RF SYSTEM DESIGN OF TRANSCEIVERS FOR WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS

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1 RF SYSTEM DESIGN OF TRANSCEIVERS FOR WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS Qizheng Gu Nokia Mobile Phones, Inc. 4y Springer

2 Contents Preface xiii Chapter 1. Introduction Wireless Systems Mobile Communications Systems Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) Bluetooth Global Positioning System (GPS) Ultra Wide-band Communications System Design Convergence Organization of This Book 8 References 11 Associated References 11 Chapter 2. Fundamentals of System Design Linear Systems and Transformations Linear System Fourier Series and Transformation Frequency Response of LTI Systems Band-Pass to Low-Pass Equivalent Mapping and Hilbert Transform Nonlinear System Representation and Analysis Approaches Representation of Memoryless Nonlinear Systems Multiple Input Effects in Nonlinear Systems Memoryless Band-Pass Nonlinearities and Their Low-Pass Equivalents Noise and Random Process Noise Power and Spectral Representation 38

3 Vlll Noise and Random Process Through Linear Systems Narrow-Band Noise Representation Noise Figure and Noise Temperature Elements of Digital Base-Band System Sampling Theorem and Sampling Process Jitter Effect of Sampling and Quantizing Noise Commonly Used Modulation Schemes Pulse-Shaping Techniques and Intersymbol Interference (ISI) Error Probability of Detection, Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), and Carrier-to-Noise Ratio (CNR) RAKE Receiver 104 References 108 Associated References 109 Chapter 3. Radio Architectures and Design Considerations Superheterodyne Architecture Configuration of Superheterodyne Radio Frequency Planning Design Consideration of Superheterodyne Transceiver Direct-Conversion (Zero IF) Architecture Configuration of Direct-Conversion Radio Technical Challenges Design Consideration of a Direct-Conversion Transceiver Low IF Architecture Configuration of Low IF Radio Approaches to Achieve High Image Rejection Some Design Considerations Band-pass Sampling Radio Architecture Basics of Band-pass Sampling Configuration of Band-pass Sampling Radio Architecture Design Considerations 198 Appendix 3A. Intermodulation Distortion Formulas 211

4 Appendix 3B. Effective Interference Evaluation of Second-Order Distortion Products 213 Appendix 3C. I and Q Imbalance and Image-Rejection Formula 216 Appendix 3D. Estimation of ADC Equivalent Noise Figure 219 References 222 Associated References 223 Chapter 4. Receiver System Analysis and Design Introduction Sensitivity and Noise Figure of Receiver Sensitivity Calculation Cascaded Noise Figure, Receiver Desensitization Evaluation Due to Transmitter Noise Emission in the Receiver Band Influence of Antenna VSWR to Receiver Noise Figure Intermodulation Characteristics Intermodulation Products and Intercept Points Cascaded Input Intercept Point Calculation of Receiver Intermodulation Characteristics Single-Tone Desensitization Cross-Modulation Products Determination of the Allowed Single-Tone Interferer Adjacent /Alternate Channel Selectivity and Blocking Characteristics Desired Signal Level and Allowed Degradation Formula of Adjacent/Alternate Channel Selectivity and Blocking Characteristics Two-Tone Blocking and AM Suppression Characteristics Receiver Dynamic Range and AGC System Dynamic Range of a Receiver Receiver AGC System for Mobile Stations Dynamic Range and Other Characteristics of ADC 284 IX

5 4.7. System Design and Performance Evaluation Receiver System Design Basics Basic Requirements of Key Devices in Receiver System Receiver System Performance Evaluation 296 Appendix 4A. Conversion Between Power dbm and Electric Field Strength dbu,v/m 298 Appendix 4B. Proof of Relationship (4.4.6) 300 Appendix 4C. A Comparison of Wireless Mobile Station Minimum Performance Requirements 300 Appendix 4D. An Example of Receiver Performance Evaluation by Means of Matlab 302 References 308 Associated References 308 Chapter 5. Transmitter System Analysis and Design Introduction Transmission Power and Spectrum Modulation Accuracy Error Vector Magnitude EVM and Waveform Quality Factor p Influence of Intersymbol or Interchip Interference to EVM Influence of Close-in Phase Noise of Synthesized LO to EVM Carrier Leakage Degrading the Modulation Accuracy Modulation Accuracy Degradations Resulting from Other Factors Total EVM and Waveform Quality Factor Adjacent and Alternate Channel Power Low-Pass Equivalent Behavioral Model Approach Multitone Techniques ACPR of Cascaded Stages in Transmitter Chain Noise-Emission Calculation Formulas for Noise-Emission Calculation 343

6 Some Important Notes in Noise-Emission Calculation Noise Expressed in Voltage Examples of Noise-Emission Calculations Some Important Considerations in System Design Comparison of Architectures Transmitter Chain Gain Distribution and Performance AGC and Power Management 354 Appendix 5A. Approximate Relationship Between p and EVM 359 Appendix 5B. Image Suppression of Transmission Signal 360 Appendix 5C. Amplifier Nonlinear Simulation: ACPR Calculation References 382 Associated References 383 Chapter 6. Applications of System Design Multimode and Multiband Superheterodyne Transceiver Selection of a Frequency Plan Receiver System Design Transmitter System Design Direct Conversion Transceiver Receiver System Design Transmitter System Design 449 References 462 Associated References i 462 Index 467 XI

RF SYSTEM DESIGN OF TRANSCEIVERS FOR WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS

RF SYSTEM DESIGN OF TRANSCEIVERS FOR WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS RF SYSTEM DESIGN OF TRANSCEIVERS FOR WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS RF SYSTEM DESIGN OF TRANSCEIVERS FOR WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS Qizheng Gu Nokia Mobile Phones, Inc. Q - Springer Gu, Qizheng, 1936- RF system

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