1 THE PREPARATION OF SUPPLY/UTILIZATION ACCOUNTS (SUAs) I. INTRODUCTION The statistical framework of SUAs has been developed with the aim of providing a useful statistical tool for the preparation, conduct and appraisal of government action aimed at developing and improving the agricultural and food sectors of national economies. It has long been recognized that it is no longer meaningful to deal separately with individual statistical series, such as those for production and trade, etc. While the separate data series by themselves are no doubt important, it is equally important to establish the links between them. Statisticians must be in a position to work with flows and matrices rather than with individual sets of data alone. This implies that the statistics of any single commodity must be traceable all the way from production and utilization to their final consumption. A set of SUAs provides the necessary linkage between primary agricultural commodities and their derived products. This paper presents several examples of how to prepare SUAs for commodities of the crop, livestock and fishery sectors and also how ancillary and relevant information available elsewhere can be used to supplement data from official sources of production and external trade in preparing the accounts. The first step in this rather complex undertaking is to make a thorough search for figures and to compile them along with and other information pertinent to the preparation of SUAs. In addition to data regarding production, trade and utilization of food and agricultural commodities available from official sources, a wealth of relevant information and technical expertise is frequently available from little tapped sources, such as marketing boards, commercial processing industries, extension workers, merchants, agricultural offices, transport enterprises, and the like. To illustrate how to prepare SUAs, it is assumed the information listed in the Appendix to this paper has been compiled using the sources described above. This information will form the basis for the construction of the individual accounts that are shown below.
2 - 2 - The account of every commodity should be constructed taking care that the balance of the equation is always maintained. The basic elements (data) of the individual commodity account do not have any relation whatsoever to elements of the other accounts except the element "processing" which corresponds to the quantity which re-appears as "input" in the account(s) of derived commodities. II. EXAMPLES FOR THE CROP SECTOR Wheat Element Unit of Measure Quantity Area harvested HA Yield KG/HA Production MT Exports MT Feed MT Seed MT Waste MT Processed MT The data compiled for area, production and exports are entered into the account. Yield has been calculated by dividing production by area. Feed has been estimated on the basis of information available in the Ministry of Agriculture and commercial feed processing industries. The quantity of wheat used for seeding purposes has been estimated by multiplying the seeding rate with the harvested area of the subsequent year. The seeding rate is known to be around 150 Kg./Ha. On the basis of information obtained from merchants in the cereal business, waste has been estimated to be around 5%. Since there is no information available as to direct food use of wheat, the SUA is then completed by allocating the balance of the account to "processing". Flour of Wheat Input MT Extraction rate Percent 80 Production MT Imports MT Exports MT Waste MT Food MT
3 - 3 - The quantity shown as processing in the account for wheat is the input for the production of wheat flour. The production has been estimated by applying an extraction rate, or more precisely a milling rate, of 80%, as reported by various agencies concerned. The data reported officially for imports and exports are entered into the account. Waste again has been estimated by merchants to be around 3%. Food is left as the remainder. Bran of Wheat Input MT Extraction rate Percent 17 Production MT Exports MT Feed MT Bran is a by-product of the milling of wheat. Therefore, the bran account has the same input as the wheat flour account. By applying the extraction rate obtained from the milling industry to the input the production can be estimated. Feed is the remainder after having allowed for exports. Potatoes Area harvested HA Yield Kg/HA Production MT Imports MT Exports MT Feed MT Seed MT Waste MT Processed MT Food MT The data reported officially for area, production, imports, exports and feed are entered into the account. Yield has been calculated by dividing production by area. The quantity of potatoes used for seeding/planting purposes has been obtained by multiplying the seeding rate with the area planted in the subsequent year. Based on information given by extension workers and the food processing industry, waste has been estimated to be around 13%. The quantity of potatoes processed is the aggregate of the input of potatoes manufactured into potato flour and potato starch. Food is left as the remainder in the account.
4 - 4 - Potato Starch Input MT Extraction rate Percent 13 Production MT Imports MT Other utilization MT Official figures are available for production and imports. Input has been estimated on the basis of production and the extraction rate. The element other utilization representing the amount of starch used for non-food/feed purposes is the remainder. Potato Flour Input MT Extraction rate Percent 22 Production MT Exports MT Food MT Official figures are available for production and exports. Input has been estimated on the basis of production and the extraction rate. The quantity for food has been obtained as the remainder. Sugar cane Area harvested HA Yield Kg/Ha Production MT Processing MT Food MT Both the production and food data for sugar cane are recorded figures. The area has been estimated based on a yield of 78 tons/ha. Processing is the remainder.
5 - 5 - Cane sugar (raw) Input MT Extraction rat Percent Production MT Processing MT The figures for input of sugar cane as well as the production of raw sugar have been supplied by the sugar industry. Hence, the extraction rate is a derived figure. Production and processing of raw sugar are identical since all raw sugar is further processed into refined sugar. Sugar (refined) Input MT Extraction rate Percent 92 Production MT Imports MT Waste MT Food MT The input of raw sugar to refined sugar is identical to quantity recorded under raw sugar "processing" since all raw sugar is further processed into refined sugar. The production of refined sugar has been estimated by applying the known extraction rate. Waste has been estimated at 5% based on industry estimates. Molasses Input MT Extraction rate Percent 4.5 Production MT Exports MT Waste MT Feed MT Molasses generally is a by-product of the manufacturing of sugar cane into raw sugar. The input figures of the two accounts "cane sugar (raw)" and "molasses" should therefore be identical. Production and waste are estimated by using the extraction rate as
6 - 6 - well as the percentage of waste (10%) supplied by the sugar industry. Feed is the remainder. Bagasse Input MT Extraction rate Percent 25 Production MT Other utilization MT Bagasse is also a by-product in the manufacture of raw sugar from sugar cane; hence, its input is the same as for raw sugar. Production is an estimate based on an extraction rate supplied by the sugar industry. The element "other utilization" is the remainder. Non-centrifugal sugar Input MT Extraction rate Percent 10 Production MT Waste MT Food MT The quantity of sugar cane available for processing is MT, of which MT have been manufactured into raw sugar. The rest can be assumed to be processed into non-centrifugal sugar in the rural sector. Extension workers have supplied relevant information regarding locally-obtained extraction rates and on amounts lost during transport and storage. Dry peas Area sown HA Area harvested HA Yield Kg/HA 530 Production MT Exports MT Feed MT Seed MT 3 925
7 - 7 - Waste MT Food MT The area sown to dry peas has been estimated by adding to the area harvested, the area under peas harvested green and an allowance for area under dry peas that had to be re-sown. Yield has been derived by dividing production by the area harvested. Animal feed use is an estimate and the quantity of seed has been calculated by multiplying the area sown with the seeding rate. After making an allowance for waste, the remainder is that available for human consumption. Groundnuts (in shell) Area harvested HA Yield Kg./HA. 878 Production MT Seed MT Waste MT Processed MT The quantity of groundnuts in the shell that has been processed has been estimated as the remainder in this account. All other data have been obtained from official sources and the oil industry. The yield is calculated by dividing production by area and the amount of seed by multiplying the seed rate with the area harvested in the subsequent year. Groundnuts (shelled) Input MT Extraction rate Percent 65 Production MT Exports MT Waste MT 622 Processed MT Food MT Input is identical with the amount of groundnuts (in shell) available for processing. Extraction rate, production and quantity processed further into oil are figures obtained from the oil industry. Exports are from official records. Waste has been calculated as 1% of production and food is the remainder.
8 - 8 - Oil of Groundnuts Input MT Extraction rate Percent 36 Production MT Food MT Other utilization MT Production has been estimated by applying the extraction rate to the reported quantity of shelled groundnuts crushed into oil. After having allowed for non-food use of oil under "other utilization", the remainder is food. Cake of groundnuts Input MT Extraction rate Percent 60 Production MT Exports MT Feed MT As is the case with groundnut oil, the production of cake of groundnuts - a byproduct of the manufacture of oil - has been estimated by applying the extraction rate to the quantity of shelled groundnuts crushed for oil. After having allowed for exports, the remainder is shown as being used for animal feed. Seed cotton Area harvested HA Yield Kg./HA. 987 Production MT Processed MT Once again, for seed cotton the yield has been calculated by dividing production by area. Seed cotton is generally processed by being ginned into cottonseed and cotton lint.
9 - 9 - Cotton lint Input MT Extraction rate Percent 36.2 Production MT Exports MT Other utilization MT The extraction rate has been calculated by dividing "production" by "input" and as such is in line with general technical knowledge. "Other utilization" is the remainder and represents the quantity used by the local textile industry. Cottonseed Input MT Extraction rate Percent 62.5 Production MT Feed MT Seed MT Processed MT Other utilization MT Since cotton lint and cottonseed are the outputs of the amount of seed cotton ginned, the input to both commodities must be the same, i.e., MT. The extraction rate has been derived by dividing production by the input. On the basis of information obtained regarding the feed use of cottonseed from the commercial feed processing industry, the quantity for "feed" has been estimated at around MT. The quantity designated as "seed" has been calculated by multiplying the seeding rate with the area of seed cotton sown in the subsequent year. The figure for "processed" is an estimate of the quantity of cottonseed required for the production of cake of cottonseed, which is exported and used for the manufacture of animal feeding stuffs. "Other utilization" is the remainder element for this account. Oil of cottonseed Input MT Extraction rate Percent 18.0 Production MT Food MT
10 The reason for preparing the cottonseed oil account is that cake of cottonseed is exported and used in the manufacture of animal feed, while no imports are recorded. Cake of cottonseed is a by-product of the production of oil of cottonseed which means the "input" to both oil and cake production must be the same. The production of cottonseed oil has been estimated by applying the extraction rate to the quantity of cottonseed processed ( MT). All of the production can be assigned to human consumption since there is no indication of non-food uses of oil of cottonseed. Cake of cottonseed Input MT Extraction rate Percent 45 Production MT Exports MT Feed MT By definition the element "input" for cake of cottonseed must be identical to the one shown in the account for oil of cottonseed. The production of cake is estimated by multiplying the extraction rate by the input figure. "Feed" is the remainder in the account and, as such, is very much in line with the information obtained from the local commercial feed industry. Cotton linter Input MT Extraction rate Percent 4.0 Production MT Exports MT Other utilization MT 413 Cotton linter is a by-product obtained when crushing cottonseed into oil. Thus, the input quantity is the same as for cake and oil. Production has been estimated by multiplying the input figure with the extraction rate. "Other utilization" is the remainder.
11 III. EXAMPLES FOR THE LIVESTOCK SECTOR When creating a livestock account, the data for animal numbers (stocks of various species) are entered first. Other data are then added as may be seen in the examples that follow. Cattle Element Unit of Measure Quantity Stock numbers Head Females in reproductive age Head Females actually reproducing Head Birth rate Percent 98.2 Births Head Imports Head Exports Head Natural losses Head Slaughterings Head Off-take rate Percent 34.9 The figure for the element "slaughterings" in the cattle account becomes the input for other related accounts, i.e., beef and veal, offals of cattle and fat of cattle. Beef and Veal Slaughterings Head Carcass weight Kg./AN. 285 Production MT Imports MT Exports MT Waste MT Processed MT Food MT The carcass weight for beef and veal has been calculated by dividing the figure obtained for production by the number of slaughterings. Data for known imports and exports are inserted and the waste is assumed to be 2% of the supply (production + imports). In light of trade information confirming exports of processed meat, an allocation has been made for "processing" which serves as "input" to the SUA of beef preparations. The figure for the element "food" is obtained as the remainder.
12 Offals of cattle Slaughterings Head Yield Kg./AN 18.0 Production MT Imports MT Exports MT Waste MT Food MT Other utilization MT 700 The production of offals of cattle has been estimated on the basis of the reported average weight of edible offals per animal. Information is also available about the amount of waste (10% of supply, i.e., production + imports), and the quantity of edible cattle offals used for industrial non-food purposes which is assigned to "other utilization". The element "food" then is the remainder, i.e., the quantity not accounted for by other uses. Fat of cattle Slaughterings Head Yield Kg./AN 8.0 Production MT Other utilization MT With respect to fat of cattle, the production has been estimated on the basis of reported average weight of slaughter fats per animal. All cattle fats are known to be used for non-food purposes. Thus, there being no trade in this commodity, the entire quantity goes to "other utilization". Beef preparations Input MT Extraction rate Percent 90 Production MT Exports MT 5 180
13 The reason for preparing the SUA for beef preparations in this instance is to allow for the production of exported quantities that have been confirmed by trade data. Cow milk Milking animals Head Yield Kg./AN Production MT Exports MT Waste MT Processed MT Food MT In this example, it is assumed that the figures for the number of milking animals as well as those for production, exports and food, are available from official sources. The number of milking animals differs from the figures shown earlier for "females actually reproducing" or even more specifically from that shown for "births" in the "cattle" accounts because not all females which have given birth during the reference period were actually milked. "Waste" has been estimated by assuming a waste rate of 2% of supply (in this case production). The "feed" element is the remainder after having allowed for all the "inputs" for the processed products derived from fresh milk (i.e., MT for cream, MT for butter, MT for evaporated whole milk, MT for dry whole milk and MT for cheese). Cream Input MT Extraction rate Percent 35 Production MT Waste MT Food MT Since the production of cream is a recorded figure, the input has been calculated by applying a known extraction rate of 35.0%. Waste is assumed to be 2% of supply (production).
14 Butter Input MT Extraction rate Percent 4.53 Production MT Inputs MT Exports MT Waste MT 693 Food MT Other utilization MT In the SUA for butter the figures for input, production, trade and food are considered to be recorded data. The extraction rate, therefore, has been calculated by dividing production by input. Waste has been estimated as 2% of supply (production + imports) and "other utilization" is the remainder in the account. Skim milk is a by-product obtained when processing fresh milk into butter and cream. Skim milk Input MT Extraction rate Percent 86.4 Production MT Feed MT Waste MT Processed MT Food MT The input figure for skim milk has been arrived at by summing up the inputs of fresh milk for the production of cream and butter. The production figure must, therefore, be the difference between the input of fresh milk to skim milk and the sum of cream and butter production ( MT and MT). The extraction rate is a derived figure. Feed is estimated on the basis of known information regarding the livestock sector, while the amount going to processing is obtained by aggregating the inputs of skim milk for the production of dry skim milk ( MT) and cheese ( MT). Food is obtained as the remainder. Dry skim milk Input MT
15 Extraction rate Percent 9.5 Production MT Exports MT Feed MT Waste MT 710 Food MT The input for the SUA of dry skim milk has been estimated by dividing the recorded production figure with the known extraction rate. Waste has been estimated as 2% of supply (production). The figures for exports and feed are recorded data while the quantity designated as "food" is obtained as the remainder. Evaporated whole milk Input MT Extraction rate Percent 33 Production MT Imports MT Waste MT 77 Food MT The production of evaporated whole milk is a recorded figure and the input is estimated on the basis of a known extraction rate of 33%. Imports are recorded, and waste has been estimated as 2% of supply (production + imports). Food is the remainder in this SUA. Dry whole milk Input MT Extraction rate Percent 10.3 Production MT Imports MT 300 Exports MT 164 Waste MT 77 Food MT In the SUA for dry whole milk, quantities for input, production and trade are recorded figures. The extraction rate has been derived by dividing production by input. Waste has been estimated as 2% of supply (production + imports) and food is designated as the remainder.
16 Cheese Input MT Extraction rate Percent 12.5 Production MT Imports MT Exports MT Waste MT Food MT The input figure is obtained as the sum of the inputs of whole milk for cheese production ( MT) and of skim milk for cheese production ( MT). Both production and trade are recorded figures. The extraction rate is the result of dividing production by input and waste and has been calculated as 2% of supply (production + imports). Food is the remainder, or the balance of the supply after all other uses have been subtracted. The account for whey completes the series of SUAs relating to production, trade and processing of cow milk. Whey is a by-product of cheese production so the input is the same as for cheese. In the absence of any related information (except the extraction rate) all figures have been estimated; waste is assumed to be 5% of supply (production). Whey Input MT Extraction rate Percent 84 Production MT Waste MT Feed MT Hen eggs Laying population Head Yield Kg./AN 5.5 Production MT Exports MT Hatching MT Waste MT Processed MT Food MT
17 Turning to the account for hen eggs, the yield has been calculated by dividing production by number of reported laying birds. Hatching is estimated as 10% of production, waste as 5% of production and processing as the input for the manufacture of liquid eggs and dry whole yolks. Food is the remainder. Liquid eggs Input MT Extraction rate Percent 83 Production MT 843 Exports MT 843 An account has been prepared for liquid eggs solely to cover reported exports of 843 MT since this quantity must have been manufactured, there being no imports. Thus, the production is estimated to meet exports, while the input has been derived by dividing production by the extraction rate. Dry whole yolks Input MT Extraction rate Percent 25 Production MT 593 Exports MT 593 The account for dry whole yolks has been constructed in the same way as the account for liquid eggs. IV. EXAMPLES FOR THE FISHERY SECTOR Freshwater fish (fresh) Production (catch) MT Exports MT 441 Processing MT Food MT Beginning with the account for freshwater fish, the amount processed is the sum of the input of fresh fish for the manufacture of frozen fillets (6 600 MT) and cured
18 freshwater fish (36 730). The food element of freshwater fish is then the remainder of the production after allowing for exports. Freshwater fillets (frozen) Input MT Extraction rate Percent 40 Production MT Exports MT 227 Food MT The input for freshwater fillets has been calculated by using the known extraction rate, while food is obtained as the remainder after providing for the quantity exported. Freshwater fish (cured) Input MT Extraction rate Percent 35 Production MT Exports MT 209 Food MT For the SUA of freshwater fish (cured), input has been calculated based on the extraction rate and the quantity produced. Food is the remainder once exports have been subtracted. Marine fish (fresh) Production (catch) MT Processing MT 77 Food MT In the case of fresh marine fish, "processing" is the quantity of fresh marine fish needed to manufacture the exports of cured marine fish.
19 Marine fish (cured) Input MT 77 Extraction rate Percent 33.3 Production MT 26 Exports MT 26 The SUA for cured marine fish is created to cover an export of 26 MT which must have been manufactured in the absence of an offsetting quantity of imports. Thus, production is estimated at the level of exports, while the input quantity is calculated based on the known extraction rate.
20 APPENDIX Availability and Sources of Data/Information Wheat: Area harvested, HA; (subsequent year, HA); production, MT; exports, MT; feed, basic information for estimate supplied by Ministry of Agriculture and commercial feed processing industries; seeding rate, 150 Kg./HA. (Ministry of Agriculture); waste, 5%, based on information available from Marketing Board and local merchants. Wheat flour: Extraction rate of 80% obtained from milling industry; imports, MT; exports, ; waste of 3% obtained from merchants. Wheat bran: Extraction rate at 17% supplied by milling industry; exports MT. Potatoes: Area harvested, HA; area planted in subsequent year HA; production, MT; imports, MT; exports, MT; feed, MT (information obtained from Ministry of Agriculture and commercial feed processing industries); waste, 13% according to estimates made by extension workers and food processing industry. Potato flour: Production, MT; exports, MT. Potato starch: Production, MT; imports, 5500 MT. Sugar cane: Production, MT; yield of Kg./HA. obtained from Ministry of Agriculture; food, MT. Cane sugar (raw): Input, MT reported by the sugar industry as input for the production of raw sugar. Production, MT. All raw sugar is further processed into refined sugar. Sugar (refined): Extraction rate of 92% and estimate of waste at 5% supplied by the sugar industry; imports, MT. Molasses: Extraction rate of 4.5% and estimate for percentage of waste at 10% supplied by the sugar industry; exports, MT. Bagasse: Extraction rate of 25% obtained from the sugar industry. Non-centrifugal sugar: Extraction rate at 10% and estimate for percentage of waste of 10% supplied by extension workers and local merchants.
21 Dry peas: Area harvested, HA; area harvested of green peas, HA; Ministry of Agriculture indicated that around 10% of area under dry peas had to be resown because of natural calamities; production, MT; exports, MT; feed use of to MT and seeding rate of 50 Kg./HA. as reported by the Ministry of Agriculture; waste at 10% were estimated by local merchants. Groundnuts (in shell): Area harvested in current year, HA.; subsequent year, HA.; production, MT; seeding rate, 80 Kg./HA.; and waste of 8% obtained from agricultural officers and the oil industry. Groundnuts (shelled): Shelling rate at 65%; waste of 1%; quantity of groundnuts in shell crushed into oil, MT; all obtained from the oil industry; exports, MT. Groundnut oil: Extraction rate of 36% and quantity used for non-food purposes of MT, as reported by the oil industry. Groundnut cake: Extraction rate of 60% reported by the oil industry; exports, MT. Seed cotton: Area harvested, HA; area sown in subsequent year, HA.; production, MT. Cotton lint: Production, MT; exports, MT. Cottonseed: Production, MT; feed, relevant information obtained from commercial feed processing industry; seeding rate, 30 Kg./HA. Oil of cottonseed: Extraction rate of 18% reported by the oil industry. Cake of cottonseed: Exports, MT; extraction rate of 45% reported by the oil industry; feed, commercial feed processing industry indicated that to MT are generally manufactured into animal feed. Cotton linter: Extraction rate of 4% reported by the oil industry; exports, MT. Cattle: All figures in the account are official data supplied by the Ministry of Agriculture, except the birth rate and the take-off rate which are derived figures. Beef and Veal: Production, MT; imports, MT; exports, MT; waste, 2% based on experts working in the meat sector.
22 Cattle offals: Imports, MT; exports, MT; information on waste and utilization obtained from slaughterhouses. Fat of cattle: Information supplied by slaughterhouses. Beef preparation: Information regarding processing of beef into beef preparations supplied by the meat processing industry; extraction rate, 90%; exports, MT. Cow milk: Milking animals, Head; production, MT; exports, MT; food, MT; waste 2% obtained from the dairy industry. Cream: Production: MT; extraction rate of 35% and waste of 2% supplied by the dairy industry. Butter: Production, MT; imports, 2 745; exports, MT; fresh milk manufactured into butter, MT; quantity available for direct human consumption ("food") at MT and information on waste supplied by the dairy industry. Skim milk: Information regarding feed use obtained from the Ministry of Agriculture and waste of 5% from the dairy industry. Dry skim milk: Production, MT; exports, MT; extraction rate of 9.5% and information on waste available from the dairy industry; quantity fed to animals supplied by the Ministry of Agriculture. Evaporated whole milk: Production, MT; imports, MT; extraction rate of 33% and information on waste of 2% obtained from the dairy industry. Dry whole milk: Production, MT; imports, 300 MT; exports, 164 MT; quantity of fresh milk manufactured into dry whole milk of MT and information on waste 2% available from dairy industry. Cheese: Production, MT; imports, MT; exports, MT; information regarding the quantity of fresh milk ( MT) and skim milk ( MT) used for the production of cheese and waste at 2% supplied by the dairy industry. Whey: Extraction rate of 84% and waste of 5% obtained from the dairy industry. Hen eggs: Population, head; production, MT; exports, MT; extension workers concerned and the Ministry of Agriculture indicated that about 10% of production are generally used for reproduction (hatching) and 5% could be considered wasted.
23 Liquid eggs: Extraction rate of 83% reported by the food processing industry; exports, 843 MT. Dry whole yolks: Extraction rate of 25% reported by the food processing industry; exports, 593 MT. Fishery: All information on processing of fish have been supplied by the fishery processing industry. Freshwater fish (fresh): Production (catch), MT; exports, 441 MT. Freshwater fillets (frozen): Production, MT; exports, 227 MT; extraction rate, 40%. Freshwater fish (cured): Production, MT; exports, 209 MT; extraction rate, 35%. Marine fish (fresh): Production (catch), MT. Marine fish (cured): Exports, 26 MT; extraction rate, 33.3%.
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