since the optimal exercise is determined by the fact that once K is reached for the first time, it reduces a free-boundary problem to a fixed boundary problem. Solving BS PDE with yields the solution: V (K, t) = 1 V (S, T ) = 0 for 0 S K V (S, t) = d 5 = µ K+ S 1 σ T t 2r σ 2 N (d 5 )+ S K + N (d 1 ) µ µ S log µr + 12 K σ2 (T t) + 22

23 for a one-touch call (see figure). For a one-touch put, V (S, t) = d 5 = µ K S 1 σ T t 2r σ 2 N ( d 5 )+ S K N ( d 1 ) µ µ S log µr + 12 K σ2 (T t) Thedoubleone-touch: Note that This American cash-or-nothing (one-touch) is a case with discontinous payoffs (cf. the usual requirement that at contact, we have V (S, t) = Λ (S, t) and is continous Since there is no more gain after S crossing K + (for a call), no need for hedging for S>K. Thus =0 for S>K 23

24 24

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