1 Module 11 Calibrated Periodontal Probes and Basic Probing Technique MODULE OVERVIEW This module presents the (1) design characteristics of calibrated periodontal probes and (2) step-by-step instructions for use of a calibrated periodontal probe. MODULE OUTLINE SECTION 1 Calibrated Periodontal Probes 219 General Design Characteristics Millimeter Markings Examples of Probe Markings SECTION 2 Use of Probe to Assess Tissue Health 222 Function of Calibrated Probe Review of Periodontal Anatomy in Health Probing Healthy versus Diseased Tissue SECTION 3 Basic Concepts of Probing Technique 226 The Walking Stroke Adaptation Parallelism Interproximal Technique Probing the Maxillary Molars SECTION 4 Probing Depth Measurements 229 Probing Depths Charting Probing Depths Periodontal Chart Positioning and Sequence for Probing SECTION 5 Technique Practice: Posterior Teeth 233 SECTION 6 Technique Practice: Anterior Teeth 236 SECTION 7 Skill Application 238 Practical Focus Reference Sheet for Probing Technique Skill Evaluation Module 11: Basic Probing Technique 217
2 KEY TERMS Calibrated periodontal probe Gingiva Free gingiva Gingival margin Gingival sulcus Sulci Junctional epithelium Attached gingiva Mucogingival junction Alveolar mucosa Interdental gingiva Col Periodontal pocket Probing Probe tip Walking stroke Probing depth Periodontal chart LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1. Identify the design characteristics of a calibrated periodontal probe. 2. Identify the millimeter markings on several calibrated periodontal probes including some probe designs that are not in your instrument kit. 3. Describe the rationale and technique for periodontal probing. 4. Discuss the characteristics of effective probing technique in terms of adaptation and angulation of the tip, amount of pressure needed, instrumentation stroke, and number and location of probe readings for each tooth. 5. Using calibrated periodontal probe, demonstrate correct adaptation on facial, lingual, and proximal surfaces and beneath the contact area of two adjacent teeth. 6. Activate a calibrated periodontal probe using a walking stroke and correct probing technique. 7. Determine the probing depth accurately to within 1 mm of the instructor s reading. 8. Define the term junctional epithelium. 9. Differentiate between a normal sulcus and a periodontal pocket, and describe the position of the probe in each. NOTE TO COURSE INSTRUCTORS: Refer to Module 21, Advanced Probing Techniques, for content on advanced assessments with periodontal probes: (1) gingival recession, (2) tooth mobility, (3) oral deviations, (4) width of attached gingiva, (5) clinical attachment level, (6) furcation involvement, and (7) the Periodontal Screening and Recording (PSR) System assessment. 218
3 SECTION 1 Calibrated Periodontal Probes GENERAL DESIGN CHARACTERISTICS CALIBRATED PERIODONTAL PROBES AND BASIC PROBING TECHNIQUE 219 The calibrated periodontal probe is a periodontal instrument that is marked in millimeter increments and used to evaluate the health of the periodontal tissues. 1. Design of Calibrated Probes. Calibrated probes have blunt, rod-shaped working-ends that may be circular or rectangular in cross section. 2. Function of Periodontal Probes a. Findings from an examination with a calibrated probe are an important part of a comprehensive periodontal assessment to determine the health of the periodontal tissues. b. The calibrated periodontal probe is used to measure sulcus and pocket depths, to measure clinical attachment levels, to determine the width of attached gingiva, to assess for the presence of bleeding and/or purulent exudate (pus), and to measure the size of oral lesions. MILLIMETER MARKINGS Calibrated probes are marked in millimeter increments and are used like miniature rulers for making intraoral measurements. 1. Millimeter Markings a. The working-end of the probe is marked at millimeter intervals. Indentations or grooves, colored indentations, or colored bands may be used to indicate the millimeter markings on the working-end. b. Each millimeter may be indicated on the probe or only certain millimeter increments may be marked (Table 11-1). c. If you are uncertain how a probe is calibrated, you can use a millimeter ruler to determine the millimeter markings. 2. Color Coding. Color-coded probes are marked in bands (often black in color) with each band being several millimeters in width.
4 220 PATIENT ASSESSMENT EXAMPLES OF PROBE MARKINGS Markings at Each Millimeter. The UNC 15 probe has millimeter markings at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 millimeters Markings at Certain Millimeters. This Goldman-Fox probe is rectangular in cross section and has millimeter (mm) markings at Color-Coded Probe. This probe has black bands; each band is 3 millimeters in length. The millimeter markings on this particular probe are at mm Probe with Probing Force Indicators. This probe has force indicator lines to aid the clinician in applying a consistent probing force. Probing force is applied against the junctional epithelium until the force indicator lines meet. Force indicator lines
5 CALIBRATED PERIODONTAL PROBES AND BASIC PROBING TECHNIQUE 221 Computer-Assisted Probe. This is an example of a computer-assisted probe. The probe is connected to a computer unit that will store information on recession, pocket depth, furcation involvement, and mobility. (Photograph, courtesy of Florida Probe Corporation.) TABLE Examples of Millimeter Markings Probe Design Marking Pattern Millimeter Increments UNC15 All mm from 1 to 15 marked 1 15 Glickman 26G No mark at 6 mm Goldman Fox No mark at 6 mm Merritt No mark at 6 mm Williams No mark at 6 mm Maryland Moffitt No mark at 6 mm; ball-end Michigan O Marks at 3, 6, and 8 mm PSR Screening Colored band from 3.5 to 5.5 Marks at 8.5 and 11.5 mm; ball-end CP-18 Colored bands from 3 to 5 and to 10 mm CP-11 Colored bands from 3 to 6 and to 11 mm CP-12 Colored bands from 3 to 6 and to12 mm
6 222 PATIENT ASSESSMENT SECTION 2 Use of Probe to Assess Tissue Health FUNCTION OF CALIBRATED PROBE The periodontal probe is the most important clinical tool for obtaining information about the health status of the periodontium. Calibrated periodontal probes are used to gather information about the health of the gingival tissues and bone loss and to measure the size of intraoral lesions. Probe in a Healthy Sulcus. This photograph shows a periodontal probe inserted into a healthy gingival sulcus, the space between the free gingiva and the tooth. In health, the depth of the sulcus is from 1 to 3 millimeters (mm). Probe in a Periodontal Pocket. This photograph shows a periodontal probe inserted into a periodontal pocket. A periodontal pocket is a sulcus that has deepened because of disease. The depth of a periodontal pocket is greater than 3 mm. The depth of the periodontal pocket shown here is 6 mm. REVIEW OF PERIODONTAL ANATOMY IN HEALTH The gingiva is the tissue that covers the cervical portions of the teeth and the alveolar processes of the jaws. 1. The Free Gingiva a. The free gingiva is the unattached portion of the gingiva that surrounds the tooth in the region of the cemento-enamel junction. It is also known as the unattached gingiva or the marginal gingiva. b. The free gingiva surrounds the tooth in a turtleneck or cufflike manner. c. The tissue of the free gingiva fits closely around the tooth but is not directly attached to it. This tissue, because it is unattached, may be stretched away from the tooth surface with a periodontal probe. d. The free gingiva also forms the soft tissue wall of the gingival sulcus. e. The free gingiva meets the tooth in a thin, rounded edge called the gingival margin.
7 CALIBRATED PERIODONTAL PROBES AND BASIC PROBING TECHNIQUE The Gingival Sulcus a. The gingival sulcus is the space between the free gingiva and the tooth surface. b. The sulcus is a V-shaped, shallow space around the tooth. The plural form of sulcus is sulci. c. The base of the sulcus is formed by the junctional epithelium a specialized type of epithelium that attaches to the tooth surface. The junctional epithelium forms the base of a gingival sulcus or periodontal pocket. 3. The Attached Gingiva a. The attached gingiva is the part of the gingiva that is tightly connected to the cementum on the cervical-third of the root and to the periosteum (connective tissue cover) of the alveolar bone. b. The attached gingiva lies between the free gingiva and the alveolar mucosa. c. In health, the attached gingiva is pale or coral pink. In dark-skinned individuals, it may be pigmented. The pigmented areas of the attached gingiva may range from light brown to black. d. The attached gingiva ends at the mucogingival junction where the gingiva meets the alveolar mucosa. The alveolar mucosa can be distinguished easily from the attached gingiva by its dark red color and smooth, shiny surface. 4. The Interdental Gingiva a. The interdental gingiva is the portion of the gingiva that fills the area between two adjacent teeth apical to (beneath) the contact area. b. The col is a valleylike depression in the portion of the interdental gingiva that lies directly apical to the contact area of two adjacent teeth. The col is not present if the adjacent teeth are not in contact or if the gingiva has receded. Alveolar mucosa Attached gingiva Free gingiva Interdental gingiva Healthy Gingival Tissues. (Used with permission from Nield-Gehrig, J.S. and Willmann, D., Foundations of Periodontics for the Dental Hygienist, Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: p. 3.)
8 224 PATIENT ASSESSMENT PROBING HEALTHY VERSUS DISEASED TISSUE 1. Clinically Normal Sulcus a. In health, the tooth is surrounded by a sulcus. The junctional epithelium (JE) forms the base of the sulcus by attaching to the enamel of the crown near the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ). b. The depth of a clinically normal gingival sulcus is from 1 to 3 mm, as measured by a periodontal probe. 2. Periodontal Pocket a. A periodontal pocket is a gingival sulcus that has been deepened by disease. In a periodontal pocket, the JE forms the base of the pocket by attaching to the root surface somewhere apical to the CEJ. A periodontal pocket results from destruction of alveolar bone and the periodontal ligament fibers that surround the tooth. b. The depth of a periodontal pocket, as measured by a periodontal probe, is greater than 3 mm. It is common to have pockets measuring 5 to 6 mm in depth. Gingival sulcus Enamel Sulcus Free gingiva Gingival margin Cementum Free gingival groove Dentin Periodontal ligament Attached gingiva Base of sulcus Alveolar bone Alveolar mucosa Mucogingival junction Junctional epithelium Connective tissue CDW A B The Gingival Tissues in Cross Section. A, structures of the healthy periodontium in cross section. B, The sulcus is a V-shaped, shallow space around the tooth. The base of the sulcus is formed by the junctional epithelium. (Used with permission from Nield-Gehrig, J.S. and Willmann, D., Foundations of Periodontics for the Dental Hygienist, Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: p. 35.)
9 CALIBRATED PERIODONTAL PROBES AND BASIC PROBING TECHNIQUE 225 Junctional epithelium Position of Probe in a Healthy Sulcus. In health, the probe tip touches the junctional epithelium located above the cemento-enamel junction. A healthy sulcus is 1 to 3 mm deep, as measured with a periodontal probe. (Used with permission from Nield-Gehrig, J.S. and Willmann, D., Foundations of Periodontics for the Dental Hygienist, Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: p. 35.) Apical migration of JE Loss of bone Position of Probe in a Periodontal Pocket. In a periodontal pocket, the probe tip touches the junctional epithelium (JE) located on the root somewhere below the cemento-enamel junction. The depth of a periodontal pocket, as measured by a periodontal probe, will be greater than 3 mm. (Used with permission from Nield-Gehrig, J.S. and Willmann, D., Foundations of Periodontics for the Dental Hygienist, Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: p. 36.)
10 226 PATIENT ASSESSMENT SECTION 3 Basic Concepts of Probing Technique Probing is the act of walking the tip of a probe along the junctional epithelium within the sulcus or pocket for the purpose of assessing the health status of the periodontal tissues. Careful probing technique is essential if the information obtained with a periodontal probe is to be accurate. THE WALKING STROKE The walking stroke is the movement of a calibrated probe around the perimeter of the base of a sulcus or pocket. Walking strokes are used to cover the entire circumference of the sulcus or pocket base. It is essential to evaluate the entire length of the pocket base because the junctional epithelium is not necessarily at a uniform level around the tooth. In fact, differences in the depths of two neighboring areas along the pocket base are common. Production of the Walking Stroke 1. Walking strokes are a series of bobbing strokes that are made within the sulcus or pocket. The stroke begins when the probe is inserted into the sulcus while keeping the probe tip against the tooth surface. 2. The probe is inserted until the tip encounters the resistance of the junctional epithelium that forms the base of the sulcus. The junctional epithelium feels soft and resilient when touched by the probe. 3. Create the walking stroke by moving the probe up and down (;) in short bobbing strokes and forward in 1-mm increments ( ). With each down stroke, the probe returns to touch the junctional epithelium. 4. The probe is not removed from the sulcus with each upward stroke. Repeatedly removing and reinserting the probe can traumatize the tissue at the gingival margin. 5. The pressure exerted with the probe tip against the junctional epithelium should be between 10 and 20 grams. A sensitive scale that measures weight in grams can be used to standardize your probing pressure. Refer to the Practical Focus section at the end of this module for instructions in calibrating probing force. 6. Either wrist or digital (finger) activation may be used with the probe because only light pressure is used when probing. ; The Walking Stroke. The walking stroke is a series of bobbing strokes along the junctional epithelium (JE). Each up-and-down stroke should be approximately 1 to 2 mm in length (;). The strokes must be very close together, about 1 mm apart ( ). GM, gingival margin. ; GM JE
11 ADAPTATION CALIBRATED PERIODONTAL PROBES AND BASIC PROBING TECHNIQUE 227 The side of the probe tip should be kept in contact with the tooth surface. The probe tip is defined as 1 to 2 mm of the side of the probe. Proximal view Correct Adaptation. The probe tip is kept in contact with the tooth surface. Proximal view Incorrect Adaptation. The probe tip should not be held away from the tooth. PARALLELISM The probe is positioned as parallel as possible to the tooth surface. The probe must be parallel in the mesiodistal dimension and faciolingual dimension. Facial view Probe Parallel to Long Axis. This probe is correctly positioned parallel to the long axis of the tooth. Facial view Probe Not Parallel to Long Axis. This probe is incorrectly positioned in relation to the long axis of the tooth.
12 228 PATIENT ASSESSMENT INTERPROXIMAL TECHNIQUE When two adjacent teeth are in contact, a special technique is used to probe the area directly beneath the contact area. A two-step technique is used: 1. Step 1: Position the probe with the tip in contact with the proximal surface. While maintaining the tip in contact with the tooth surface, walk it between the teeth until it touches the contact area. The area beneath the contact area cannot be probed directly because the probe will not fit between the contact areas of the adjacent teeth. 2. Step 2: Slant the probe slightly so that the tip reaches under the contact area. The tip of the probe extends under the contact area while the upper portion touches the contact area. With the probe in this position, gently press downward to touch the junctional epithelium. Contact area Proximal view Proximal view STEP 1. STEP 2. PROBING THE MAXILLARY MOLARS Technique for the Maxillary Molars. Often it is difficult to probe the distal surfaces of the maxillary molars because the mandible is in the way. This problem can be overcome by repositioning the instrument handle to the side of the patient s face.
13 SECTION 4 Probing Depth Measurements PROBING DEPTHS A probing depth is a measurement of the depth of a sulcus or periodontal pocket. It is determined by measuring the distance from the gingival margin to the base of the sulcus or pocket with a calibrated periodontal probe. BOX 11-1 Probing Depths CALIBRATED PERIODONTAL PROBES AND BASIC PROBING TECHNIQUE 229 A probing depth is the distance in millimeters from the gingival margin (GM) to the base of the sulcus or periodontal pocket (PB) as measured with a calibrated probe. GM PB CHARTING PROBING DEPTHS Probing depth measurements are recorded on a periodontal chart and become a permanent part of the patient chart. 1. Six Sites Per Tooth. Probing depth measurements are recorded for 6 specific sites on each tooth: (1) distofacial, (2) facial, (3) mesiofacial, (4) distolingual, (5) lingual, and (6) mesiolingual (Box 11-2). 2. One Reading Per Site. Only one reading per site is recorded. If the probing depths vary within a site, the deepest reading obtained in that site is recorded. For example, if the probing depths in the facial site were to range from 2 to 6 mm, only the 6 mm reading would be entered on the chart for that site. 3. Full Millimeter Measurements. Probing depths are recorded to the nearest full millimeter. Round measurements to the next higher whole number; for example, a reading of 3.5 mm is recorded as 4 mm, and a 5.5 mm reading is recorded as 6 mm.
14 230 PATIENT ASSESSMENT BOX 11-2 Measurements for Six Sites Are Recorded Per Tooth Probing depth measurements are recorded for 6 specific sites on each tooth: 1 distofacial line angle to the midline of distal surface 2 facial surface 3 mesiofacial line angle to the midline of mesial surface 4 distolingual line angle to the midline of distal surface 5 lingual surface 6 mesiolingual line angle to the midline of mesial surface Stroke Technique. It is common for the depth of the pocket base to vary considerably from one spot to the next. GM JE What would happen if only one or two probing strokes were made on the facial surface of the tooth illustrated here? A B GM JE Record the Deepest Reading Per Site. In the illustration shown here, the depth of the pocket base varies considerably at points A, B, and C in the facial site. Because only a single reading can be recorded for the facial site, the deepest reading at point C is recorded. C
15 PERIODONTAL CHART Probing depth measurements are recorded on a periodontal chart. Most periodontal charts include rows of boxes that are used to record the probing depths on the facial and lingual aspects of the teeth. On the sample chart shown below, the probing depths on the maxillary right first molar are as follows: FACIAL ASPECT OF TOOTH 3 Site 1 distofacial line angle to midline of distal surface the deepest reading is 5 mm. Site 2 facial surface the deepest reading is 3 mm. Site 3 mesiofacial line angle to midline of mesial surface the deepest reading is 4 mm. LINGUAL ASPECT OF TOOTH 3 Site 4 distolingual line angle to midline of the distal surface the deepest reading is 8 mm. Site 5 lingual surface the deepest reading is 6 mm. Site 6 mesiolingual line angle to midline of the mesial surface the deepest reading is 7 mm. SAMPLE PERIODONTAL CHART FOR THE MAXILLARY RIGHT POSTERIOR TEETH CALIBRATED PERIODONTAL PROBES AND BASIC PROBING TECHNIQUE 231 Probe Depth GM to CEJ Attachment Loss Lingual Facial R Probe Depth GM to CEJ Attachment Loss
16 232 PATIENT ASSESSMENT POSITIONING AND SEQUENCE FOR PROBING The technique used for probing is different from that used with other periodontal instruments. For example, it is not necessary to use different clock positions when probing the anterior surfaces toward and away from your nondominant hand. The diagrams on this page show (1) the recommended clinician clock positions and (2) a suggested sequence for probing the maxilla and mandible. This sequence is a logical one to follow as you probe the dentition and record the probing measurements on a periodontal chart. You may want to photocopy this diagram to use for reference as you practice probing the dentition : :00 9: :00 9: :00 RIGHT-HANDED CLINICIANS 9 9: : : : :00 8 9: : :00 1-2: :00 1-2: :00 LEFT-HANDED CLINICIANS 9 1-2:00 3: : : :00 8 3:00
17 SECTION 5 Technique Practice: Posterior Teeth CALIBRATED PERIODONTAL PROBES AND BASIC PROBING TECHNIQUE 233 Directions 1. For this technique practice, you will be working on the mandibular right first molar, facial aspect. 2. Remember: Me, My Patient, My Light, My Dominant Hand, My Nondominant Hand, My Finger Rest, My Adaptation Insert at the distofacial line angle. Insert the probe into the sulcus near the distofacial line angle of the first molar. Keep the side of the tip in contact with the tooth surface as you gently slide the probe to the sulcus base. (Illustration shows the facial view.) 4. Begin to probe Site 1. Your probe is now positioned to evaluate Site 1 of this tooth the distofacial line angle to the midline of the distal surface. Keeping the tip in contact with the tooth, initiate a series of short, bobbing strokes toward the distal surface. Use a walking stroke, keeping your strokes close together. 5. Walk the probe onto the proximal surface. Walk the probe across the distal surface until it touches the contact area.
18 234 PATIENT ASSESSMENT 6. Assess beneath the contact area. Tilt the probe so that the tip reaches beneath the contact area (the upper portion of the probe touches the contact area). Gently press downward to touch the junctional epithelium. 7. Technique check: distal view. In this photo, the adjacent tooth has been removed to provide a view of the correct probe position for assessing the tissue beneath the contact area from the facial aspect. Tilt your probe in a similar manner. Contact area Distal Facial 2nd molar here 8. Reinsert at the distofacial line angle. Remove the probe from the sulcus and reinsert it at the distofacial line angle. You are now in position to probe the facial surface Probe Site 2. Make a series of tiny walking strokes across Site 2 the facial surface moving in a forward direction toward the mesial surface.
19 CALIBRATED PERIODONTAL PROBES AND BASIC PROBING TECHNIQUE Probe Site 3. Walk the probe across the mesial surface until it touches the contact area. 11. Assess beneath the contact area. Tilt the probe and extend the tip beneath the contact area. Press down gently to touch the junctional epithelium Probing sequence for sextant. This illustration shows the sequence for probing the entire mandibular right posterior sextant. This sequence allows you to probe the sextant in the most efficient manner. Practice probing the facial and lingual aspects of the four posterior sextants using the sequence shown in the illustration above.
20 236 PATIENT ASSESSMENT SECTION 6 Technique Practice: Anterior Teeth Directions 1. When probing an anterior sextant, begin on the distofacial or distolingual line angle of the canine farthest from your nondominant hand. 2. For this technique practice, you will be working on the mandibular left canine, facial aspect. 3. Insert at the distofacial line angle. Begin by inserting the probe at the distofacial line angle of the left canine. You are now in position to assess the distal surface of the canine. Mesial Distal 1 4. Walk toward the distal surface. Walk the probe across the distal surface until it touches the contact area. 5. Assess beneath the contact area. Tilt the probe and extend the tip beneath the contact area. Press down gently to touch the junctional epithelium.
21 CALIBRATED PERIODONTAL PROBES AND BASIC PROBING TECHNIQUE 237 Mesial Distal 6. Reinsert at the distofacial line angle. Remove the probe from the sulcus and reinsert it at the distofacial line angle. You are now in position to probe the facial surface of the canine Assess the facial surface. Make a series of walking strokes across the facial surface. 8. Walk toward the mesial surface. Walk across the mesial surface until the probe touches the contact area. 9. Assess beneath the contact area. On adjacent anterior teeth, only a slight tilt is needed to probe the col area. Gently probe the col area.
22 238 PATIENT ASSESSMENT SECTION 7 Skill Application PRACTICAL FOCUS 1. Probing Depths. Measure and record the probing depths for the three teeth illustrated below. 3mm 6mm 9mm 12mm PROBE MILLIMETER MARKINGS TOOTH A PROBING DEPTH mm TOOTH B PROBING DEPTH mm TOOTH C PROBING DEPTH mm Assess the Probing Depths. Look closely at teeth A, B, and C above. 1. Compare the bone level on these three teeth. Is the level of bone the same or different for these teeth? 2. Compare the probing depths. Do the probing depths provide you with an accurate picture of the amount of bone lost from around each of the teeth?
23 CALIBRATED PERIODONTAL PROBES AND BASIC PROBING TECHNIQUE Calibrate Probing Pressure. Obtain a scale calibrated in grams from a scientific supply company. Prepare the scale by padding the top of the scale platform with a thin sponge (like that sold to wipe kitchen countertops). Cover the sponge with a piece of rubber dam material, and seal the rubber dam around the bottom edges of the scale platform. Grasp a calibrated probe in a modified pen grasp. Apply pressure against the scale platform with the tip of the probe. Calibrate your pressure to between 10 and 20 grams. SCIENTIFIC SCALE USED TO MEASURE PROBING FORCE. 3. Probe with Force Indicator Lines. A second way to calibrate your probing force is to obtain a probe with force indicator lines similar to the probe pictured below. Try the probe on the scientific scale and see if the gram measurement is around 20 grams. Force indicator lines Probe with Force Indicator Lines. This Vivacare TPS Probe from Vivadent is an example of a probe with force indicator lines. The manufacturer states that 20 grams of probing force is being exerted when the force indicator lines on the TPS probe are aligned.
24 240 PATIENT ASSESSMENT REFERENCE SHEET FOR PROBING TECHNIQUE TABLE REFERENCE SHEET: PROBING TECHNIQUE 1. Insert probe at the distofacial or distolingual line angle. 2. Position the probe as parallel as possible to the long axis of the tooth surface being probed. 3. Adapt the tip of the probe to the tooth surface as you activate short up-and-down strokes within the sulcus or pocket.touch the junctional epithelium with each down stroke. 4. Assess the area beneath the contact area by tilting the probe and extending the tip beneath the contact area. Press down gently to touch the junctional epithelium. 5. Walk the probe around the entire circumference of the junctional epithelium using strokes that are about 1 mm apart. 6. Use light stroke pressure, between 10 and 20 grams. 7. Record 6 measurements per tooth (the deepest measurement in each of the 6 sites is recorded). NOTE TO COURSE INSTRUCTORS: Refer to Module 21 Advanced Probing Techniques for content on advanced assessments with periodontal probes: (1) gingival recession, (2) tooth mobility, (3) oral deviations, (4) width of attached gingiva, (5) clinical attachment level, (6) furcation involvement, and (7) the Periodontal Screening and Recording (PSR) System assessment.
25 CALIBRATED PERIODONTAL PROBES AND BASIC PROBING TECHNIQUE 241 SKILL EVALUATION MODULE 11 Student: Evaluator: Date: Basic Probing Technique Anterior Area 1 Anterior Area 2 Posterior Area 3 Posterior Area 4 DIRECTIONS FOR STUDENT: Use Column S, evaluate your skill level as: S (satisfactory) or U (unsatisfactory). DIRECTIONS FOR EVALUATOR: Use Column I. Indicate: S (satisfactory) or U (unsatisfactory). Each S equals 1 point, each U equals 0 points. Area 1 Area 2 Area 3 Area 4 CRITERIA: S I S I S I S I Position: Positioned correctly on clinician stool Positioned correctly in relation to patient, equipment, and treatment area Establishes correct patient head position Dental Mirror: Uses correct grasp and establishes secure rest with mirror Uses the mirror correctly for retraction and/or indirect vision Modified Pen Grasp with Dominant Hand: Thumb and index finger pads positioned opposite one another on handle; fingers not touching or overlapped Pad of middle finger rests lightly on shank; touches the ring finger Handle rests between the 2nd knuckle of the index finger and the V of hand Grasp is relaxed (no blanching of fingers) Intraoral Fulcrum: Ring finger is straight and supports weight of hand Fulcrums on same arch, near tooth being instrumented Probing Technique: Positions probe parallel to the tooth surface Keeps tip in contact with the tooth surface Uses small walking strokes within the sulcus Tilts probe and extends tip beneath contact area to assess interproximal area Covers entire circumference of sulcus with walking strokes OPTIONAL GRADE PERCENTAGE CALCULATION Total S s in each 1 column. Sum of S s divided by Total Points Possible (64) equals the Percentage Grade
26 242 PATIENT ASSESSMENT SKILL EVALUATION MODULE 11 Basic Probing Technique Student: EVALUATOR COMMENTS Box for sketches pertaining to written comments.
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2012-2013 ORAL BIOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AND GROWTH OF THE MANDIBLE Ass. Prof. Dr. Heba M. Elsabaa Development and Growth of the Mandible DEVELOPMENT OF THE MANDIBLE The Mandible Is the largest and strongest
Anatomic Anomalies Steven R. Singer, DDS 212.305.5674 firstname.lastname@example.org Anomalies! Anomalies are variations in the:! Size! Morphology! Number! Eruption of the teeth Anomalies Anomalies There are two categories:!
Tooth Surfaces: M = mesial D = distal O = Occlusal B = buccal F = facial I = incisal L = lingual When combining tooth surfaces, as in defining cavity preparations or restorations, there are some spelling
Unless otherwise noted, the content of this course material is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution - Non-Commercial - Share Alike 3.0 License. Copyright 2008, Dr. Jeff Shotwell. The following
Removing fixed prostheses using the ATD automatic crown and bridge remover By Dr. Ian E. Shuman, Baltimore, MD. Information provided by J. Morita USA When removing cemented provisionals and final fixed
ABSTRACT The FACE philosophy is characterized by clearly defined treatment goals. This increases diagnostic ability and improves the quality and stability of the end result. The objective is to establish
Dental Radiography X-rays for dental radiography are produced by high voltages of electricity within an x-ray head and come out through a metal tube called a collimator. This ensures the x-rays only come
411 PDS Periodontal surgery report for crown lengthening of tooth number -Course director : Dr. Nahid Ashri - instructor: Dr.Fatin Awaratani - - Student Name: Hanadi Alyami Computer Number: K S U - D E
Preventive Pediatric Dental Care Lawrence A. Kotlow DDS Practice Limited to Pediatric Dental Care 340 Fuller Road Albany, New York 12203 Patient comfort and safety 1. All children are treated using the
Giles Perryer 1997 I The Lower Free End Saddle (distal extension saddle) Free end saddle dentures move Excessive movement of the denture can cause pain, tissue damage, and complaints of instability and
BASIC ORTHODONTICS And why we believe in THE TIP EDGE TECHNIQUE (Differential Straight Arch) MOVING TEETH Light force + Time = Tooth Movement Any technique of moving teeth involves light force and time.
SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO ORTHODONTIC DIAGNOSIS DENT 656 ORTHODONTIC CLASSIFICATION / DIAGNOSIS Goal of diagnosis: An orderly reduction of the data base to a useful list of the patient s problems Useful??
Original article: Relative position of gingival zenith in maxillary anterior teeth- a clinical appraisal 1Dr Dipti Shah, 2 Dr Kalpesh Vaishnav, 3 Dr Sareen Duseja, 4 Dr Pankti Agrawal 1HOD, Dept of Prosthodontics,
ATLANTIS abutments design guide CAD/CAM patient-specific abutments Contents Introduction 4 This manual helps you to explore all the benefits of ATLANTIS CAD/CAM patient-specific abutments. It gives you
FABRICATING CUSTOM ABUTMENTS LUC AND PATRICK RUTTEN How much should a Dental Technician know about the clinical aspects of implantology? The answer is clear: as much as possible. This is the distinction
Endodontic Topics 2009, 16, 82 111 All rights reserved 2009 r John Wiley & Sons A/S ENDODONTIC TOPICS 2009 1601-1538 Longitudinal tooth fractures: findings that contribute to complex endodontic diagnoses
TECHNO BYTES Principles of cosmetic dentistry in orthodontics: Part 1. Shape and proportionality of anterior teeth David M. Sarver, DMD, MS Vestavia Hills, Ala In the past decade, there has been a remarkable
SURGICAL EXTRACTIONS: TECHNIQUE AND CAUTIONS By Tony M. Woodward, DVM, AVDC We continue describing the five basic dental services that all general practitioners should be able to provide for their patients.
Periodontal Consideration Before and After Orthodontic Treatment Tsung-Ju Hsieh, D.D.S., M.S.D. 1 Potential periodontal problems Before Orthodontic Treatment During Orthodontic Treatment After Orthodontic
NEW YORK CITY COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY THE CITY UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK DEPARTMENT OF RESTORATIVE DENTISTRY DEPARTMENT: COURSE CODE: COURSE TITLE: COURSE DESCRIPTION: CLASS HOURS & CREDITS: NUMBER OF WEEKS:
ORTHODONTIC SCREENING GUIDE FOR NORTH DAKOTA HEALTH TRACKS NURSES The North Dakota Department of Human Services Medical Services Division and the North Dakota Department of Health s Oral Health Program
Powertome Assisted Atraumatic Tooth Extraction White et al Jason White, DDS 1 2 3 Abstract Background: While traditional dental extraction techniques encourage minimal trauma, luxated elevation and forceps
Dental Implant Options in Atrophic Jaws Orthopedic Application Jay B. Reznick, D.M.D., M.D. Diplomate, American Board of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Tarzana, CA Endopore Dental Implant System Screw-Type
Left-handers A Timely Approach to Instrument Sharpening Sickle Scalers & Universal Curettes Gracey Curettes Sickle Scalers & Universal Curettes 1 Position instrument vertically with blade to be sharpened
Clinical Histologic comparison of biologic width around teeth versus implants: The effect on bone preservation Kazuto Makigusa 1 Abstract Histological analysis of the biological width surrounding primate
STEP-BY-STEP INSTRUCTIONS TO PLACE LOCATOR ATTACHMENTS (This is a chairside procedure!) Order of Treatment 1. Make denture. 2. Measure tissue cuff height; order the parts. 3. Pick up the attachments INTRAORALLY.
Case Report(s): Uncomplicated Crown Fractures Tooth fractures can be classified as follows: Uncomplicated crown fracture = fracture limited to the crown of the tooth with dentin exposure but no pulp exposure.
Unless otherwise noted, the content of this course material is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution - Non-Commercial - Share Alike 3.0 License. Copyright 2008, Dr. Jeff Shotwell. The following
Standard expansion screws Expansion screw Mini holes in body of screws for better retention in acrylic built-in stops prevent screws from coming apart Indication: for transversal expansion and distalization
Introduction of Removable Partial Denture - Design and Retention By : Dr Zaihan Ariffin BDS(Malaya), GDCDent (Adelaide), Doctor of Clinical Dentistry (Adelaide), FRACDS (Australia) Type of denture Full
Scottish Dental Clinical Effectiveness Programme SDcep Prevention and Treatment of Periodontal Diseases in Primary Care Dental Clinical Guidance June 2014 Scottish Dental Clinical Effectiveness Programme
Procera Alumina vs. Feldspathic Porcelain How to Achieve Shade Harmony With Different Restorations Luke S. Kahng, CDT Key Words: Stump shade, Feldspathic Porcelain, Zirconia, Alumina, LSK Treatment Plan
CLINICIAN S CORNER Congenitally missing mandibular second premolars: Clinical options Vincent G. Kokich a and Vincent O. Kokich b Seattle, Wash Introduction: Congenital absence of mandibular second premolars
Review Article An overview of classification of dental trauma Sasikala Pagadala 1*, Deepti Chaitanya Tadikonda 2 1 Assistant Professor, Department t of Periodontics, Nanded Rural Dental College and Research
GARDEN WINDOW GLAZING AND DE-GLAZING INSTRUCTIONS DE-GLAZING 1.) If there is any PVC cement covering the joints where external glazing bead strips meet, cut through the cement with a utility knife. 2.)
More than a fixed rehabilitation. A reason to smile. In combination with: Patient expectations drive dental treatments for fixed edentulous immediate restorations. Patients today have increasingly high
8.00 9.00 Registration and coffee/bread 9.00 9.45 1. Status of Dental Traumatology worldwide. Is prevention realistic? Lars Andersson Presently almost all countries have published data on the dental trauma
Optimizing Referral Team Collaboration Using Dynamic Visual Communication Software XCPT Patient Engagement System was developed and engineered to combine scientific research relating to the brain s ability
¼ ½ ¾ µ mw/cm 2 Volume 17; 2007 Dental Updates "CUTTING EDGE INFORMATION FOR THE DENTAL PROFESSIONAL " 200 SEMINARS AND 30 JOURNALS REVIEWED YEARLY FOR THE LATEST, CUTTING EDGE INFORMATION Excerpted Article
ENDODONTICS: Colleagues for Excellence Winter 2009 Bonus Material F INTRAOSSEOUS ANESTHESIA Intraosseous Anesthesia With the Stabident and X Tip Systems The intraosseous injection allows placement of a
Chapter Tooth Formation Teeth develop from epithelial cells from the mucosal lining of the oral cavity and cranial neural crest-derived ectomesenchymal cells. These latter cells originate at the ectodermal/neuroectodermal
1 STEPS IN CARVING AMALGAM class 2 cavity 2004-2005 Word to the wise: Study of the occlusion, together with the remaining tooth contour and position of the adjacent tooth, before starting a cavity preparation,
stretches and exercises The enclosed sheets contain stretches and exercises which can be used to delay and minimise the development of contractures and deformities occurring in children with Duchenne muscular
CDHA NATIONAL LIST OF SERVICE CODES Prepared and published by The Canadian Dental Hygienists Association First edition 1998 Revised 2012 Intended for the use of provincial dental hygiene associations and
Chapter 9: Instrument Sharpening There have been a number of interesting developments in periodontal treatment in the past few years. However, the cornerstone of periodontal treatment remains the mechanical
Removable appliances II. Functional jaw orthopedics Melinda Madléna DMD, PhD Associate professor Department of Pedodontics and Orthodontics Faculty of Dentistry Semmelweis University Budapest Classification
1 OCCLUSION IN COMPLETE DENTURES C P Owen Introduction Occlusion has been described as the most important subject in all the disciplines of dentistry, and for good reason, because the way the teeth come
GRADE 6 DENTAL HEALTH DENTAL HEALTH GRADE: 6 LESSON: 1 THEME: STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION CONCEPT: THE STRUCTURE OF A TOOTH IS RELATED TO ITS FUNCTION PREPARATION: 1. Prepare an overhead transparency of Parts
Exercise Instruction Sheet Instructions: APPENDIX A Exercises are to be performed 3 times per week. Allow one rest day between each exercise day. You may divide the exercises into groups and perform them
Resorptive Changes of Maxillary and Mandibular Bone Structures in Removable Denture Wearers Dubravka KnezoviÊ-ZlatariÊ Asja»elebiÊ Biserka LaziÊ Department of Prosthodontics School of Dental Medicine University
Dr. Junji Sugawara on the Skeletal Anchorage System DR. WHITE When and how did you develop the idea for the Skeletal Anchorage System (SAS)? DR. SUGAWARA In 1992, we had a patient with a severe anterior
Postendodontic Tooth Restoration - Part I: The Aim and the Plan of the Procedure Sanja egoviê 1 Nada GaliÊ 1 Ana Davanzo 2 Boæidar PaveliÊ 1 1 Department of Dental Pathology School of Dental Medicine University