# Part V: Option Pricing Basics

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1 erivatives & Risk Management First Week: Part A: Option Fundamentals payoffs market microstructure Next 2 Weeks: Part B: Option Pricing fundamentals: intrinsic vs. time value, put-call parity introduction to the Black-choles pricing model binomial trees & risk-neutral valuation 1 Part V: Option Pricing Basics 2 Option Pricing Principles Option Pricing Principles: Notation Fundamentals time value vs. intrinsic value key determinants of option values American vs. European options Early exercise Put-call parity non-dividend paying stocks dividend adjustment Option pricing Black-choles formula : trike price = exercise price c : European call option price p : European put option price C : American call option price P : American put option price t : Current time T : Maturity = time when option expires t : pot price at time t σ: Volatility of the underlying s price : PV of ividends r : Relevant risk-free rate (continuous compounding) 3 4 Option Pricing Principles 2 intrinsic value vs. time value intrinsic value» calls: Max[0, t - ]» put: Max[0, - t ] time value = option premium minus intrinsic value» at worst, equal to 0? (nope: European vs. American)» strictly positive for out-of the money options» usually positive for in-the-money options Option Pricing Principles 3 Key determinants of option prices American options vs. European options» at least as valuable (C c, P p)» equal values at maturity time to maturity» American options: T P and C» European options? strike price» p&p but c&c 5 6 1

2 Option Pricing Principles 4 Key determinants of option prices (continued) price of underlying asset» t p&p but c&c ividends» c&c but p&p» IV (European options) vs. TV effect (American options) volatility of underlying asset» σ p&p and c&c (intuition?) hard floors vs. soft floors 7 Option Pricing Principles 5 H7 Table 9.1; H8 Table 10.1 Variable T t σ r c p C P ?? Option Pricing Principles 6 Option Pricing Principles 7 Hard and oft Floors hard floor (American calls)» C t Max[0, t -]» if not satisfied, arbitrage exists (buy call & strike now) soft floor (all calls, but only on non-dividend paying stocks)» t c t = C t Max[0, t - /(1+r) T ]» if not satisfied, arbitrage exists (buy call & risk-free bond)» consequence: early exercise of American calls is not optimal if the underlying asset pays no dividends 9 Early exercise (American calls) non-dividend paying stocks» never optimal to exercise early» intuition: C t Max[0, t - /(1+r) T ] > Max[0, t - ]» corollary: same bound for European calls on such assets dividend paying stocks?» early exercise may be optimal» but only if stock pays large dividend prior to maturity 10 Option Pricing Principles 8 Option Pricing Principles 9 Hard and oft Floors (continued) Question: uppose an American call option is written on Nortel stock. The exercise price is \$105 (J ) and the present value of the exercise price is \$100. (a) What is the hard floor price of the option if Nortel stock sells for \$160? ketch a graph of the hard floor option prices against (i.e., in terms of) the Nortel stock s price. (b) At a stock price of \$125, you notice the option selling for \$18. Would this option price be an equilibrium price? Explain. Hard and oft Floors (continued) Answer: (a) Hard floor price = V = \$160 - \$105 = \$55. (b)an option price of \$18 is below the hard floor price of \$. In this case, everyone would want the call option. You could then acquire a share of Nortel stock for less than the current market price. imply buy the option (for \$18), exercise it (paying \$105), and you would then own a share of Nortel for a total price of \$

3 Option Pricing Principles 10 Hard and oft Floors (American puts) hard floor» Max[0, - t ]» if not satisfied, arbitrage exists soft floor?» Max[0, /(1+r) T - t ]» BKM4 Fig Option Pricing Principles 11 Early exercise (American puts) can be optimal to exercise early» intuition 1: stock price cannot fall below 0» intuition 2: T /(1+r) T impact of dividend payments» dividends probability of early exercise Options: Early Exercise (Recap) Calls Puts often not optimal» never optimal for non-dividend paying stocks importance of capturing dividends can be optimal to exercise early impact of dividend payments» dividends probability of early exercise Put-call parity Put-Call Parity European options only» applicability to American options? Intuition Formally no-arbitrage» if the payoffs of 2 portfolios are equal» then the costs of both portfolios must be equal reverse engineer the prices examples Intuition Profit Put-Call Parity 2 T T Profit (a: covered call) (b) Profit Profit T T Put-call parity Put-Call Parity 3 < T > T cash now 1. buy a call T - 0 -c OR 2a. buy a put 0 - T -p 2b. sell disc. bond - - /(1+r) T 2c. buy stock T T Total T - 0 (c: protect. put) (d) 17 hence: -c = -p + /(1+r)T - 0 and thus c = p /(1+r) T 18 3

4 Put-Call Parity 4 Put-Call Parity 5 Question: European put and a European call on the same stock exercise price = \$ 75 same expiration dates The current price of the stock is \$68. The put s current price is \$6.50 higher than the call s price A riskless investment over the time until expiration yields 3 percent. Answer: According to the parity equation: VP VC = [/(1 + rf) t ] V => VP VC = [\$75/( )] \$68 = \$4.82. Thus, with the put being priced \$6.50 higher than the call, the two options are out of parity. A riskless arbitrage opportunity would exist: Given this information, is there any riskless profit opportunities available? 19 Answer: A riskless arbitrage opportunity exists: Put-Call Parity 6 ell the stock short..\$68.00 ell the put option.. & Buy the call option. \$ 6.50 Proceeds \$74.50 Invest the proceeds at the riskless rate of 3%. At maturity, you will have the value at expiration of \$76.74 = [\$74.50 x 1.03]. Also, you can acquire a share of stock (to cover the short sale) for \$75, no matter what happens to the stock price. You are assured \$1.74 without putting any of your own money at risk Put-Call Parity 7 Put-call parity (continued) continuous-time version dividends» c = p + t e r (T t )» c p = t e r (T t )» adjustment needed» c = p + PV( T ) - PV(dividend) - /(1+r) T Put-Call Parity 8 Extensions (NOT Exam Material) American options; = 0 < C P < e r (T t ) (H8 eq. 10.4) European options; > 0 c p = e r (T t ) (H8 eq. 10.7) American options; > 0 < C P < e r (T t ) (H7, 9.8 p. 215) (H8 eq. e ) Analytical Option Pricing Methods Black-choles pluses (quick) & minuses (European calls, assumptions) Numerical Binomial Trees Monte Carlo Methods Finite difference Methods Analytical Approximation 24 4

5 Option Pricing Key Problem Uncertainty olution we don t know future stock prices Assume a distribution for periodic returns Assume a stochastic process for stock prices Option Pricing in Practice Black-choles gives price of European call c = e where r( T t) r( T [ N( d )e 1 t) N( d )] 2 ln( / ) + ( r + σ / 2)( T t) d1 = σ T t 2 ln( / ) + ( r σ / 2)( T t) d2 = σ T t 2 = d σ T t 1 interpretation? Option Pricing in Practice 2 r( T t) r( T t) c = e [ N( d1)e N( d2)] N(z) = Prob(Z<z)» Z is standard normal N(d 2 )» = probability of exercise. N(d 2 )» = expected pay-out at exercise N(d 1 )exp(r(t-t))» = expected value of the stock price, if exercised. Option Pricing in Practice 3 Black-choles (continued) gives price of European call price of European put?» use put-call parity Profit» intuition: American options?» optimality of early exercise T Option Pricing in Practice 4 Binomial option pricing problem» assumptions needed for B& are not always realistic» example: interest rates are deterministic?! solutions: 1. numerical approximations» grid, risk-neutral probabilities» as accurate as needed/desired 2. PB = Practitioners B& (e.g., Berkowitz) 29 Numerical Pricing Methods Risk-Neutral valuation Methods Binomial Trees Early Exercise Possible Monte Carlo Methods everal Underlying Variables Possible Finite difference Methods Early Exercise Possible Analytical Approximation American Options 30 5

6 Approach Risk-Neutral Valuation introduce binomial trees now to start thinking about Applicability risk-neutral valuation of derivatives and dynamic hedging strategies use risk-neutral valuation throughout the course return to binomial trees in Parts III & IV Example Call Option example (H7 Fig. 11.1; H8 12.1): 3-month call option with strike price = 21 tock price = \$ Call Price =? price of the call today? use risk-neutral valuation tock Price = \$22 Call Price = \$1 tock Price = \$18 Call Price = \$ Example 2 Riskless Portfolio Portfolio LONG Δ shares HORT 1 call option =\$ \$22Δ \$1 \$18Δ =\$18Δ - \$0 Portfolio is riskless» if \$22Δ \$1 = \$18Δ i.e. if Δ = 0.25» LONG 0.25 shares and HORT 1 call option 33 Example 3 Value of the riskless portfolio in 3 months if the stock price moves up:» \$ = \$4.50 if the stock price moves down:» \$ = \$4.50 today PV of \$4.50 at the risk-free rate (why?) if annual continuously-compounded risk-free rate is 12%, portfolio is worth: \$4.50 e = \$ Example 4 Value of the Option Today entire portfolio» worth \$4.367 shares» worth Δ = 0.25 \$ = \$5 Value of the option» is therefore: \$5 \$4.367 = \$ Binomial Option Pricing Fundamentals Why? approximate the movements in an asset s price to simplify the pricing of derivatives on the asset What? discretize underlying asset s price movements and value options as if in a risk-neutral world How? asset price at the BEGINNING of any period can lead to only 2 stock prices at the EN of that period 36 6

7 Binomial Trees Asset Price Movements divide the time from t to T into small intervals Δt in each time interval, assume the asset s price can move UP by a proportional amount u or move OWN by a proportional amount d Binomial Trees 2 Movements in time interval Δt (H7 Fig.19.1; H8 12.2) u ƒ p (1 p ) ƒ u d ƒ d What? p, u and d Parameter values? Tree Parameters tree must give correct values for the mean & standard deviation of the stock price changes in a risk-neutral world implification tree is recombining: u = 1/ d 39 Tree Parameters 2 Complete Tree (Fig. 19.2) u 3 u 2 u u d d d 2 d 3 u 4 u 2 d 2 d 4 40 Risk-Neutral Valuation Assumption no arbitrage opportunity exists Basic idea assume a binomial tree for asset price movements create a riskless portfolio stock plus option riskless portfolio always possible with binomial tree value the portfolio if riskless, then risk-neutral valuation is OK Reference Cox-Ross-Rubinstein (Journal of Financial Economics 79) 41 Risk-Neutral Valuation 2 European Put example (u=1.1; d=1/u): 3-month put with strike price = 21 tock price = \$ Put price =? price of the put? use risk-neutral valuation tock Price = \$22 Put Price = \$0 tock Price = \$18.18 Put Price = \$

8 Risk-Neutral Valuation 3 Riskless Portfolio Portfolio LONG Δ shares LONG 1 put option (why?) =\$ \$22Δ \$18.18Δ +\$2.82 Portfolio is riskless if 22Δ = 18.18Δ+2.82 i.e if Δ = LONG shares and LONG 1 put option 43 Risk-Neutral Valuation 4 Value of the entire (riskless) portfolio in 3 months if the stock price moves up:» \$ \$0 = \$16.24 if the stock price moves down:» \$ \$2.82 = \$13.42+\$2.82 = \$16.24 today PV of \$16.24 at the risk-free rate (why?) if annual continuously-compounded risk-free rate is 12%, portfolio is worth: \$16.24 e = \$ Risk-Neutral Valuation 5 Risk-Neutral Valuation 6 Value of the Option Today Entire portfolio is worth \$15.76 hares are worth \$ = \$14.76 Value of the put option is therefore \$ \$14.76 = \$ Generalization (H7 Fig. 11.2; H8 Fig. 12.2) derivative value f expires at time T is dependent on a stock u ƒ ƒ u d ƒ d 46 Risk-Neutral Valuation 7 Risk-Neutral Valuation 8 Riskless portfolio LONG Δ shares and HORT 1 derivative Δ - f u Δ ƒ u d Δ ƒ d riskless ƒu ƒd Δ =» if u Δ ƒ u = d Δ ƒ d or u d Value of the portfolio at time T :» (up state) u Δ ƒ u = d Δ ƒ d (down state) Value of the portfolio today :» (u Δ ƒ u )e rt» and also» Δ ƒ Hence» ƒ = Δ (u Δ ƒ u )e rt

9 Risk-Neutral Valuation 9 Thus: ƒ = Δ (u Δ ƒ u )e rt ƒu ƒd Δ = u d ubstituting for Δ, we obtain ƒ = [ p ƒ u + (1 p )ƒ d ]e rt where rt d p = e u d 49 Risk-Neutral Valuation 10 Interpretation ƒ = [ p ƒ u + (1 p ) ƒ d ]e rt p and (1 p ) can be interpreted as the risk-neutral probabilities of up & down movements Value of a derivative = its expected payoff in a risk-neutral world discounted at the risk-free rate ƒ p (1 p ) u ƒ u d ƒ d 50 Irrelevance of tock s Expected Return When valuing an option in terms of the underlying stock, the expected return on the stock is irrelevant 51 Original Example Revisited Call, H8 Fig.12.1 ( = ; = 21; Δt = T = 3 months) u = 22 ƒ u = 1 ƒ p (1 p ) risk-neutral probabilities: d = 18 ƒ d = 0 rt e d e 0.9 p = = = u d Original Example Revisited 2 H8 Fig ƒ u = 22 ƒ u = 1 d = 18 ƒ d = 0 Value of the option c = e [ \$ \$0] = \$ Original Example Revisited 3 Key Result risk-neutral valuation ( revisited ) coincides with the ( original ) no-arbitrage valuation. Generalization in general when pricing derivatives using risk-neutral valuation is ok 54 9

10 Original Example Revisited 4 Valuing the tock in a risk-neutral world stock must also earn the risk-free rate consequence ince p is a risk-neutral probability \$ x e = \$22 x p +\$18 x (1 p ) p = A Two-tep Call Option Example H8 Fig (=21; u=1.1; d=0.9; T=6 months) Each time step is Δt=3 months A Two-tep Call Option Example 2 Call value (Fig. 12.4; =21) 22 B A C Value at node B = e 0.12x0.25 ( x x 0) = Value at node A = e 0.12x0.25 ( x x 0) = No difference between American & European calls E F A Two-tep Put Option Example Fig.12.7 (=52; u=1.2, d=0.8, T=2 years) 60 B 50 A E F Each time step is Δt=1 year; annual risk-free rate = r =5% r. Δt e d e 0.8 p = = = u d C 58 A Two-tep Put Option Example 2 European put value (Fig. 12.7; =52) A C Value at node B = F e 0.05x1 ( x \$ x \$4) = \$ Value at node C = e 0.05x1 ( x \$ x \$) = \$ > Value at node A = e 0.05x1 ( x \$ x \$9.4636) = \$ B E 59 A Two-tep Put Option Example 3 American put value (Fig. 12.8; =52) or 2 Value at node B A 60 B or 0 E or = Max[ - B, ] = \$ Value at node C = Max[ - C, ] = Max[12, ] = \$12 -> Value at node A = Max [2, e 0.05x1 ( x \$ x \$12)] = \$ C F 10

11 efinition elta (Δ) is the ratio ynamic hedging elta» of the change in the price of a stock option» to the change in the price of the underlying stock The value of Δ varies from node to node» ynamic hedging needed! 61 elta 2 Riskless portfolio at a given node: LONG Δ shares and HORT 1 derivative u Δ ƒ u Δ - f d Δ ƒ d ƒu ƒd Δ = riskless u d» if u Δ ƒ u = d Δ ƒ d or 62 elta 3 European put (=50; =52) Δ= A 60 B , Δ=-1/6 E , Δ=-1 F Value of Δ at node B = (0-4)/(72-48) = -1/6 (i.e., short 1 put and short 1/6 share) Value at node C = (4-)/(48-32) = -1 (i.e., short 1 put and short 1 share) Value at node A = ( )/(60-40) = (short 1 put and share) C 63 11

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